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Arsenic MOA

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234 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vitro toxicological characterization of two arsenosugars and their metabolites

Authors: Leffers, L; Ebert, F; Taleshi, MS; Francesconi, KA; Schwerdtle, T (In Press) Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. HERO ID: 1579337

[Less] SCOPE: In their recently published Scientific Opinion on Arsenic in Food, the European Food Safety Authority . . . [More] SCOPE: In their recently published Scientific Opinion on Arsenic in Food, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that a risk assessment for arsenosugars is currently not possible, largely because of the lack of relevant toxicological data. To address this issue, we carried out a toxicological in vitro characterization of two arsenosugars and six arsenosugar metabolites. METHODS AND RESULTS: The highly pure synthesized arsenosugars, DMA(V) -sugar-glycerol and DMA(V) -sugar-sulfate, investigated in this study, as well as four metabolites, oxo-dimethylarsenoacetic acid (oxo-DMAA(V) ), oxo-dimethylarsenoethanol (oxo-DMAE(V) ), thio-DMAA(V) and thio-DMAE(V) , exerted neither cytotoxicity nor genotoxicity up to 500 μM exposure in cultured human bladder cells. However, two arsenosugar metabolites, namely dimethyl-arsinic acid (DMA(V) ) and thio-dimethylarsinic acid (thio-DMA(V) ), were toxic to the cells; thio-DMA(V) was even slightly more cytotoxic than arsenite. Additionally, intestinal bioavailability of the arsenosugars was assessed applying the Caco-2 intestinal barrier model. The observed low, but significant transfer rates of the arsenosugars across the barrier model provide further evidence that arsenosugars are intestinally bioavailable. CONCLUSION: In a cellular system that metabolizes arsenosugars, cellular toxicity likely arises. Thus, in strong contrast to arsenobetaine, arsenosugars cannot be categorized as nontoxic for humans and a risk to human health cannot be excluded.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

DNA damage and decreased DNA repair in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in individuals exposed to arsenic and lead in a mining site

Authors: Jasso-Pineda, Y; Díaz-Barriga, F; Calderón, J; Yáñez, L; Carrizales, L; Pérez-Maldonado, IN (In Press) Biological Trace Element Research. HERO ID: 1021531

[Less] The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage and the capacity for DNA repair in children exposed . . . [More] The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage and the capacity for DNA repair in children exposed to arsenic and lead. During 2006, we studied a total of 85 healthy children (aged 4-11 years) who were residents of Villa de la Paz (community A), Matehuala (community B), and Soledad de Graciano Sanchez (community C) in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. The quantification of arsenic in urine (AsU) and lead in blood (PbB) was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate DNA damage and DNA repair. The highest levels of AsU and PbB in children were found in community A (44.5 μg/g creatinine for arsenic and 11.4 μg/dL for lead), followed by community B (16.8 μg/g creatinine for arsenic and 7.3 μg/dL for lead) and finally by children living in community C (12.8 μg/g creatinine for arsenic and 5.3 μg/dL for lead). When DNA damage was assessed, children living in community A had the highest DNA damage. Analysis of these same cells 1 h after a challenge with H(2)O(2) 10 μM showed a dramatic increase in DNA damage in the cells of children living in community B and community C, but not in the cells of children living in community A. Moreover, significantly higher levels of DNA damage were observed 3 h after the challenge ended (repair period) in cells from individuals living in community A. Our results show that children exposed to metals might be more susceptible to DNA alterations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Genotoxic potential of arsenic at its reference dose

Authors: Kesari, VP; Kumar, A; Khan, PK (In Press) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. HERO ID: 1015662

[Less] Arsenic, a highly hazardous contaminant in our drinking water, accounts for various toxic effects (including . . . [More] Arsenic, a highly hazardous contaminant in our drinking water, accounts for various toxic effects (including cancer) in human. However, intake of arsenic @0.3μgkg(-1)day(-1) through drinking water, containing arsenic at its guideline value or maximum contaminant limit (10μgL(-1)), has been estimated to pose very little or no measurable risk to cancer in humans. The value also appears to be equal to the human reference dose (or index dose) of arsenic based on human skin toxicity data. The present work was a quantitative assessment of the genotoxic potential of arsenic in mice at doses equivalent to its human reference dose as well as its multiples. Significant increases in the frequencies of chromosome abnormalities in the bone marrow cells were registered over the control level upon exposure to all the doses of arsenic including its reference dose (or index dose). The assessment of arsenic genotoxicity in humans at low doses will therefore be highly instrumental in establishing a permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Human urothelial micronucleus assay to assess genotoxic recovery by reduction of arsenic in drinking water: A cohort study in West Bengal, India

Authors: Paul, S; Bhattacharjee, P; Mishra, PK; Chatterjee, D; Biswas, A; Deb, D; Ghosh, A; Mazumder, DNG; Giri, AK (In Press) BioMetals. HERO ID: 1798803

[Less] Chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water affects nearly 26 million individuals in West Bengal, . . . [More] Chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water affects nearly 26 million individuals in West Bengal, India. Cytogenetic biomarkers like urothelial micronucleus (MN) are extensively used to monitor arsenic exposed population. In 2004-2005, 145 arsenic exposed individuals and 60 unexposed controls were surveyed of which 128 exposed individuals and 54 unexposed controls could be followed up in 2010-2011. In 2004-2005, the extent of arsenic content in the drinking water was 348.23 ± 102.67 μg/L, which was significantly lowered to 5.60 ± 10.83 μg/L in 2010-2011. Comparing the data obtained between 2004-2005 and 2010-2011, there was a significant decline in the MN frequency, when assayed in 2010-2011 compared to 2004-2005. Hence, we infer that urothelial MN can be utilized as a good biomarker in detecting remedial effects from toxicity of the low dose of arsenic through drinking water.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ogg1 genetic background determines the genotoxic potential of environmentally relevant arsenic exposures

Authors: Bach, J; Sampayo-Reyes, A; Marcos, R; Hernández, A (2014) Archives of Toxicology 88:585-596. HERO ID: 2149176

[Less] Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a well-established human carcinogen to which millions of people are exposed . . . [More] Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a well-established human carcinogen to which millions of people are exposed worldwide. It is generally accepted that the genotoxic effects of i-As after an acute exposure are partially linked to the i-As-induced production of reactive oxygen species, but it is necessary to better determine whether chronic sub-toxic i-As doses are able to induce biologically significant levels of oxidative DNA damage (ODD). To fill in this gap, we have tested the genotoxic and oxidative effects of environmentally relevant arsenic exposures using mouse embryonic fibroblast MEF mutant Ogg1 cells and their wild-type counterparts. Effects were examined by using the comet assay complemented with the use of FPG enzyme. Our findings indicate that MEF Ogg1-/- cells are more sensitive to arsenite-induced acute toxicity, genotoxicity and ODD. Long-term exposure to sub-toxic doses of arsenite generates a detectable increase in ODD and genotoxic DNA damage only in MEF Ogg1-deficient cells. Altogether, the data presented here point out the relevance of ODD and Ogg1 genetic background on the genotoxic risk of i-As at environmentally plausible doses. The persistent accumulation of DNA 8-OH-dG lesions in Ogg1-/- cells during the complete course of the exposure suggests a relevant role in arsenic-associated carcinogenic risk in turn.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The accumulations of HIF-1α and HIF-2α by JNK and ERK are involved in biphasic effects induced by different levels of arsenite in human bronchial epithelial cells

Authors: Xu, Y; Li, Y; Li, H; Pang, Y; Zhao, Y; Jiang, R; Shen, L; Zhou, J; Wang, X; Liu, Q (2013) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 266:187-197. HERO ID: 1337332

[Less] The biphasic effects of arsenite, in which low levels of arsenite induce cell proliferation and high . . . [More] The biphasic effects of arsenite, in which low levels of arsenite induce cell proliferation and high levels of arsenite induce DNA damage and apoptosis, apparently contribute to arsenite-induced carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of different levels of arsenite on cell proliferation, DNA damage and apoptosis as well as on signal transduction pathways in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Our results show that a low level of arsenite activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), which probably mediate arsenite-inhibited degradation of ubiquitinated hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) in HBE cells. ERK inhibition blocks cell proliferation induced by a low level of arsenite, in part via HIF-2α. In contrast, a high level of arsenite activates c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), which provoke a response to suppress ubiquitinated HIF-1α degradation. Down-regulation of HIF-1α by inhibiting JNK, however, increases the DNA damage but decreases the apoptosis induced by a high level of arsenite. Thus, data in the present study suggest that the accumulations of HIF-1α and HIF-2α by JNK and ERK are involved in different levels of arsenite-induced biphasic effects, with low levels of arsenite inducing cell proliferation and high levels of arsenite inducing DNA damage and apoptosis in HBE cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dual role of resveratrol in modulation of genotoxicity induced by sodium arsenite via oxidative stress and apoptosis

Authors: Chen, C; Jiang, X; Zhao, W; Zhang, Z (2013) Food and Chemical Toxicology 59:8-17. HERO ID: 1936095

[Less] The potential benefits of resveratrol as an anticancer (proapoptosis) and antioxidant (pro-survival) . . . [More] The potential benefits of resveratrol as an anticancer (proapoptosis) and antioxidant (pro-survival) compound have been studied extensively. However, the role of resveratrol in modulation of the toxicity induced by sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of resveratrol on NaAsO2-induced cytotoxicity, DNA and chromosomal damage, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and oxidative stress in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial (A549) cell line at concentrations from 1 to 20μM after 24h exposure. Our results revealed that at 1 and 5μM, resveratrol was found to exert benefit effects, promoting cell viability and proliferation over 24h NaAsO2 exposure, whereas, resveratrol was showed to inhibit cell survival under the same condition at 20μM. Corresponding to the opposing effect of resveratrol at low vs. high concentrations, DNA and chromosomal damage, cell apoptotic rate and level of oxidative stress were also alleviated by lower concentrations (1, 5μM) of resveratrol, but exacerbated by higher concentration (20μM) resveratrol. Our study implicates that resveratrol is the most beneficial to cells at 1 and 5μM and caution should be taken in applying resveratrol as an anticancer therapeutic agent or nutraceutical supplement due to its concentration dependent effect.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Molecular modifications induced by inorganic arsenic in Vicia faba investigated by FTIR, FTNIR spectroscopy and genotoxicity testing

Authors: Boccia, P; Meconi, C; Mecozzi, M; Sturchio, E (2013) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 76:281-290. HERO ID: 1519005

[Less] Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) through drinking water is a major public health concern affecting . . . [More] Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) through drinking water is a major public health concern affecting most countries. Epidemiologic studies showed a significant association between consumption of iAs through drinking water and different types of cancer. However, the exact mechanisms underlying As-induced cancer and other diseases are not yet well understood. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of exposure iAs (20 or 30 mg/L) on Vicia faba seedlings in terms of phytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and spectroscopy by investigation of molecular modifications using infrared (FTIR) and near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy. Further, the mitigation effects of a precursor of glutathione (GSH), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), were also assessed. Spectroscopic and genotoxicity analysis demonstrated that specific molecular changes were directly correlated with iAs exposure. Comet assay in Vicia faba showed significant effects at concentrations of 20 and 30 mg/L, depending on the structural changes involving nucleic acids as identified by FTIR and FTNIR spectroscopy. Results of phytotoxicity and micronuclei tests were significant only at higher iAs concentrations (30 mg/L), where an antioxidant effect of NAC was noted. The two spectroscopic techniques demonstrated molecular modifications predominantly associated with chemical interactions of iAs with biomolecules such as nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins in Vicia faba. Our findings suggest that further studies are required to better understand the mechanisms underlying toxicity produced by different As chemical forms in vegetal and agricultural species.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inhibition of nucleotide excision repair by arsenic

Authors: Shen, S; Wang, C; Weinfeld, M; Le, XC (2013) Chinese Science Bulletin 58:214-221. HERO ID: 1509338

[Less] Inhibition of DNA repair is one proposed mechanism for the co-mutagenicity/co-carcinogenicity of arsenic. . . . [More] Inhibition of DNA repair is one proposed mechanism for the co-mutagenicity/co-carcinogenicity of arsenic. This review summarizes the current literature on the effects of arsenic compounds on nucleotide excision repair (NER). Several possible mechanisms for the observed NER inhibition have been proposed. Modulation of the expression of NER proteins has been considered to be one possibility of impairing the NER process. However, data on the effects of arsenic on the expression of NER proteins remain inconsistent. It is more likely that arsenic inhibits the induction of accessory or other key proteins involved in cellular control of DNA repair pathways, such as p53. For example, arsenic affects p53 phosphorylation and p53 DNA binding activity, which could regulate NER through transcriptional activation of downstream NER genes. Although it is important to study possible direct inactivation of NER proteins by arsenic binding, indirect inactivation of proteins having thiol residues critical to their function or zinc finger proteins cannot be negated. For example, nitric oxide (NO) induced in arsenic-treated cells serves as a specific inhibitor of NER, possibly through NO-induced S-nitrosylation of proteins related to DNA repair. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, a zinc finger protein implicated in both NER and base excision repair (BER), deserves special attention because of its involvement in NO production and its broad range of protein substrates including many repair enzymes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of nicotinamide on ultraviolet radiation and arsenic-induced DNA damage

Authors: Thompson, BC; Halliday, GM; Damian, DL (2013) HERO ID: 1704105