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Arsenic Susceptibility

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dietary Yucca schidigera supplementation reduces arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice

Authors: Ince, S; Kucukkurt, I; Turkmen, R; Demirel, HH; Sever, E (In Press) Toxicology and Industrial Health. HERO ID: 1248941

[Less] The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) . . . [More] The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in arsenic-exposed mice. Forty Swiss albino male mice were divided into five equal groups. Group I (control group) was given normal diet and tap water for 28 days. Group II (arsenic group) was given normal diet and 100 mg/L arsenic along with drinking water for 28 days. Groups III-V were given three different doses of Ys (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in supplemented diet and arsenic (100 mg/L) along with drinking water throughout the entire period of 28 days. The arsenic significantly increased serum biochemical parameters and malondialdehyde levels in blood and tissue. However, arsenic significantly decreased tissue glutathione concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, dietary supplementation of Ys, in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, LPO and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, Ys also exhibited protective action against the arsenic-induced focal gliosis and hyperemi in brain, necrosis and degeneration in liver, degeneration and dilatation in Bowman's capsule of kidney and hyaline degeneration in heart tissue of mice. Consequently, our results demonstrate that Ys especially high-dose supplementation in diet decreases arsenic-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Selenium mediated arsenic toxicity modifies cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species and phosphorylated proteins

Authors: Chitta, KR; Landero Figueroa, JAL; Caruso, JA; Merino, EJ (In Press) Metallomics. HERO ID: 1519060

[Less] The effect of selenium on modulating arsenic cytotoxicity is well known in mammals, but not well understood. . . . [More] The effect of selenium on modulating arsenic cytotoxicity is well known in mammals, but not well understood. Cell cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) changes were performed in combinations of As(iii) and selenomethionine (SeMet) toxic mixes on, HEK293, human kidney cells. Cell growth is readily restored from 20% to 60% when switching from 30 μM As(iii) as toxin to a mix of 30 μM As(iii) and 100 μM SeMet. As(iii) alone triggers ROS formation, primarily hydrogen peroxide, in a concentration dependent manner as observed through changes in the fluorescence from 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Importantly, SeMet induces lower ROS levels at the same concentrations used to modulate As(iii) cytotoxicity (IC50). Elevated ROS is important to As(iii) cytotoxicity and minimizing it is essential to the SeMet modulating function. Changes in cell signaling, through analysis of signaling changes via differential protein phosphorylation to uncover molecular level changes occurring in HEK293 human kidney cells as SeMet modulates the As(iii) cytotoxicity. To discover changes in the phosphoproteome, cells were incubated under three conditions: 30 μM As(iii), 100 μM SeMet, and 30 μM As(iii) + 100 μM SeMet. After total protein isolation the three samples were separated into fractions using size exclusion chromatography by detecting (31)P(+). Each sample was analyzed for the phosphorylated peptides by enzymatic digestion, selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides via TiO2, followed by nanoLC-ESIMS. Phosphorylated proteins unique to the As(iii)-SeMet mixture were then identified. The molecular level changes to the cells show uniquely that the As(iii)-SeMet mixture details proteins involved in ROS detoxification, cell cycle arrest, and protein/DNA damage. This study shows that SeMet not only lowers the total amount of ROS in a cell but also confers upon HEK293 cells the ability to detoxify. Thus, SeMet is not only a potent antioxidant in this system, but induces molecular changes that confer survival.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fish micronucleus assay to assess genotoxic potential of arsenic at its guideline exposure in aquatic environment

Authors: Kumar, A; Kesari, VP; Khan, PK (In Press) BioMetals. HERO ID: 1519068

[Less] The exposure to arsenic, a potential genotoxic carcinogen in humans, via drinking water is a serious . . . [More] The exposure to arsenic, a potential genotoxic carcinogen in humans, via drinking water is a serious worldwide health hazard. The arsenic content of 10 μg L(-1) in drinking water, however, has been established as its guideline standard (maximum contaminant limit) that has been estimated to pose minimum risk to cancer. Since micronucleus induction in the erythrocytes of fish is a sensitive indicator of genotoxic agents in water, the piscine micronucleus assay was used in the present experiment to assess the genotoxic potential of arsenic at its various exposure levels including the guideline value for drinking water. The experiments were conducted in two different species of fishes, the pond murrel (Channa punctatus) and the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Significant increases in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes were documented in a dose-dependent manner in both Channa and Carassius. The fishes, however, exhibited variations in inter-specific sensitivity to micronucleus induction following arsenic exposure. The exposure level of arsenic at its guideline value for drinking water, therefore, exhibited marked genotoxicity in fishes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic toxicity in the human nerve cell line SK-N-SH in the presence of chromium and copper

Authors: Hu, L; Greer, JB; Solo-Gabriele, H; Fieber, LA; Cai, Y (In Press) Chemosphere. HERO ID: 1519082

[Less] As, Cr, and Cu represent one potential combination of multiple metals/metalloids exposures since these . . . [More] As, Cr, and Cu represent one potential combination of multiple metals/metalloids exposures since these three elements are simultaneously leached from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, a common product used for building construction, at levels that can be potentially harmful. This study investigated the neurotoxicity of As associated with CCA-treated wood when accompanied by Cr and Cu. The toxicity was evaluated on the basis of a cytotoxicity model using human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. The cells were cultured with CCA-treated wood leachates or with solutions containing arsenate [As(V)], divalent copper [Cu(II)], trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] alone or in different combinations of the three elements. The toxicity was evaluated using variations in cell replication compared to controls after 96h exposure. Among the three elements present in wood leachates, As played the primary role in the observed toxic effects, which were exerted through multiple pathways, including the generation of oxidative stress. DOM affected the absorption of metals/metalloids into the test cells, which however did not obviously appear to impact toxicity. As toxicity was enhanced by Cu(II) and inhibited by Cr(III) at concentrations below U.S. EPA's allowable maximum contaminant levels in drinking waters. Thus assessing As toxicity in real environments is not sufficient if based solely on the result from As.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Proteomic analysis of arsenic-exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) identifies altered expression in proteins involved in fibrosis and lipid uptake in a gender-specific manner

Authors: Carlson, P; Smalley, DM; Van Beneden, RJ (In Press) Toxicological Sciences. HERO ID: 1579328

[Less] The zebrafish (Danio rerio) was used to investigate protein expression in the liver following arsenic . . . [More] The zebrafish (Danio rerio) was used to investigate protein expression in the liver following arsenic exposure. Several disorders have been linked to arsenic exposure including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms of arsenic toxicity, however, are still poorly understood. Prior studies have described altered gene expression, inflammation, and mitogenic signaling in acute or chronic exposure models. A proteomic approach was employed to investigate arsenic-induced alteration in the zebrafish liver proteome following a seven-day exposure to 50 ppb sodium arsenite. Over 740 unique proteins were identified, with fewer than 2% showing differential expression. Molecular pathway analysis software identified lipid metabolism and transport as potential molecular targets. Immunoblots were used to confirm protein expression changes while qPCR was employed to investigate gene expression changes. Overall, 24 proteins were differentially expressed in a gender-specific manner, eleven in males and thirteen in females. Of these 24, a single protein, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase like 2 (HSDL2), showed decreased expression in both males and females following arsenic exposure. These findings indicate protein expression is altered following arsenic exposure. The changes presented here seem to be most prevalent in lipid transport and metabolic pathways, suggesting a potential increase in fibrosis in males, and decreased lipid accumulation and uptake in females.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vitro toxicological characterization of two arsenosugars and their metabolites

Authors: Leffers, L; Ebert, F; Taleshi, MS; Francesconi, KA; Schwerdtle, T (In Press) Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. HERO ID: 1579337

[Less] SCOPE: In their recently published Scientific Opinion on Arsenic in Food, the European Food Safety Authority . . . [More] SCOPE: In their recently published Scientific Opinion on Arsenic in Food, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that a risk assessment for arsenosugars is currently not possible, largely because of the lack of relevant toxicological data. To address this issue, we carried out a toxicological in vitro characterization of two arsenosugars and six arsenosugar metabolites. METHODS AND RESULTS: The highly pure synthesized arsenosugars, DMA(V) -sugar-glycerol and DMA(V) -sugar-sulfate, investigated in this study, as well as four metabolites, oxo-dimethylarsenoacetic acid (oxo-DMAA(V) ), oxo-dimethylarsenoethanol (oxo-DMAE(V) ), thio-DMAA(V) and thio-DMAE(V) , exerted neither cytotoxicity nor genotoxicity up to 500 μM exposure in cultured human bladder cells. However, two arsenosugar metabolites, namely dimethyl-arsinic acid (DMA(V) ) and thio-dimethylarsinic acid (thio-DMA(V) ), were toxic to the cells; thio-DMA(V) was even slightly more cytotoxic than arsenite. Additionally, intestinal bioavailability of the arsenosugars was assessed applying the Caco-2 intestinal barrier model. The observed low, but significant transfer rates of the arsenosugars across the barrier model provide further evidence that arsenosugars are intestinally bioavailable. CONCLUSION: In a cellular system that metabolizes arsenosugars, cellular toxicity likely arises. Thus, in strong contrast to arsenobetaine, arsenosugars cannot be categorized as nontoxic for humans and a risk to human health cannot be excluded.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of sodium arsenite on neurite outgrowth and glutamate AMPA receptor expression in mouse cortical neurons

Authors: Maekawa, F; Tsuboi, T; Oya, M; Aung, KH; Tsukahara, S; Pellerin, L; Nohara, K (In Press) NeuroToxicology. HERO ID: 1597313

[Less] There has been broad concern that arsenic in the environment exerts neurotoxicity. To determine the . . . [More] There has been broad concern that arsenic in the environment exerts neurotoxicity. To determine the mechanism by which arsenic disrupts neuronal development, primary cultured neurons obtained from the cerebral cortex of mouse embryos were exposed to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) at concentrations between 0 and 2μM from days 2 to 4 in vitro and cell survival, neurite outgrowth and expression of glutamate AMPA receptor subunits were assessed at day 4 in vitro. Cell survival was significantly decreased by exposure to 2μM NaAsO2, whereas 0.5μM NaAsO2 increased cell survival instead. The assessment of neurite outgrowth showed that total neurite length was significantly suppressed by 1μM and 2μM NaAsO2, indicating that the lower concentration of NaAsO2 impairs neuritogenesis before inducing cell death. Immunoblot analysis of AMPA receptor subunit expression showed that the protein level of GluA1, a specific subunit of the AMPA receptor, was significantly decreased by 1μM and 2μM NaAsO2. When immunocytochemistry was used to confirm this effect by staining for GluA1 expression in neuropeptide Y neurons, most of which contain GluA1, GluA1 expression in neuropeptide Y neurons was found to be significantly suppressed by 1μM and 2μM NaAsO2 but to be increased at the concentration of 0.5μM. Finally, to determine whether neurons could be rescued from the NaAsO2-induced impairment of neuritogenesis by compensatory overexpression of GluA1, we used primary cultures of neurons transfected with a plasmid vector to overexpress either GluA1 or GluA2, and the results showed that GluA1/2 overexpression protected against the deleterious effects of NaAsO2 on neurite outgrowth. These results suggest that the NaAsO2 concentration inducing neurite suppression is lower than the concentration that induces cell death and is the same as the concentration that suppresses GluA1 expression. Consequently, the suppression of GluA1 expression by NaAsO2 seems at least partly responsible for neurite suppression induced by NaAsO2.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary delta-ALA: A potential biomarker of exposure and neurotoxic effect in rats co-treated with a mixture of lead, arsenic and manganese

Authors: Andrade, V; Mateus, ML; Batoréu, MC; Aschner, M; Marreilha dos Santos, AP (In Press) NeuroToxicology. HERO ID: 1677581

[Less] Lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) are neurotoxic elements that often occur in mixtures for . . . [More] Lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) are neurotoxic elements that often occur in mixtures for which practically no information is available on biomarkers (BMs) for the evaluation of exposure/effects. Exposures to these metals may increase delta-aminolevulinic acid (delta-ALA), which in itself may potentiate neurotoxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of urinary delta-ALA (delta-ALA-U) levels as BM of exposure and/or neurotoxic effects induced by this mixture. Five groups of Wistar rats were treated for 8 days with Pb (5mg/kg), As (60mg/L), Mn (10mg/kg), the 3-metal mixture (same doses of the single metals), and control group. Motor activity was evaluated and 24-h urine collected before and after the treatment. 24-hours (h) after the last dose, the rats were sacrificed and the brains removed for analyses. Delta-ALA and metal levels were determined in brain and urine. Co-treated rats showed a significant (p<0.05) correlation between increased Pb, As, Mn and delta-ALA levels in the brain and decreased motor activity. Delta-ALA-U concentrations were higher in the mixture-treated group than the sum of the delta-ALA-U levels in each single-treated groups and discriminated (p<0.05) between the mixture and untreated rats. Moreover, delta-ALA-U was correlated (p<0.05) with brain delta-ALA levels. These results establish that treatments with this metal mixture exacerbate behavioral dysfunction, increasing most prominently brain Pb levels. This study is the first to establish that delta-ALA-U levels represent a sensitive BM of exposure/neurotoxic effect to this metal mixture.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Relationship between arsenic content of food and water applied for food processing

Authors: Sugár, É; Tatár, E; Záray, G; Mihucz, VG (In Press) Food and Chemical Toxicology. HERO ID: 2064276

[Less] As part of a survey conducted by the Central Agricultural Office of Hungary, 67 food samples including . . . [More] As part of a survey conducted by the Central Agricultural Office of Hungary, 67 food samples including beverages were taken from 57 food industrial and catering companies, 75% of them being small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Moreover, 40% of the SMEs were micro entities. Water used for food processing was simultaneously sampled. The arsenic (As) content of solid food stuff was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry after dry ashing. Food stuff with high water content and water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The As concentration exceeded 10μg/L in 74% of the water samples taken from SMEs. The As concentrations of samples with high water content and water used were linearly correlated. Estimated As intake from combined exposure to drinking water and food of the population was on average 40% of the daily lower limit of WHO on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5) for As. Five settlements had higher As intake than the BMDL0.5. Three of these settlements are situated in Csongrád county and the distance between them is less than 55km. The maximum As intake might be 3.8μg/kg body weight.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Atrazine is primarily responsible for the toxicity of long-term exposure to a combination of atrazine and inorganic arsenic in the nigrostriatal system of the albino rat

Authors: Bardullas, U; Giordano, M; Rodríguez, VM (In Press) Neurotoxicology and Teratology. HERO ID: 2088491

[Less] Chronic and simultaneous exposure to a variety of chemicals present in the environment is an unavoidable . . . [More] Chronic and simultaneous exposure to a variety of chemicals present in the environment is an unavoidable fact. However, given the complexity of studying chemical mixtures, most toxicological studies have focused on the effects of short-term exposure to single substances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on the nigrostriatal system of the chronic, simultaneous exposure to two widely distributed substances that have been identified as potential dopaminergic system toxicants, inorganic arsenic (iAs) and atrazine (ATR). Six groups of rats were treated daily for one year with atrazine (10mg ATR/kg), inorganic arsenic (0.5 or 50mg iAs/L of drinking water),or a combination of ATR+0.5mg iAs/L or ATR+50mg iAs/L. The 50mg iAs/L group showed locomotor hypoactivity, while all treatments decreased motor coordination in contrast no effects of treatment were found on the place and response learning tasks. Regarding markers for liver and muscle damage, there were no differences between groups in creatine kinase (CK) or aspartate transaminase (AST) activities, while decreases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were found in some exposed groups. The striatal DA content was significantly reduced in ATR, 0.5mg iAs/L, ATR+0.5mg iAs/L, and ATR+50mg iAs/L groups, in comparison to the control group. The number of mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells decreased in the ATR and ATR+0.5mg iAs/L groups compared to the control. In contrast, immunoreactivity to cytochrome oxidase was reduced compared to the control in all treated groups, except for the group treated with 0.5 iAs mg alone. Our results indicate that ATR has deleterious effects on dopaminergic neurons and that the combination of ATR and iAs does not exacerbate these effects.