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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Proteomic analysis of arsenite - Mediated multiple antibiotic resistance in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A

Authors: Mallik, S; Virdi, JS; Johri, AK (In Press) Journal of Basic Microbiology. HERO ID: 1003606

[Less] Arsenic is one of the most important global environmental pollutants. In the present study, fifty one . . . [More] Arsenic is one of the most important global environmental pollutants. In the present study, fifty one clinical strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A showed high resistance to arsenite and arsenate. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of arsenite (0.625-20 mM) was lower than arsenate (10-80 mM). Growth of Y. enterocolitica in 2 mM arsenite led to 2-8 fold increase in MICs of the five antibiotics (amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, kanamycin and tetracycline), suggesting expression of arsenite-induced multiple antibiotic resistance among the strains. Proteomic analysis of Y. enterocolitica revealed differential expression of certain proteins following arsenite exposure, which included a putative outer membrane porin (OmpA) and a putative amino acid transporter protein. In conclusion, modulation of membrane permeability may be involved in the induction of arsenite-mediated expression of multiple antibiotic resistance in Y. enterocolitica. (© 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biogeochemical cycling of ferric oxyhydroxide affecting As partition in groundwater aquitard

Authors: Wang, SW; Liu, CW; Lu, KL; Lin, LH (In Press) Environmental Geochemistry and Health. HERO ID: 1003589

[Less] High arsenic (As) concentration in groundwater potentially poses a serious threat to the health of local . . . [More] High arsenic (As) concentration in groundwater potentially poses a serious threat to the health of local residents in southwestern Taiwan. Although the As release to groundwater is responsible for the reducing bacteria-mediated reductive dissolution of As-rich Fe hydroxides, the influences of FeRB and different organic substrates on As and Fe mobility and transformation were rarely discussed. An experiment that involved As-adsorbed synthetic amorphous Fe(III) hydroxide (HFO) and the inoculation of in situ Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) was performed to evaluate the contribution of FeRB to the As mobility and transformation. The batched experiment of As-free HFO showed that the reducing bacteria rapidly induced the reduction of amorphous Fe oxyhydroxide to Fe(II) by reductive dissolution of HFO and formation of Fe-citrate complexation. For aqueous As(V) reduction experiment, arsenate was effectively reduced to As(III) by the facultative anaerobic bacterium in the cultured FeRB. In the experiment of As-containing HFO reduction, the aqueous As(V) acts as an electron acceptor and reduced to As(III) after the reductive dissolution of Fe(III) on HFO. However, the increase in the As(III) concentrations with time for various organic substrates in the As-adsorbed HFO-reducing experiment differ from the rates of As(V) reduction with various organic substrates in the As(V)-reducing experiment. The decrease in sorption sites by coupled reductive dissolution of HFO and the competitive desorption of small molecular organic carbon is apparently the important factor of As mobility. For large molecular organic carbon (i.e., citrate), the significant contribution of citrate on As mobility is the complexation of iron citrate. A working hypothesis model of As biogeochemical cycling is proposed to illustrate the relevant processes in the groundwater aquitard of southwestern Taiwan.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A periplasmic arsenite-binding protein involved in regulating arsenite oxidation

Authors: Liu, G; Liu, M; Kim, E-H; Matty, WS; Bothner, B; Lei, B; Rensing, C; Wang, G; McDermott, TR (In Press) Environmental Microbiology. HERO ID: 1003591

[Less] Arsenic (As) is the most common toxic element in the environment, ranking first on the Superfund List . . . [More] Arsenic (As) is the most common toxic element in the environment, ranking first on the Superfund List of Hazardous Substances. Microbial redox transformations are the principal drivers of As chemical speciation, which in turn dictates As mobility and toxicity. Consequently, in order to manage or remediate environmental As, land managers need to understand how and why microorganisms react to As. Studies have demonstrated a two-component signal transduction system comprised of AioS (sensor kinase) and AioR (response regulator) is involved in regulating microbial AsIII oxidation, with the AsIII oxidase structural genes aioB and aioA being upregulated by AsIII. However, it is not known whether AsIII is first detected directly by AioS or by an intermediate. Herein we demonstrate the essential role of a periplasmic AsIII-binding protein encoded by aioX, which is upregulated by AsIII. An ΔaioX mutant is defective for upregulation of the aioBA genes and consequently AsIII oxidation. Purified AioX expressed without its TAT-type signal peptide behaves as a monomer (MW 32 kDa), and Western blots show AioX to be exclusively associated with the cytoplasmic membrane. AioX binds AsIII with a K(D) of 2.4 µM AsIII; however, mutating a conserved Cys108 to either alanine or serine resulted in lack of AsIII binding, lack of aioBA induction, and correlated with a negative AsIII oxidation phenotype. The discovery and characterization of AioX illustrates a novel AsIII sensing mechanism that appears to be used in a range of bacteria and also provides one of the first examples of a bacterial signal anchor protein.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenite exposure altered the expression of NMDA receptor and postsynaptic signaling proteins in rat hippocampus

Authors: Luo, J-H; Qiu, Z-Q; Zhang, L; Shu, W-Q (In Press) Toxicology Letters. HERO ID: 1015663

[Less] Chronic arsenic exposure has an adverse effect on neurobehavioral function. Our previous study demonstrated . . . [More] Chronic arsenic exposure has an adverse effect on neurobehavioral function. Our previous study demonstrated an elevated arsenic level, ultra-structure changes and reduced NR2A gene expression in hippocampus, and impaired spatial learning in arsenite-exposed rats. The NMDA receptor and the postsynaptic signaling proteins CaMKII, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), synaptic Ras GTPase-activating protein (SynGAP) and nuclear activated extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) play important roles in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. We hypothesized that the above molecular expression changes may contribute to arsenic neurotoxicity. In present study, the expression of NMDA receptor and postsynaptic signaling proteins in hippocampus were evaluated in rats exposed to 0, 2.72, 13.6 and 68mg/L sodium arsenite for 3 months. Decreased protein expression of NR2A, PSD-95 and p-CaMKII α in the hippocampus of arsenite-exposed rats was observed, while the expression of SynGAP, a negative regulator of Ras-MAPK activity, was increased when compared with the controls. Additionally, decreased p-ERK1/2 activity was found in the hippocampus of arsenite-exposed rats. These data suggest that altered expression of NMDA receptor complex and postsynaptic signaling proteins may explain arsenic-induced neurotoxicity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Na(2)EuAs(2)S(5), NaEuAsS(4), and Na(4)Eu(AsS(4))(2): Controlling the Valency of Arsenic in Polysulfide Fluxes

Authors: Bera, TK; Kanatzidis, MG (In Press) Inorganic Chemistry. HERO ID: 1015666

[Less] The reactivity of europium with As species in Lewis basic alkali-metal polysulfide fluxes was investigated . . . [More] The reactivity of europium with As species in Lewis basic alkali-metal polysulfide fluxes was investigated along with compound formation and the As(3+)/As(5+) interplay vis-à-vis changes in the flux basicity. The compound Na(2)EuAs(2)S(5) containing trivalent As(3+) is stabilized from an arsenic-rich polysulfide flux. It crystallizes in the monoclinic centrosymmetric space group P2(1)/c. Na(2)EuAs(2)S(5) has [As(2)S(5)](4-) units, built of corner sharing AsS(3) pyramids, which are coordinated to Eu(2+) ions to give a two-dimensional (2D) layered structure. A sodium polysulfide flux with comparatively less arsenic led to the As(5+) containing compounds NaEuAsS(4) (orthorhombic, Ama2) and Na(4)Eu(AsS(4))(2) (triclinic, P1) depending on Na(2)S/S ratio. The NaEuAsS(4) and Na(4)Eu(AsS(4))(2) have a three-dimensional (3D) structure built of [AsS(4)](3-) tetrahedra coordinated to Eu(2+) ions. All compounds are semiconductors with optical energy gaps of ∼2 eV.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

ArxA, a new clade of arsenite oxidase within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum oxidoreductases

Authors: Zargar, K; Conrad, A; Bernick, DL; Lowe, TM; Stolc, V; Hoeft, S; Oremland, RS; Stolz, J; Saltikov, CW (In Press) Environmental Microbiology. HERO ID: 1015673

[Less] Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs . . . [More] Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs only in the prokaryotic domain of life. The enzymes responsible for arsenotrophy belong to distinct clades within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductases: specifically arsenate respiratory reductase, ArrA, and arsenite oxidase, AioA (formerly referred to as AroA and AoxB). A new arsenite oxidase clade, ArxA, represented by the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1 was also identified in the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp. strain PHS-1. A draft genome sequence of PHS-1 was completed and an arx operon similar to MLHE-1 was identified. Gene expression studies showed that arxA was strongly induced with arsenite. Microbial ecology investigation led to the identification of additional arxA-like sequences in Mono Lake and Hot Creek sediments, both arsenic-rich environments in California. Phylogenetic analyses placed these sequences as distinct members of the ArxA clade of arsenite oxidases. ArxA-like sequences were also identified in metagenome sequences of several alkaline microbial mat environments of Yellowstone National Park hot springs. These results suggest that ArxA-type arsenite oxidases appear to be widely distributed in the environment presenting an opportunity for further investigations of the contribution of Arx-dependent arsenotrophy to the arsenic biogeochemical cycle.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fast separations by capillary electrophoresis hyphenated to electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a tool for arsenic speciation analysis

Authors: Niegel, C; Pfeiffer, SA; Grundmann, M; Arroyo-Abad, U; Mattusch, J; Matysik, FM (In Press) The Analyst. HERO ID: 1015677

[Less] Fast capillary electrophoresis (CE) hyphenated to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) of four . . . [More] Fast capillary electrophoresis (CE) hyphenated to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) of four organoarsenic species (glycerol oxoarsenosugar, sulfate oxoarsenosugar, arsenobetaine, arsenocholine) are presented using short length CE capillaries under high electric field strengths of up to 1.3 kV cm(-1) with small inner diameter (ID). The separation of arsenosugars by CE is demonstrated for the first time. An aqueous formic acid solution was employed as the background electrolyte (BGE) for the separation. Various acid concentrations were evaluated for their influence on migration times, separation efficiency as well as with regard to controlling the charge of the arsenic species. A 0.1 M formic acid/ammonium formate buffer (pH 2.8) proved to be suitable for the separation of the four species. A non-aqueous BGE was tested as an alternative buffer system for fast speciation analysis. Separation of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine could even be achieved within 10 s by pressure-assisted CE. Application of the optimized method for the analysis of extracts of a seagrass and a Wakame algae sample as well as the brown algae homogenate reference material IAEA-140/TM revealed a clear signal for the glycerol arsenosugar.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Photovoltaic device on a single ZnO nanowire p-n homojunction

Authors: Cho, HD; Zakirov, AS; Yuldashev, SU; Ahn, CW; Yeo, YK; Kang, TW (In Press) Nanotechnology. HERO ID: 1015707

[Less] A photovoltaic device was successfully grown solely based on the single ZnO p-n homojunction nanowire. . . . [More] A photovoltaic device was successfully grown solely based on the single ZnO p-n homojunction nanowire. The ZnO nanowire p-n diode consists of an as-grown n-type segment and an in situ arsenic-doped p-type segment. This p-n homojunction acts as a good photovoltaic cell, producing a photocurrent almost 45 times larger than the dark current under reverse-biased conditions. Our results demonstrate that the present ZnO p-n homojunction nanowire can be used as a self-powered ultraviolet photodetector as well as a photovoltaic cell, which can also be used as an ultralow electrical power source for nanoscale electronic, optoelectronic and medical devices.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Thioarsenate transformation by filamentous microbial mats thriving in an alkaline, sulfidic hot spring

Authors: Härtig, C; Planer-Friedrich, B (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1015712

[Less] Thioarsenates dominate arsenic speciation in sulfidic geothermal waters, yet little is known about their . . . [More] Thioarsenates dominate arsenic speciation in sulfidic geothermal waters, yet little is known about their fate in the environment. At Conch Spring, an alkaline hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, trithioarsenate transforms to arsenate under increasingly oxidizing conditions along the drainage channel, accompanied by an initial increase, then decrease of monothioarsenate and arsenite. On-site incubation tests were conducted using sterile-filtered water with and without addition of filamentous microbial mats from the drainage channel to distinguish the role of abiotic and biotic processes for arsenic species transformation. Abiotically, trithioarsenate was desulfidized to arsenate coupled to sulfide oxidation. Arsenite and monothioarsenate, however, were kinetically stable. Biotic incubations proved that their intermediate accumulation in the drainage channel is microbially catalyzed. In the presence of sulfide, microbially enhanced sulfide oxidation coupled to reduction of arsenate to arsenite could simply enhance abiotic desulfidation of tri- and potentially also monothioarsenate. However, we were also able to show, in sulfide-free medium, direct microbial transformation of monothioarsenate to arsenate. Some arsenite formed intermediately, which was subsequently also microbially oxidized to arsenate. This study is the first evidence for microbially mediated thioarsenate species transformation by (hyper)thermophilic prokaryotes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Twenty-four-hour urinary trace element excretion: Reference intervals and interpretive issues

Authors: Sieniawska, CE; Jung, LC; Olufadi, R; Walker, V (In Press) Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. HERO ID: 1015724

[Less] BACKGROUND: Introduction of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) into clinical laboratories . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Introduction of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) into clinical laboratories has led to an increasing application of analyses to risk assessment for toxicity from environmental exposure to trace elements, and in occupational monitoring. Interpretation of results from random urine samples may be problematic and measurement of excretion over 24 h is sometimes preferable. Recent reference data are sparse. METHODS: Twenty-four-hour urine samples from 111 healthy adults from the renal stones clinic in Southampton, UK, were analysed for 31 trace elements using ICP-MS and for zinc using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Non-parametric 0.95 coverage intervals were determined for trace element excretion per 24 h and as a ratio to creatinine, for the full study cohort and separately for men (n = 77) and women (n = 34). RESULTS: Beryllium was undetectable in 95% of samples, bismuth in 87% and uranium in 75%. In comparison with published ranges, reference intervals for this cohort were higher for molybdenum, tin and vanadium, and for arsenic due to inclusion of fish arsenicals. Aluminium, chromium, iron, lead and mercury were lower. In our cohort, 24-h excretion of 17 elements was significantly higher in men than in women. However, when expressed as trace element to creatinine ratios, the situation reversed strikingly. Because of their lower creatinine excretion, ratios for 18 elements were significantly higher for women. CONCLUSIONS: New adult reference intervals were obtained for 24-h urine trace element excretion. Trace element:creatinine ratios must be used cautiously, with separate ranges for men and women.