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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[6]-Gingerol isolated from ginger attenuates sodium arsenite induced oxidative stress and plays a corrective role in improving insulin signaling in mice

Authors: Chakraborty, D; Mukherjee, A; Sikdar, S; Paul, A; Ghosh, S; Khuda-Bukhsh, AR (In Press) Toxicology Letters. HERO ID: 1015815

[Less] Arsenic toxicity induces type 2 diabetes via stress mediated pathway. In this study, we attempt to reveal . . . [More] Arsenic toxicity induces type 2 diabetes via stress mediated pathway. In this study, we attempt to reveal how sodium arsenite (iAs) could induce stress mediated impaired insulin signaling in mice and if an isolated active fraction of ginger, [6]-gingerol could attenuate the iAs intoxicated hyperglycemic condition of mice and bring about improvement in their impaired insulin signaling. [6]-Gingerol treatment reduced elevated blood glucose level and oxidative stress by enhancing activity of super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and GSH. [6]-Gingerol also helped in increasing plasma insulin level, brought down after iAs exposure. iAs treatment to primary cell culture of β-cells and hepatocytes in vitro produced cyto-degenerative effect and accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes of mice. [6]-Gingerol appeared to inhibit/intervene iAs induced cyto-degeneration of pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes, helped in scavenging the free radicals. The over-expression of TNFα and IL6 in iAs intoxicated mice was down-regulated by [6]-gingerol treatment. iAs intoxication reduced expression levels of GLUT4, IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3K, AKT, PPARγ signaling molecules; [6]-gingerol mediated its action through enhancing the expressions of these signaling molecules, both at protein and mRNA levels. Thus, our results suggest that [6]-gingerol possesses an anti-hyperglycemic property and can improve impaired insulin signaling in arsenic intoxicated mice.

Journal Article
Journal Article

[Prostate cancer boost using high-dose-rate brachytherapy: Impact of the learning curve on the dosimetry.]

Authors: Benhaïm, C; Chand, ME; Gal, J; Hijazi, H; Gautier, M; Hannoun-Lévi, JM (In Press) HERO ID: 2454342

[Less] PURPOSE: To analyse the influence of the learning curve on dosimetric data for high-dose-rate . . . [More] PURPOSE: To analyse the influence of the learning curve on dosimetric data for high-dose-rate brachytherapy prostate cancer boost.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: From February 2009 to May 2012, after a first course of external beam radiation therapy (46Gy/23 fractions), 124 patients underwent high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost using Plato™ (Nucletron, an Elekta company, Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden). The impact of the learning curve on the dosimetric quality of the prostate implant was assessed. The dosimetric data have been analysed: clinical target volume (CTV), D90 (dose to 90 % of CTV), D100, V100 (part on the CTV receiving 100 % of the dose), V150, V200 and DHI (dose non-homogeneity index). The doses delivered to 0.1, 1 and 2 cm(3) of the rectum and urethra were calculated.

RESULTS: During the study period (39 months), a significant reduction of V150 (P<0.001), V200 (P<0.001), D0.1rectum (P<0.001), D1rectum (P<0.001), D2rectum (P<0.001), D0.1urethra (P<0.001), and D1urethra (P<0.002) was observed associated with a significant degradation of the D90 (P<0.001) but not significant for the V100 (P=0.29) and the D100 (P=0.3).

CONCLUSION: This study confirms that the dosimetric quality of high-dose-rate brachytherapy prostate implant is significantly improved during the learning curve period.

Journal Article
Journal Article

[Burst Pressures of the Central Pulmonary Artery after Bipolar Vessel Sealing - Examination in an Ex Vivo Model.]

Authors: Kirschbaum, A; Sasse, T; Palade, E (In Press) . HERO ID: 2278848

[Less] Background: In every pneumonectomy due to a malignant or benign pulmonary disease the pulmonary artery . . . [More] Background: In every pneumonectomy due to a malignant or benign pulmonary disease the pulmonary artery must be centrally ligated and dissected. If a thoracotomy is undertaken the vessel is usually doubly ligated with a non-absorbable suture and then dissected. Alternatively a vessel stapler can be used. In a thorascopic procedure only the stapler can be used. In the search for a cheaper alternative we investigated whether a bipolar instrument as employed in thorascopy could be used and reused. The aim of this study was to investigate the static pressure performance of the closed vessel in an ex vivo non-perfused vessel model. Material and Methods: From freshly slaughtered pigs the heart-lung block was removed. The central pulmonary artery was exposed. For sealing the vessel we used the bipolar sealing system MARSEAL®, Brothers Martin company (Tuttlingen, Germany), consisting of an HF generator and a MARSEAL slim instrument. Two groups were formed: group A (n = 49) Stromart SealSafe®, step G5 (automatic performance regulation, duration of use depending on impedance) and group B (n = 58) bipolar Stromart "Macrocoag" (power: 120 W, constant duration of use: 15 s). At the end of the pulmonary artery a pressure probe was implanted to digitally measure the pressure at the vessel sealing suture. After sealing the end of the artery, the vessel was slowly filled via an external source in order to determine the burst pressure. The burst pressure was reached as soon as the vessel suture started to leak. The average values of the 2 groups were then compared (t test for independent variables, significance set at p < 0.05). Results: All examined vessels (n = 107) had the same vessel diameter of 15 ± 3 mm. The average value of the burst pressure in group A was 139.3 ± 62.17 mmHg, that in group B 124.8 ± 38.46 mmHg. The ranges of burst pressures were in group A 51-297.0 mmHg und in group B 60.75-244.5 mmHg. There was no significant difference between group A and group B (p = 0.071). Conclusions: Satisfactory burst pressures in the central pulmonary artery can also be achieved with the bipolar sealing instrument MARSEAL® and the impedance-controlled Stromart SealSafe®. However, because of the large scattering of the measured values, further studies are required.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Study of distribution and influencing factors of arsenic in whole blood and urine among population in 8 provinces in China]

Authors: Ding, C; Pan, Y; Zhang, A; Wu, B; Huang, H; Zhu, C; Liu, D; Zhu, B; Xu, G; Shao, H; Peng, S; Jiang, X; Zhao, C; Han, C; Ji, H; Yu, S; Zhang, X; Zhang, L; Zheng, Y; Yan, H (2014) Zhonghua Yufang Yixue Zazhi 48:97-101. HERO ID: 2337172

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To evaluated the levels of arsenic (As) in blood and urine among general . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To evaluated the levels of arsenic (As) in blood and urine among general population in China and analyze its influencing factors.

METHODS: A total of 18 120 subjects from general population aged 6-60 years were recruited from 24 districts in 8 provinces in eastern, central and western China mainland from 2009 to 2010, by cluster random sampling method. Blood samples and urine samples were collected, the information of the life-style was collected by questionnaire.Inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry was applied to test the As level in the samples, and the distribution of As in blood and urine for different ages, genders, areas and life habits were then analyzed.

RESULTS: The geometric mean (GM) of blood As concentration among general population was 2.33 µg/L;the GM of blood As in male (2.35 µg/L) was higher than and female (2.30 µg/L) (Z = -1.42, P < 0.05); from eastern, central to western China, the blood As level were 2.94, 1.30 and 0.98 µg/L (χ(2) = 643.22, P < 0.05) , respectively; the GM in smokers (2.84 µg/L) was higher than non-smokers (2.27) (Z = -6.28, P < 0.05) ;the seafood consumer had a higher blood As level (2.59 µg/L) than people not consuming seafood (1.47 µg/L) (Z = -23.68, P < 0.05). The urine As level of the whole population was 13.72 µg/L;while its GM in male (14.10 µg/L) was higher than female (13.33 µg/L) (Z = -3.94, P < 0.05); the values from eastern, central to western China were 14.14, 16.02 and 9.57 µg/L (χ(2) = 353.89, P < 0.05), respectively;the level in smokers (16.06 µg/L) was higher than nonsmokers (13.70 µg/L) (Z = -2.63, P < 0.05); the level in seafood consumers (14.82 µg/L) was higher than people not consuming seafood (10.99 µg/L) (Z = -3.20, P < 0.05). The blood As level had a positive correlation with urine As level (correlation coefficient:0.285, P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: The As level in blood and urine varied by gender and area among general population in China, and related to life-styles. There was a positive correlation between As level in blood and that in urine.

Journal Article
Journal Article

[Protective effect of the use of Xuebijing injection during laparotomy on perioperative inflammatory response and organ function]

Authors: Zhou, X; Li, H; Xie, G; Fang, J; Lian, Y; Fang, X (2014) HERO ID: 2337256

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Xuebijing injection in inhibiting perioperative . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Xuebijing injection in inhibiting perioperative inflammatory responses and protecting the function of multiple organs.

METHODS: A single-blind, randomized, parallel controlled trial was conducted. 60 patients in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, aged 18 to 80 years, ASA gradeI-III, undergoing elective abdominal surgery, were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into the control group (n=30) and the treatment group (n=30). In the control group, after induction of anesthesia, a continuous infusion of 0.9% normal saline (NS) 200 mL was given in a speed of 2 mL/min, while a continuous infusion of Xuebijing 2 mL/kg in 100 mL of 0.9% NS was given at 2 mL/min in the treatment group after induction of anesthesia. The blood sample was drawn, and body temperature, routine blood test, C-reactive protein (CRP), liver and kidney function, fasting glucose (Glu), and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) levels were determined in all the patients before anesthesia (T1), at the end of operation (T2), 12 hours after operation (T3), or at 5:00 am on the third day after operation (T4). At the same time the adverse reactions were recorded for evaluation of the safety of Xuebijing.

RESULTS: After using Xuebijing injection, T3 body temperature and the T3-T1 temperature difference in treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (36.70±0.37 centigrade vs. 37.38±0.47 centigrade, t=6.199, P=0.000; 0.07±0.50 vs. 0.85±0.58, t=5.598, P=0.000). Postoperative white blood cell count, neutrophil percentage, and CRP were significantly higher than those before the operation, but the differences between two groups were not statistically significant. Compared with the control group, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total bilirubin (TBil) levels at T3 of treatment group were significantly reduced (ALT: 17.56±9.80 U/L vs. 88.60±179.76 U/L, AST: 27.53±13.12 U/L vs. 84.16±151.14 U/L, TBil: 15.46±9.79 μmol/L vs. 25.63±25.33 μmol/L, all P<0.05). Difference of conjugated bilirubin (CB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), Glu was not statistically significant between two groups. IL-6 showed an increasing trend after the operation in both groups, and IL-6 level at T2 of the treatment group was significantly lower than that of the control group (41.42±59.74 ng/L vs. 124.84±119.66 ng/L, t=3.405, P=0.001). The HMGB1 level of two groups at T4 were lower than those at T1, but it decreased significantly only in treatment group (22.03±15.73 μg/L vs. 45.09±33.79 μg/L, P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between two groups. No serious adverse events occurred during the clinical trial.

CONCLUSIONS: Application of Xuebijing injection during anesthesia can significantly diminish postoperative inflammatory injury, which plays an important role in the protection of liver function, helps restore organ function and improve prognosis, and it is safe and effective.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Acute promyelocytic leukaemia]

Authors: Reikvam, H; Hovland, R; Bruserud, O (2014) HERO ID: 2343442

[Less] BACKGROUND Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with unique . . . [More] BACKGROUND Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with unique biological and clinical features and unique therapeutic requirements. The article provides a brief description of the development, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of APL.METHOD The article is based on the authors' own experience and reviews of key articles and national and international guidelines.RESULTS The disease is caused by a single genetic event, namely the translocation t(15;17), which gives rise to the oncoprotein PML-RARA. Clinical and morphological characteristics arouse suspicion of the disease, and the diagnosis is verified by detecting the translocation. At the time of diagnosis most patients have severe coagulopathy and the predominant clinical manifestation is bleeding. Early mortality is due to severe haemorrhage, usually intracranial. Early treatment start with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on suspicion of APL is essential to reduce this early mortality. ATRA is also an important part of continued treatment, in combination with anthracycline-based chemotherapy and possibly arsenic. After this treatment, the prognosis for disease-free long-term survival is > 90 %. There are also safe and effective treatment options for elderly patients with complex comorbidities.INTERPRETATION With APL it is particularly important to start disease-targeting therapy in the form of ATRA quickly because of the high risk of serious haemorrhages and high early mortality. If serious haemorrhages are avoided, the prognosis is very good.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Palmoplantar dermatoses : When should genes be considered?]

Authors: Seebode, C; Schiller, S; Emmert, S; Giehl, K (2014) Der Hautarzt 65:499-512. HERO ID: 2345676

[Less] BACKGROUND: Palmoplantar dermatoses are common. They can be both functionally debilitating . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Palmoplantar dermatoses are common. They can be both functionally debilitating and markedly stigmatize the patient because they are so visible. Dermatoses on the hands and feet often go along with palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. Such palmoplantar keratoses (PPK) can be classified into acquired (non-hereditary) and hereditary (monogenetic) PPK.

OBJECTIVES: A considerable proportion of PPK develop on the grounds of gene defects. As these diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of quite uncommon single entities, the treating physician must know when to entertain the diagnosis of a hereditary PPK and which causative genes should be considered.

METHODS: We summarize the common causes of acquired and hereditary PPK based on a review of the latest literature.

RESULTS: The most common causes of acquired PPK are inflammatory dermatoses like psoriasis, lichen planus, or hand and feet eczema. Also irritative-toxic (arsenic poisoning, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and infectious causes of PPK (human papilloma viruses, syphilis, scabies, tuberculosis, mycoses) are not uncommon. Genetically caused PPK may occur isolated, within syndromes or as a paraneoplastic marker. The clinical/histological classification discerns diffuse, focal, or punctuate forms of PPK with and without epidermolysis. A new classification based on the causative gene defect is starting to replace the traditional clinical classification.

CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about the large, but heterogeneous group of hereditary PPK is important to adequately counsel and treat patients and their families.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Mycological profile of onychomycosis in Dakar (Senegal)]

Authors: Seck, MC; Ndiaye, D; Diongue, K; Ndiaye, M; Badiane, AS; Sow, D; Sylla, K; Tine, R; Ndiaye, JL; Faye, B; Ndir, O (2014) HERO ID: 2345712

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Onychomycosis are a mycose of nail due to fungi. According to published . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Onychomycosis are a mycose of nail due to fungi. According to published data, they stands for half of all nail abnormalities. This survey was carried out to determine the frequency and the fungi involved in onychomycosis in Dakar.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was carried out at the laboratory of parasitology and mycology at Le Dantec Hospital, in Senegal from January 2008 to December 2012 and includes 507 patients.

RESULTS: Onychomycosis were mycologically proved in 58.78% (298/507) of patients. Patient's age varies between 02 years to 82 years with a mean of 34.24 years. Women were more infected than men (sex-ratio was 2.38). Onychomycosis due to dermatophyte represented 37.92% (113/298) of patients and were essentially located on toes (60.71%). Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis was the most frequent clinical form. Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale were isolated respectively in 53.6% and 26.1% on toes. Yeasts represented 59.06% (176/298) of onychomycosis and were essentially located on fingernails (80.11%). Candida albicans represented 90.86% of isolated yeasts. Molds were isolated in nine cases (3.02%) and predominated in toenails.

CONCLUSION: Among 507 patients with onychopathy, this study identified 298 cases of onychomycosis. T. rubrum was the main dermatophytes and was isolated on toenails whereas on fingernails C. albicans was more often observed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in residential communities built on brownfields]

Authors: Chen, X; Ma, JH; Li, XN; Liu, DX; Li, YM (2014) Huanjing Kexue 35:1068-1074. HERO ID: 2345811

[Less] Nine residential communities which were built on different brownfields in a city of Henan Province were . . . [More] Nine residential communities which were built on different brownfields in a city of Henan Province were chosen to investigate the health risks of heavy metals (As, Hg, Cd, and Pb) in surface soils. Concentrations of soil heavy metals were measured according to the methods described in the national standard. Based on the health risk models recommended by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks of soil heavy metals were assessed. The results showed that compared with the original brownfields, the heavy metal concentrations in soils and their health risks in residential communities built on brownfields were significantly improved, and the concentrations and health risks of soil heavy metals in these communities were all higher than those in non-brownfield residential communities. The HQ and HI values of soil heavy metals in all the residential communities were lower than 1, which indicated that there was no non-carcinogenic risk in these communities. Meanwhile, the values of CR and TCR were slightly higher than the standard suggested by the US EPA, indicating that slight carcinogenic risks in the communities, but these values were lower than the lenient standard proposed by some experts. The HI value of the four metals for children was exactly seven times higher than that for adults. The contribution rate of HQ(As) to HI was about 75%, CR(AS) to TCR was about 80%, and therefore arsenic was the crucial factor for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk in the residential communities of the city.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Comparison of Phoenix™ Yeast ID Panel and API® ID 32C commercial systems for the identification of Candida species isolated from clinical samples]

Authors: Gayibova, U; Dalyan Cilo, B; Agca, H; Ener, B (2014) HERO ID: 2347572

[Less] Opportunistic fungal pathogens are one of the important causes of nosocomial infections, and several . . . [More] Opportunistic fungal pathogens are one of the important causes of nosocomial infections, and several different types of yeasts, especially Candida species are increasingly recovered from immunocompromised patients. Since many of the yeasts are resistant to the commonly used antifungal agents, the introduction of appropriate therapy depends on rapid and accurate identification. The aims of this study were to compare the commercial identification systems namely API® ID 32C (bioMerieux, France) and Phoenix™ Yeast ID Panel (Becton Dickinson Diagnostics, USA) for the identification of Candida species and to evaluate the effect of morphological findings in the identification process. A total of 211 yeast strains isolated from different clinical samples (111 urine, 34 blood/vascular catheter, 27 upper/lower respiratory tract, 16 abscess/pus, 13 throat/vagina swabs and 10 sterile body fluids) of 137 patients hospitalized in Uludag University Health and Research Center between October 2013 to January 2014, were included in the study. Samples were cultured on blood agar, chromogenic agar (CHROMagar Candida, BD, USA) and Saboraud's dextrose agar (SDA), and isolated yeast colonies were evaluated with germ tube test and morphological examination by microscopy on cornmeal/Tween-80 agar. The isolates were identified as well by two commercial systems according to the manufacturers' recommendations. Discrepant results between the systems were tried to be resolved by using morphological characteristics of the yeasts. Of the isolates 159 were identified identical by both of the systems, and the concordance between those systems were estimated as 75.4%. According to the concordant identification, the most frequently isolated species was C.albicans (44.1%) followed by C.tropicalis (9.9%), C.glabrata (9.5%), C.parapsilosis (8.5%) and C.kefyr (8.1%). The concordance rate was 81.7% in identification of frequently isolated species (C.albicans, C.tropicalis, C.parapsilosis, C.glabrata, C.kefyr), however it was 38.7% for the rarely isolated ones (C.krusei, C.lusitaniae, C.inconspicua/C.norvagensis, C.catenulata), representing statistical significance (p= 0.034; x2 test). Although not significant (p= 0.31; x2 test), the rate of concordance was increased (88.1%), when adding the morphological findings to the identification process. Of 211 isolates 37 (17.5%), 50 (23.7%) and 124 (58.8%) were identified according to their growth characteristics on chromogenic agar, blood agar and SDA, respectively, indicating no statistically significant difference between the media (p> 0.05). Although genotypic identification is essential, phenotypic methods are more commonly used in routine laboratories for the identification of yeast species. However, since genotypic identification could not be performed in this study, none of the systems were accepted as the standard method and therefore the sensitivity and specificity of the systems were not calculated. On the other hand, our data indicated that the two identification systems were comparable and careful observation of yeast morphology could add confidence to the identification. In conclusion, since the Phoenix™ Yeast ID system was found more practical with easier interpretation, and the results were obtained earlier than those of the API® ID 32C system (16 hours versus 48 hours), it was thought that Phoenix™ Yeast ID system may be used reliably in the routine laboratories. However, as none of the methods evaluated was completely reliable as a stand-alone, careful evaluation is necessary for species identification.