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Arsenic Susceptibility

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

ArxA, a new clade of arsenite oxidase within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum oxidoreductases

Authors: Zargar, K; Conrad, A; Bernick, DL; Lowe, TM; Stolc, V; Hoeft, S; Oremland, RS; Stolz, J; Saltikov, CW (In Press) Environmental Microbiology. HERO ID: 1015673

[Less] Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs . . . [More] Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs only in the prokaryotic domain of life. The enzymes responsible for arsenotrophy belong to distinct clades within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductases: specifically arsenate respiratory reductase, ArrA, and arsenite oxidase, AioA (formerly referred to as AroA and AoxB). A new arsenite oxidase clade, ArxA, represented by the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1 was also identified in the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp. strain PHS-1. A draft genome sequence of PHS-1 was completed and an arx operon similar to MLHE-1 was identified. Gene expression studies showed that arxA was strongly induced with arsenite. Microbial ecology investigation led to the identification of additional arxA-like sequences in Mono Lake and Hot Creek sediments, both arsenic-rich environments in California. Phylogenetic analyses placed these sequences as distinct members of the ArxA clade of arsenite oxidases. ArxA-like sequences were also identified in metagenome sequences of several alkaline microbial mat environments of Yellowstone National Park hot springs. These results suggest that ArxA-type arsenite oxidases appear to be widely distributed in the environment presenting an opportunity for further investigations of the contribution of Arx-dependent arsenotrophy to the arsenic biogeochemical cycle.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Novel radiochemical separation of arsenic from selenium for (72)Se/(72)As generator

Authors: Chajduk, E; Doner, K; Polkowska-Motrenko, H; Bilewicz, A (In Press) . HERO ID: 1015744

[Less] A new radiochemical separation scheme based on extraction chromatography has been proposed for isolation . . . [More] A new radiochemical separation scheme based on extraction chromatography has been proposed for isolation of arsenic from selenium. The distribution coefficients of As and Se on prepared sorbents: (selected aromatic o-diamines supported on polystyrene adsorbents) were determined in order to find the best condition for separation of both the elements. Batch experiments were verified by column studies. This work, together with earlier results from this Laboratory, enabled to elaborate a new separation scheme for selective and quantitative separation of arsenic from selenium. Proposed approach insures high selectivity and radionuclide purity of separated arsenic fraction; it is also characterized by high elution efficiency (>95%) using small volume (2mL) of 0.9% NaCl with very low breakthrough (<0.01%) of selenium.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ameliorative effect Trichosanthes dioica root against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in male albino rats

Authors: Bhattacharya, S; Haldar, PK (In Press) Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. HERO ID: 1015695

[Less] The present study evaluated the ameliorative potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Trichosanthes dioica . . . [More] The present study evaluated the ameliorative potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Trichosanthes dioica root (TDA) against arsenic induced toxicity in male albino rats. TDA (5 and 10mg/kg) was administered orally to rats for 20 consecutive days before oral administration of sodium arsenite (10mg/kg) for 8 days. Then the body weights, organ weights, haematological profiles, serum biochemical profile; hepatic and renal antioxidative parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and DNA fragmentation were evaluated. Pretreatment with TDA markedly and significantly normalized body weights, organ weights, haematological profiles, serum biochemical profile and significantly modulated all the hepatic and renal biochemical parameters and reduced DNA fragmentation in arsenic intoxicated rats. The present findings conclude that T. dioica root possessed remarkable ameliorative effect against arsenic induced organ toxicity in male albino rats mediated by alleviation of arsenic induced oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Structure-function alteration of hemoglobin in arsenicosis patients: A probable pathway to exert toxicity

Authors: Mondal, B; Chatterjee, D; Bhattacharyya, M (In Press) Journal of Applied Toxicology. HERO ID: 711038

[Less] Chronic arsenicosis, a major public health concern in India and Bangladesh, is mainly caused by ingestion . . . [More] Chronic arsenicosis, a major public health concern in India and Bangladesh, is mainly caused by ingestion of arsenic (As) contaminated ground water. Although this problem has been studied extensively, the mechanism of toxicity remains unknown. This paper investigates the process of trivalent arsenicals binding to hemoglobin (Hb) in chronic arsenicosis patients and consequent modification in the structure-function activity of Hb. In this work peroxidase activity, thermal denaturation profile, oxygen releasing capacity and hydrodynamic diameter have been evaluated for the Hb collected from subjects suffering with chronic arsenicosis. Increased peroxidative activity suggests altered oxidative status of Hb in the diseased state. The thermal denaturation profile indicates the Hb molecule to be more susceptible to unfolding in the pathologic state. The enhanced oxygen releasing capacity and significant reduction in hydrodynamic diameter of Hb is also observed in the diseased condition, suggesting conformational alterations in the Hb molecule. Finally, trivalent arsenic is found to bind with freshly isolated Hb from arsenicosis patients, binding affinity constant being 0.256 μM(-1) . The binding is positively cooperative with a Hill coefficient of +2.961 and isosbestic points at specific wavelengths. Thus, our work explores the structure-function property of Hb in chronic arsenicosis subjects and reveals that the molecule is modified in such a way that comparatively weak binding with oxygen and strong binding with arsenic occur simultaneously. This association may play a crucial role in exerting the pathway for arsenic toxicity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Oxidative modifications of proteins by sodium arsenite in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

Authors: Lii, C-K; Lin, A-H; Lee, S-L; Chen, H-W; Wang, T-S (In Press) Environmental Toxicology. HERO ID: 711001

[Less] Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that chronic arsenic exposure is associated with the incidence . . . [More] Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that chronic arsenic exposure is associated with the incidence of chronic diseases. This association is partly related to the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) overload and protein oxidation that result from arsenic exposure. In this study, we intended to identify proteins susceptible to oxidative carbonylation by sodium arsenite and the impact of carbonylation on the function of these proteins in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) dot-blot assay revealed that arsenite (0-50 muM) dose-dependently increased protein carbonylation. Consistent with these findings, the cellular ROS level as measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCHF-DA) assay was increased in cells exposed to arsenite. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assist laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS), one glycolytic enzyme, enolase-alpha, two cytoskeleton proteins, fascin (F-actin associated protein) and vimentin, and two protein quality control proteins, HSC70 (heat-shock cognate protein 70), and PDIA3 (protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3) were identified to be arsenic-sensitive carbonlyated proteins. Accompanied by carbonylation, enolase-alpha activity was dose-dependently decreased and the F-actin filament network was disturbed. Taken together, our results suggest that arsenite exposure results in the generation of carbonylated proteins, and the resultant changes in energy metabolism and in the cytoskeletal network may partly lead to cell damage.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phosphorus-arsenic interactions in variable-charge soils in relation to arsenic mobility and bioavailability

Authors: Bolan, N; Mahimairaja, S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Choppala, G (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 1579241

[Less] Phosphorus (P) influences arsenic (As) mobility and bioavailability which depends on the charge components . . . [More] Phosphorus (P) influences arsenic (As) mobility and bioavailability which depends on the charge components of soil. The objective of this study was to examine P-As interaction in variable-charge allophanic soils in relation to P-induced As mobilization and bioavailability. In this work, the effect of P on arsenate [As(V)] adsorption and desorption was examined using a number of allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their anion adsorption capacity. The effect of P on As uptake by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants was examined using a solution culture, and a soil plant growth experiment involving two As-spiked allophanic and non-allophanic soils which vary in their anion adsorption capacity, and a field As-contaminated sheep dip soil. Arsenate adsorption increased with an increase in the anion adsorption capacity of soils. The addition of P resulted in an increase in As desorption, and the effect was more pronounced in the case of allophanic soil. In the case of both As-spiked soils and field contaminated sheep-dip soil, application of P increased the desorption of As, thereby increasing its bioavailability. The effect of P on As uptake was more pronounced in the high anion adsorbing allophanic than low adsorbing non-allophanic soil. In the case of solution culture, As phytoavailability decreased with increasing concentration of P which is attributed to the competition of P for As uptake by roots. While increasing P concentration in solution decreased the uptake of As, it facilitated the translocation of As from root to shoot. The net effect of P on As phytoavailability in soils depends on the extent of P-induced As mobilization in soils and P-induced competition for As uptake by roots. The P-induced mobilization of As could be employed in the phytoremediation of As-contaminated sites. However, care must be taken to minimize the leaching of As mobilized through the P-induced desorption, thereby resulting in groundwater and off site contamination.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of choline on sodium arsenite-induced neural tube defects in chick embryos

Authors: Song, G; Cui, Y; Han, ZJ; Xia, HF; Ma, X (In Press) Food and Chemical Toxicology. HERO ID: 1021851

[Less] Arsenic passes through the placenta and accumulates in the neuroepithelium of embryo, whereby inducing . . . [More] Arsenic passes through the placenta and accumulates in the neuroepithelium of embryo, whereby inducing congenital malformations such as neural tube defects (NTDs) in animals. Choline (CHO), a methyl-rich nutrient, functions as a methyl donor to participate in methyl group metabolism. Arsenic methylation has been regarded as a detoxification process and choline (CHO) is the major source of methyl-groups. However, whether CHO intake reverses the abnormal embryo development induced by sodium arsenite (SA) and the relationship between CHO intake and arsenite-induced NTDs are still unclear. In this study, we used chick embryos as animal model to investigate the effects of SA and CHO supplementation on the early development of nervous system. Our results showed that the administration of SA led to reduction in embryo viability, embryo body weight and extra-embryonic vascular area, accompanied by a significantly increased incidence of the failed closure of the caudal end of the neural tube. CHO, at low dose (25μg/μL), reversed the decrease in embryo viability and the increase in the failed closure of the caudal end of the neural tube, which were induced by SA. In addition, CHO (25μg/μL) inhibited not only the SA-induced cell apoptosis by up-regulating Bcl-2 level, but also the global DNA methylation by increasing the expressions of DNMT1 and DNMT3a. However, less significant difference was found between the embryos co-treated with SA and CHO (50μg/μL) and the ones treated with SA alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that low dose CHO could protect chick embryos from arsenite-induced NTDs by a possible mechanism related to the methyl metabolism.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An arsenic-contaminated field trial to assess the uptake and translocation of arsenic by genotypes of rice

Authors: Lei, M; Tie, B; Zeng, M; Qing, P; Song, Z; Williams, PN; Huang, Y (In Press) Environmental Geochemistry and Health. HERO ID: 1337505

[Less] Compared to other cereals, rice has particular strong As accumulation. Therefore, it is very important . . . [More] Compared to other cereals, rice has particular strong As accumulation. Therefore, it is very important to understand As uptake and translocation among different genotypes. A field study in Chenzhou city, Hunan province of China, was employed to evaluate the effect of arsenic-contaminated soil on uptake and distribution in 34 genotypes of rice (including unpolished rice, husk, shoot, and root). The soil As concentrations ranged from 52.49 to 83.86 mg kg(-1), with mean As concentration 64.44 mg kg(-1). The mean As concentrations in rice plant tissues were different among the 34 rice genotypes. The highest As concentrations were accumulated in rice root (196.27-385.98 mg kg(-1) dry weight), while the lowest was in unpolished rice (0.31-0.52 mg kg(-1) dry weight). The distribution of As in rice tissue and paddy soil are as follows root ≫ soil > shoot > husk > unpolished rice. The ranges of concentrations of inorganic As in all of unpolished rice were from 0.26 to 0.52 mg kg(-1) dry weight. In particular, the percentage of inorganic As in the total As was more than 67 %, indicating that the inorganic As was the predominant species in unpolished rice. The daily dietary intakes of inorganic As in unpolished rice ranged from 0.10 to 0.21 mg for an adult, and from 0.075 to 0.15 mg for a child. Comparison with tolerable daily intakes established by FAO/WHO, inorganic As in most of unpolished rice samples exceeded the recommended intake values. The 34 genotypes of rice were classified into four clusters using a criteria value of rescaled distance between 5 and 10. Among the 34 genotypes, the genotypes II you 416 (II416) with the lowest enrichment of As and the lowest daily dietary intakes of inorganic As could be selected as the main cultivar in As-contaminated field.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of arsenic on modification of promyelocytic leukemia (PML): PML responds to low levels of arsenite

Authors: Hirano, S; Watanabe, T; Kobayashi, Y (In Press) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. HERO ID: 2088511

[Less] Inorganic arsenite (iAs(3+)) is a two-edged sword. iAs(3+) is a well-known human carcinogen; nevertheless, . . . [More] Inorganic arsenite (iAs(3+)) is a two-edged sword. iAs(3+) is a well-known human carcinogen; nevertheless, it has been used as a therapeutic drug for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), which is caused by a fusion protein comprising retinoic acid receptor-α and promyelocytic leukemia (PML). PML, a nuclear transcription factor, has a RING finger domain with densely positioned cysteine residues. To examine PML-modulated cellular responses to iAs(3+), CHO-K1 and HEK293 cells were each used to establish cell lines that expressed ectopic human PML. Overexpression of PML increased susceptibility to iAs(3+) in CHO-K1 cells, but not in HEK293 cells. Exposure of PML-transfected cells to iAs(3+) caused PML to change from a soluble form to less soluble forms, and this modification of PML was observable even with just 0.1μM iAs(3+) (7.5ppb). Western blot and immunofluorescent microscopic analyses revealed that the biochemical changes of PML were caused at least in part by conjugation with small ubiquitin-like modifier proteins (SUMOylation). A luciferase reporter gene was used to investigate whether modification of PML was caused by oxidative stress or activation of antioxidant response element (ARE) in CHO-K1 cells. Modification of PML protein occurred faster than activation of the ARE in response to iAs(3+), suggesting that PML was not modified as a consequence of oxidative stress-induced ARE activation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Developmental subchronic exposure to diphenylarsinic acid induced increased exploratory behavior, impaired learning behavior, and decreased cerebellar glutathione concentration in rats

Authors: Negishi, T; Matsunaga, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Hirano, S; Tashiro, T (In Press) Toxicological Sciences. HERO ID: 2088602

[Less] In Japan, people using water from the well contaminated with high-level arsenic developed neurological, . . . [More] In Japan, people using water from the well contaminated with high-level arsenic developed neurological, mostly cerebellar, symptoms, where diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) was a major compound. Here, we investigated the adverse effects of developmental exposure to 20mg/l DPAA in drinking water (early period [0-6 weeks of age] and/or late period [7-12]) on behavior and cerebellar development in male rats. In the open field test at 6 weeks of age, early exposure to DPAA significantly increased exploratory behaviors. At 12 weeks of age, late exposure to DPAA similarly increased exploratory behavior independent of the early exposure although a 6-week recovery from DPAA could reverse that change. In the passive avoidance test at 6 weeks of age, early exposure to DPAA significantly decreased the avoidance performance. Even at 12 weeks of age, early exposure to DPAA significantly decreased the test performance, which was independent of the late exposure to DPAA. These results suggest that the DPAA-induced increase in exploratory behavior is transient, whereas the DPAA-induced impairment of passive avoidance is long lasting. At 6 weeks of age, early exposure to DPAA significantly reduced the concentration of cerebellar total glutathione. At 12 weeks of age, late, but not early, exposure to DPAA also significantly reduced the concentration of cerebellar glutathione, which might be a primary cause of oxidative stress. Early exposure to DPAA induced late-onset suppressed expression of NMDAR1 and PSD95 protein at 12 weeks of age, indicating impaired glutamatergic system in the cerebellum of rats developmentally exposed to DPAA.