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Trimethylbenzenes (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Emission reduction potential in a light-duty diesel engine fueled by JP-8

Authors: Lee, J; Lee, J; Chu, S; Choi, H; Min, K (2015) HERO ID: 3017974

[Less] In this research, the effects of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) and multiple injection strategy with . . . [More] In this research, the effects of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) and multiple injection strategy with two pilots on the emissions and combustion characteristics of JP-8 fueled light-duty diesel engine were systemically investigated. Also, the potential of reducing NOx (nitrogen oxides) and PM (particulate matter) emissions with JP-8 in a light-duty diesel engine was evaluated. To understand the combustion phenomenon of JP-8, two different injection modes (single injection and multiple injection with two pilots) were applied. Under the single injection mode, the difference in the ignition delay between using JP-8 and diesel fuel became clear. Differently, under multiple injections with two pilots, the ignition delays of both cases were nearly the same due to the higher in the cylinder temperature cause by the combustion of the pilot injections. Finally, under multiple injection mode, more EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) could be applied to JP-8 combustion than in conventional diesel combustion while maintaining the same mass fraction burned 50% (MFB 50) to attain the same fuel conversion efficiency. As a result, NOx and PM emissions could be reduced by half when using JP-8 without decreasing the fuel conversion efficiency. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mesoporous calcium-silicon xerogels with mesopore size and pore volume influence hMSC behaviors by load and sustained release of rhBMP-2

Authors: Song, W; Li, X; Qian, Jun; Lv, G; Yan, Y; Su, J; Wei, Jie (2015) International Journal of Nanomedicine 10:1715-1726. HERO ID: 2898472

[Less] Mesoporous calcium-silicon xerogels with a pore size of 15 nm (MCS-15) and pore volume of 1.43 cm(3)/g . . . [More] Mesoporous calcium-silicon xerogels with a pore size of 15 nm (MCS-15) and pore volume of 1.43 cm(3)/g were synthesized by using 1,3,5-mesitylene (TMB) as the pore-expanding agent. The MCS-15 exhibited good degradability with the weight loss of 50 wt% after soaking in Tris-HCl solution for 56 days, which was higher than the 30 wt% loss shown by mesoporous calcium-silicon xerogels with a pore size of 4 nm (MCS-4). The pore size and pore volume of MCS-15 had significant influences on load and release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). The MCS-15 had a higher capacity to encapsulate a large amount of rhBMP-2; it could adsorb 45 mg/g of rhBMP-2 in phosphate-buffered saline after 24 hours, which was more than twice that with MCS-4 (20 mg/g). Moreover, the MCS-15 system exhibited sustained release of rhBMP-2 as compared with MCS-4 system (showing a burst release). The MCS-15/rhBMP-2 system could promote the proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, showing good cytocompatibility and bioactivity. The results indicated that MCS-15, with larger mesopore size and higher pore volume, might be a promising carrier for loading and sustained release of rhBMP-2, which could be used as bone repair material with built-in osteoinduction function in bone reconstruction.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Catalytic Upgrading of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to Drop-in Biofuels by Solid Base and Bifunctional Metal-Acid Catalysts

Authors: Bohre, A; Saha, B; Abu-Omar, MM (2015) ChemSusChem 8:4022-4029. HERO ID: 3044606

[Less] Design and synthesis of effective heterogeneous catalysts for the conversion of biomass intermediates . . . [More] Design and synthesis of effective heterogeneous catalysts for the conversion of biomass intermediates into long chain hydrocarbon precursors and their subsequent deoxygenation to hydrocarbons is a viable strategy for upgrading lignocellulose into distillate range drop-in biofuels. Herein, we report a two-step process for upgrading 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to C9 and C11 fuels with high yield and selectivity. The first step involves aldol condensation of HMF and acetone with a water tolerant solid base catalyst, zirconium carbonate (Zr(CO3 )x ), which gave 92 % C9 -aldol product with high selectivity at nearly 100 % HMF conversion. The as-synthesised Zr(CO3 )x was analysed by several analytical methods for elucidating its structural properties. Recyclability studies of Zr(CO3 )x revealed a negligible loss of its activity after five consecutive cycles over 120 h of operation. Isolated aldol product from the first step was hydrodeoxygenated with a bifunctional Pd/Zeolite-β catalyst in ethanol, which showed quantitative conversion of the aldol product to n-nonane and 1-ethoxynonane with 40 and 56 % selectivity, respectively. 1-Ethoxynonane, a low oxygenate diesel range fuel, which we report for the first time in this paper, is believed to form through etherification of the hydroxymethyl group of the aldol product with ethanol followed by opening of the furan ring and hydrodeoxygenation of the ether intermediate.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comprehensive Analysis of Structure Activity Relationships of α-Ketoheterocycles as sn-1-Diacylglycerol Lipase α Inhibitors

Authors: Janssen, FJ; Baggelaar, MP; Hummel, JJ; Overkleeft, HS; Cravatt, BF; Boger, DL; van der Stelt, M (2015) HERO ID: 3044598

[Less] Diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) is responsible for the formation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol . . . [More] Diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) is responsible for the formation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the central nervous system. DAGLα inhibitors are required to study the physiological role of 2-AG. Previously, we identified the α-ketoheterocycles as potent and highly selective DAGLα inhibitors. Here, we present the first comprehensive structure-activity relationship study of α-ketoheterocycles as DAGLα inhibitors. Our findings indicate that the active site of DAGLα is remarkably sensitive to the type of heterocyclic scaffold with oxazolo-4N-pyridines as the most active framework. We uncovered a fundamental substituent effect in which electron-withdrawing meta-oxazole substituents increased inhibitor potency. (C6-C9)-acyl chains with a distal phenyl group proved to be the most potent inhibitors. The integrated SAR data was consistent with the proposed binding pose in a DAGLα homology model. Altogether our results may guide the design of future DAGLα inhibitors as leads for molecular therapies to treat neuroinflammation, obesity and related metabolic disorders.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Phenotypic variability related to C9orf72 mutation in a large Sardinian kindred

Authors: Floris, G; Borghero, G; Di Stefano, F; Melis, R; Puddu, R; Fadda, L; Murru, MR; Corongiu, D; Cuccu, S; Tranquilli, S; Cannas, A; Marrosu, MG; Chiò, A; Marrosu, F (2015) HERO ID: 3044601

[Less] We investigated intrafamilial phenotypic variability in carriers of the C9orf72 mutation, analysing . . . [More] We investigated intrafamilial phenotypic variability in carriers of the C9orf72 mutation, analysing clinical, neuropsychological and imaging characteristics of various members from a large Sardinian kindred with FTD or ALS. We compared these with those of C9 + patients in our ALS and FTD cohorts. Results showed that three patients carried the C9orf72 mutation: two with ALS and one with FTD and Parkinsonism. C9 + patients in our bvFTD Sardinian cohort had a higher frequency of Parkinsonism than non-mutated patients (75% vs. 36.3%, p <0.02). Parkinsonism was present in 2.7% of our ALS cohort and 3.3% of the C9 + patients. The prevalence of Parkinsonism in C9 + patients in the bvFTD and ALS cohorts showed a statistically significant difference (p <0.006). In conclusion, Parkinsonism was frequently associated with FTD but not ALS in a large Sardinian family, a finding reflected in the wider C9orf72 associated Sardinian ALS and FTD populations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Critical Role and Therapeutic Control of the Lectin Pathway of Complement Activation in an Abortion-Prone Mouse Mating

Authors: Petitbarat, M; Durigutto, P; Macor, P; Bulla, R; Palmioli, A; Bernardi, A; De Simoni, MG; Ledee, N; Chaouat, G; Tedesco, F (2015) HERO ID: 3044605

[Less] The abortion-prone mating combination CBA/J × DBA/2 has been recognized as a model of preeclampsia, . . . [More] The abortion-prone mating combination CBA/J × DBA/2 has been recognized as a model of preeclampsia, and complement activation has been implicated in the high rate of pregnancy loss observed in CBA/J mice. We have analyzed the implantation sites collected from DBA/2-mated CBA/J mice for the deposition of the complement recognition molecules using CBA/J mated with BALB/c mice as a control group. MBL-A was observed in the implantation sites of CBA/J × DBA/2 combination in the absence of MBL-C and was undetectable in BALB/c-mated CBA/J mice. Conversely, C1q was present in both mating combinations. Searching for other complement components localized at the implantation sites of CBA/J × DBA/2, we found C4 and C3, but we failed to reveal C1r. These data suggest that complement is activated through the lectin pathway and proceeds to completion of the activation sequence as revealed by C9 deposition. MBL-A was detected as early as 3.5 d of pregnancy, and MBL-A deficiency prevented pregnancy loss in the abortion-prone mating combination. The contribution of the terminal complex to miscarriage was supported by the finding that pregnancy failure was largely inhibited by the administration of neutralizing Ab to C5. Treatment of DBA/2-mated CBA/J mice with Polyman2 that binds to MBL-A with high affinity proved to be highly effective in controlling the activation of the lectin pathway and in preventing fetal loss.

Journal Article
Journal Article

The distant siblings - a phylogenomic roadmap illuminates the origins of extant diversity in fungal aromatic polyketide biosynthesis

Authors: Koczyk, G; Dawidziuk, A; Popiel, D (2015) HERO ID: 3044610

[Less] In recent years, the influx of newly sequenced fungal genomes has enabled sampling of secondary metabolite . . . [More] In recent years, the influx of newly sequenced fungal genomes has enabled sampling of secondary metabolite biosynthesis on an unprecedented scale. However, explanations of extant diversity which take into account both large-scale phylogeny reconstructions and knowledge gained from multiple genome projects are still lacking.We analysed the evolutionary sources of genetic diversity in aromatic polyketide biosynthesis in over a hundred model fungal genomes. By reconciling the history of over four hundred non-reducing polyketide synthases with corresponding species history, we demonstrate that extant fungal NR-PKSs are clades of distant siblings, originating from a burst of duplications in early Pezizomycotina and thinned by extensive losses.The capability of higher fungi to biosynthesise the simplest precursor molecule (orsellinic acid) is highlighted as an ancestral trait underlying biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. This base activity was modified during early evolution of filamentous fungi, towards divergent reaction schemes associated with biosynthesis of e.g. aflatoxins and fusarubins (C4-C9 cyclisation) or various anthraquinone derivatives (C6-C11 cyclisation). The functional plasticity is further shown to have been supplemented by modularisation of domain architecture into discrete pieces (conserved splice junctions within product template domain), as well as tight linkage of key accessory enzyme families and divergence in employed transcriptional factors.While the majority of discord between species and gene history is explained by ancient duplications, this landscape has been altered by more recent duplications, as well as multiple Horizontal Gene Transfers. The 25 detected transfers include previously undescribed events leading to emergence of e.g. fusarubin biosynthesis in Fusarium genus.Both the underlying data and the results of present analysis (including alternative scenarios revealed by sampling multiple reconciliation optima) are maintained as a freely available web-based resource: http://cropnet.pl/metasites/sekmet/nrpks_2014.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Heterobimetallic Zeolite, InV-ZSM-5, Enables Efficient Conversion of Biomass Derived Ethanol to Renewable Hydrocarbons

Authors: Narula, CK; Li, Z; Casbeer, EM; Geiger, RA; Moses-Debusk, M; Keller, M; Buchanan, MV; Davison, BH (2015) Scientific Reports 5:16039. HERO ID: 3044612

[Less] Direct catalytic conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon blend-stock can increase biofuels use in current . . . [More] Direct catalytic conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon blend-stock can increase biofuels use in current vehicles beyond the ethanol blend-wall of 10-15%. Literature reports describe quantitative conversion of ethanol over zeolite catalysts but high C2 hydrocarbon formation renders this approach unsuitable for commercialization. Furthermore, the prior mechanistic studies suggested that ethanol conversion involves endothermic dehydration step. Here, we report the complete conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbons over InV-ZSM-5 without added hydrogen and which produces lower C2 (<13%) as compared to that over H-ZSM-5. Experiments with C2H5OD and in situ DRIFT suggest that most of the products come from the hydrocarbon pool type mechanism and dehydration step is not necessary. Thus, our method of direct conversion of ethanol offers a pathway to produce suitable hydrocarbon blend-stock that may be blended at a refinery to produce fuels such as gasoline, diesel, JP-8, and jet fuel, or produce commodity chemicals such as BTX.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

BnaC9.SMG7b functions as a positive regulator of number of seeds per silique in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) by regulating the formation of functional female gametophytes

Authors: Li, S; Chen, L; Zhang, L; Li, X; Liu, Y; Wu, Z; Dong, F; Wan, L; Liu, K; Hong, D; Yang, G (2015) HERO ID: 3044614

[Less] Number of seeds per silique (NSS) is an important determinant of seed yield potential in Brassicaceae . . . [More] Number of seeds per silique (NSS) is an important determinant of seed yield potential in Brassicaceae crops and is controlled by naturally occurring quantitative trait loci (QTLs). We previously mapped a major QTL, qSS.C9, on the C9 chromosome that controls NSS in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To gain a better understanding of how qSS.C9 controls NSS in rapeseed, we isolated this locus through a map-based cloning strategy. qSS.C9 encodes a predicted small protein with 119 amino acids, designated as BnaC9.SMG7b, that shows homology with the Ever Shorter Telomere 1-tertratricopeptide repeats (EST-TPR) and EST-central domains (CD) of Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR WITH MORPHOGENETIC EFFECTS ON GENITALIA7 (SMG7). BnaC9.SMG7b plays a role in regulating the formation of functional female gametophyte, thus determining the formation of functional megaspores and then mature ovules. Natural loss or artificial knockdown of BnaC9.SMG7b significantly reduces the number of functional ovules per silique and thus results in decreased seed number, indicating that qSS.C9 is a positive regulator of NSS in B. napus. Sequence and function analyses show that BnaC9.SMG7b experiences a subfunctionalization process that causes loss of function in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), as in Arabidopsis SMG7. Haplotype analysis in 84 accessions showed that the favorable BnaC9.SMG7b alleles are prevalent in modern B. napus germplasms, suggesting that this locus has been a major selection target of B. napus improvement. Our results represent the first step toward unraveling the molecular mechanism that controls the natural variation of NSS in rapeseed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Double Bond Position Plays an Important Role in Delta-9 Desaturation and Lipogenic Properties of Trans 18:1 Isomers in Mouse Adipocytes

Authors: Vahmani, P; Meadus, WJ; Mapiye, C; Duff, P; Rolland, DC; Dugan, ME (2015) HERO ID: 3044617

[Less] The objective of this research was to study the delta-9 desaturation of individual trans (t) fatty acids . . . [More] The objective of this research was to study the delta-9 desaturation of individual trans (t) fatty acids that can be found in ruminant fat or partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) and determine their effects on lipogenic gene expression in adipocytes. It was hypothesized that delta-9 desaturation and lipogenic properties of t-18:1 isomers depend on the position of double bond. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with 200 µM of t6-18:1, t9-18:1, t11-18:1, t13-18:1 or t16-18:1, cis (c)-9 18:1 or bovine serum albumin (BSA) vehicle control for 48 h. Cells were then harvested for fatty acid and gene expression analyses using gas chromatography and quantitative PCR respectively. Among t-18:1 isomers, t13-18:1 and t11-8:1 had the greatest percent delta-9 desaturation (44 and 41 % respectively) followed by t16-18:1 and t6-18:1 (32 and 17 % respectively), while c9-18:1 and t9-18:1 did not undergo delta-9 desaturation. Trans9-18:1 up-regulated (P < 0.05) the expression of lipogenic genes including fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of these genes were not affected with other t-18:1 isomers (P > 0.05). Consistent with gene expression results, t9-18:1 increased the de novo lipogenic index (16:0/18:2n-6) compared with control cells and increased delta-9 desaturation index (c9-16:1/18:0) compared to other t-18:1 isomers (P < 0.05). The current study provides further evidence that the predominant trans fatty acid in PHVO (t9-18:1) has isomer specific lipogenic properties.