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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A periplasmic arsenite-binding protein involved in regulating arsenite oxidation

Authors: Liu, G; Liu, M; Kim, E-H; Matty, WS; Bothner, B; Lei, B; Rensing, C; Wang, G; McDermott, TR (In Press) Environmental Microbiology. HERO ID: 1003591

[Less] Arsenic (As) is the most common toxic element in the environment, ranking first on the Superfund List . . . [More] Arsenic (As) is the most common toxic element in the environment, ranking first on the Superfund List of Hazardous Substances. Microbial redox transformations are the principal drivers of As chemical speciation, which in turn dictates As mobility and toxicity. Consequently, in order to manage or remediate environmental As, land managers need to understand how and why microorganisms react to As. Studies have demonstrated a two-component signal transduction system comprised of AioS (sensor kinase) and AioR (response regulator) is involved in regulating microbial AsIII oxidation, with the AsIII oxidase structural genes aioB and aioA being upregulated by AsIII. However, it is not known whether AsIII is first detected directly by AioS or by an intermediate. Herein we demonstrate the essential role of a periplasmic AsIII-binding protein encoded by aioX, which is upregulated by AsIII. An ΔaioX mutant is defective for upregulation of the aioBA genes and consequently AsIII oxidation. Purified AioX expressed without its TAT-type signal peptide behaves as a monomer (MW 32 kDa), and Western blots show AioX to be exclusively associated with the cytoplasmic membrane. AioX binds AsIII with a K(D) of 2.4 µM AsIII; however, mutating a conserved Cys108 to either alanine or serine resulted in lack of AsIII binding, lack of aioBA induction, and correlated with a negative AsIII oxidation phenotype. The discovery and characterization of AioX illustrates a novel AsIII sensing mechanism that appears to be used in a range of bacteria and also provides one of the first examples of a bacterial signal anchor protein.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

ArxA, a new clade of arsenite oxidase within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum oxidoreductases

Authors: Zargar, K; Conrad, A; Bernick, DL; Lowe, TM; Stolc, V; Hoeft, S; Oremland, RS; Stolz, J; Saltikov, CW (In Press) Environmental Microbiology. HERO ID: 1015673

[Less] Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs . . . [More] Arsenotrophy, growth coupled to autotrophic arsenite oxidation or arsenate respiratory reduction, occurs only in the prokaryotic domain of life. The enzymes responsible for arsenotrophy belong to distinct clades within the DMSO reductase family of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductases: specifically arsenate respiratory reductase, ArrA, and arsenite oxidase, AioA (formerly referred to as AroA and AoxB). A new arsenite oxidase clade, ArxA, represented by the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1 was also identified in the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Ectothiorhodospira sp. strain PHS-1. A draft genome sequence of PHS-1 was completed and an arx operon similar to MLHE-1 was identified. Gene expression studies showed that arxA was strongly induced with arsenite. Microbial ecology investigation led to the identification of additional arxA-like sequences in Mono Lake and Hot Creek sediments, both arsenic-rich environments in California. Phylogenetic analyses placed these sequences as distinct members of the ArxA clade of arsenite oxidases. ArxA-like sequences were also identified in metagenome sequences of several alkaline microbial mat environments of Yellowstone National Park hot springs. These results suggest that ArxA-type arsenite oxidases appear to be widely distributed in the environment presenting an opportunity for further investigations of the contribution of Arx-dependent arsenotrophy to the arsenic biogeochemical cycle.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Members of rice plasma membrane intrinsic proteins subfamily are involved in arsenite permeability and tolerance in plants

Authors: Mosa, KA; Kumar, K; Chhikara, S; Mcdermott, J; Liu, Z; Musante, C; White, JC; Dhankher, OP (In Press) Transgenic Research. HERO ID: 1015734

[Less] Rice accumulates high level of arsenic (As) in its edible parts and thus plays an important role in . . . [More] Rice accumulates high level of arsenic (As) in its edible parts and thus plays an important role in the transfer of As into the food chain. However, the mechanisms of As uptake and its detoxification in rice are not well understood. Recently, members of the Nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily of plant aquaporins were shown to transport arsenite in rice and Arabidopsis. Here we report that members of the rice plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily are also involved in As tolerance and transport. Based on the homology search with the mammalian AQP9 and yeast Fps1 arsenite transporters, we identified and cloned five rice PIP gene subfamily members. qRT-PCR analysis of PIPs in rice root and shoot tissues revealed a significant down regulation of transcripts encoding OsPIP1;2, OsPIP1;3, OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in response to arsenite treatment. Heterologous expression of OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in Xenopus laevis oocytes significantly increased the uptake of arsenite. Overexpression of OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in Arabidopsis yielded enhanced arsenite tolerance and higher biomass accumulation. Further, these transgenic plants showed no significant accumulation of As in shoot and root tissues in long term uptake assays. Whereas, short duration exposure to arsenite caused both active influx and efflux of As in the roots. The data suggests a bidirectional arsenite permeability of rice PIPs in plants. These rice PIPs genes will be highly useful for engineering important food and biofuel crops for enhanced crop productivity on contaminated soils without increasing the accumulation of toxic As in the biomass or edible tissues.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic, organic foods, and brown rice syrup

Authors: Jackson, BP; Taylor, VF; Karagas, MR; Punshon, T; Cottingham, KL (In Press) Environmental Health Perspectives. HERO ID: 1015755

[Less] BACKGROUND: Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products are also used as ingredients in prepared foods, some of which may not be obviously rice-based. Organic brown rice syrup (OBRS) is used as a sweetener in organic food products as an alternative to high fructose corn syrup. We hypothesized that OBRS introduces arsenic into these products. OBJECTIVE: We determined the concentration and speciation of arsenic (As) in commercially available brown rice syrups, and in products containing OBRS including toddler formula, cereal/energy bars, and high energy foods used by endurance athletes. METHODS: We used ICP-MS and IC-ICP-MS to determine total As (Astotal) concentrations and As speciation in products purchased via the internet or in stores in the Hanover, NH area. DISCUSSION: We found that OBRS can contain high concentrations of Asi and dimethylarsenate (DMA). An 'organic' toddler milk formula containing OBRS as the primary ingredient had Astotal concentrations up to six times the EPA safe drinking water limit. Cereal bars and high energy foods containing OBRS also had higher As concentrations than equivalent products that did not contain OBRS. Inorganic As was the main As species in the majority of food products tested in this study. CONCLUSIONS: There are currently no US regulations applicable to As in food, but our findings suggest that the OBRS products we evaluated may introduce significant concentrations of Asi to an individual's diet. Thus, we conclude that there is an urgent need for regulatory limits on As in food.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Classification accuracy and cut point selection

Author: Liu, X (In Press) Statistics in Medicine. HERO ID: 1015791

[Less] In biomedical research and practice, quantitative tests or biomarkers are often used for diagnostic . . . [More] In biomedical research and practice, quantitative tests or biomarkers are often used for diagnostic or screening purposes, with a cut point established on the quantitative measurement to aid binary classification. This paper introduces an alternative to the traditional methods based on the Youden index and the closest-to-(0, 1) criterion for threshold selection. A concordance probability evaluating the classification accuracy of a dichotomized measure is defined as an objective function of the possible cut point. A nonparametric approach is used to search for the optimal cut point maximizing the objective function. The procedure is shown to perform well in a simulation study. Using data from a real-world study of arsenic-induced skin lesions, we apply the method to a measure of blood arsenic levels, selecting a cut point to be used as a warning threshold. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Oxidation of arsenite by two β-proteobacteria isolated from soil

Authors: Bachate, SP; Khapare, RM; Kodam, KM (In Press) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. HERO ID: 1003602

[Less] Two heterotrophic As(III)-oxidizing bacteria, SPB-24 and SPB-31 were isolated from garden soil. Based . . . [More] Two heterotrophic As(III)-oxidizing bacteria, SPB-24 and SPB-31 were isolated from garden soil. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain SPB-24 was closely related to genus Bordetella, and strain SPB-31 was most closely related to genus Achromobacter. Both strains exhibited high As(III) (15 mM for SPB-24 and 40 mM for SPB-31) and As(V) (>300 mM for both strains) resistance. Both strains oxidized 5 mM As(III) in minimal medium with oxidation rate of 554 and 558 μM h(-1) for SPB-24 and SPB-31, respectively. Washed cells of both strains oxidized As(III) over broad pH and temperature range with optimum pH 6 and temperature 42°C for both strains. The As(III) oxidation kinetic by washed cells showed K (m) and V (max) values of 41.7 μM and 1,166 μM h(-1) for SPB-24, 52 μM and 1,186 μM h(-1) for SPB-31. In the presence of minimal amount of carbon source, the strains showed high As(III) oxidation rate and high specific arsenite oxidase activity. The ability of strains to resist high concentration of arsenic and oxidize As(III) with highest rates reported so far makes them potential candidates for bioremediation of arsenic-contaminated environment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phytochelatins play a key role in arsenic accumulation and tolerance in the aquatic macrophyte Wolffia globosa

Authors: Zhang, X; Uroic, MK; Xie, W-Y; Zhu, Y-G; Chen, B-D; McGrath, SP; Feldmann, J; Zhao, F-J (In Press) Environmental Pollution. HERO ID: 1015678

[Less] The rootless duckweed Wolffia globosa can accumulate and tolerate relatively large amounts of arsenic . . . [More] The rootless duckweed Wolffia globosa can accumulate and tolerate relatively large amounts of arsenic (As); however, the underlying mechanisms were unknown. W. globosa was exposed to different concentrations of arsenate with or without l-buthionine sulphoximine (BSO), a specific inhibitor of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Free thiol compounds and As(III)-thiol complexes were identified and quantified using HPLC - high resolution ICP-MS - accurate mass ESI-MS. Without BSO, 74% of the As accumulated in the duckweed was complexed with phytochelatins (PCs), with As(III)-PC(4) and As(III)-PC(3) being the main species. BSO was taken up by the duckweed and partly deaminated. The BSO treatment completely suppressed the synthesis of PCs and the formation of As(III)-PC complexes, and also inhibited the reduction of arsenate to arsenite. BSO markedly decreased both As accumulation and As tolerance in W. globosa. The results demonstrate an important role of PCs in detoxifying As and enabling As accumulation in W. globosa.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Solution structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis NmtR in the Apo state: Insights into Ni(II)-mediated allostery

Authors: Lee, CW; Chakravorty, DK; Chang, F-MJ; Reyes-Caballero, H; Ye, Y; Merz, KM, Jr; Giedroc, DP (In Press) Biochemistry. HERO ID: 1015682

[Less] Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate human respiratory pathogen that encodes approximately 10 arsenic . . . [More] Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate human respiratory pathogen that encodes approximately 10 arsenic repressor (ArsR) family regulatory proteins that allow the organism to respond to a wide range of changes in its immediate microenvironment. How individual ArsR repressors have evolved to respond to selective stimuli is of intrinsic interest. The Ni(II)/Co(II)-specific repressor NmtR and related actinomycete nickel sensors harbor a conserved N-terminal α-NH(2)-Gly2-His3-Gly4 sequence. Here, we present the solution structure of homodimeric apo-NmtR and show that the core of the molecule adopts a typical winged-helix ArsR repressor (α1-α2-α3-αR-β1-β2-α5) "open conformation" that is similar to that of the related zinc sensor Staphylococcus aureus CzrA, but harboring long, flexible N-terminal (residues 2-16) and C-terminal (residues 109-120) extensions. Binding of Ni(II) to the regulatory sites induces strong paramagnetic broadening of the α5 helical region and the extreme N-terminal tail to residue 10. Ratiometric pulse chase amidination mass spectrometry reveals that the rate of amidination of the α-amino group of Gly2 is strongly attenuated in the Ni(II) complex relative to the apo state and noncognate Zn(II) complex. Ni(II) binding also induces dynamic disorder on the microsecond to millisecond time scale of key DNA interacting regions that likely contributes to the negative regulation of DNA binding by Ni(II). Molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations reveal that NmtR readily accommodates a distal Ni(II) hexacoordination model involving the α-amine and His3 of the N-terminal region and α5 residues Asp91', His93', His104, and His107, which collectively define a new metal sensing site configuration in ArsR family regulators.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ameliorative effect Trichosanthes dioica root against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in male albino rats

Authors: Bhattacharya, S; Haldar, PK (In Press) Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. HERO ID: 1015695

[Less] The present study evaluated the ameliorative potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Trichosanthes dioica . . . [More] The present study evaluated the ameliorative potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Trichosanthes dioica root (TDA) against arsenic induced toxicity in male albino rats. TDA (5 and 10mg/kg) was administered orally to rats for 20 consecutive days before oral administration of sodium arsenite (10mg/kg) for 8 days. Then the body weights, organ weights, haematological profiles, serum biochemical profile; hepatic and renal antioxidative parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and DNA fragmentation were evaluated. Pretreatment with TDA markedly and significantly normalized body weights, organ weights, haematological profiles, serum biochemical profile and significantly modulated all the hepatic and renal biochemical parameters and reduced DNA fragmentation in arsenic intoxicated rats. The present findings conclude that T. dioica root possessed remarkable ameliorative effect against arsenic induced organ toxicity in male albino rats mediated by alleviation of arsenic induced oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A real-time biomonitoring system to detect arsenic toxicity by valve movement in freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea

Authors: Chen, W-Y; Jou, L-J; Chen, S-H; Liao, C-M (In Press) Ecotoxicology. HERO ID: 1015725

[Less] Arsenic (As) is the element of greatest ecotoxicological concern in aquatic environments. Effective . . . [More] Arsenic (As) is the element of greatest ecotoxicological concern in aquatic environments. Effective monitoring and diagnosis of As pollution via a biological early warning system is a great challenge for As-affected regions. The purpose of this study was to synthesize water chemistry-based bioavailability and valve daily rhythm in Corbicula fluminea to design a biomonitoring system for detecting waterborne As. We integrated valve daily rhythm dynamic patterns and water chemistry-based Hill dose-response model to build into a programmatic mechanism of inductance-based valvometry technique for providing a rapid and cost-effective dynamic detection system. A LabVIEW graphic control program in a personal computer was employed to demonstrate completely the functional presentation of the present dynamic system. We verified the simulated dissolved As concentrations based on the valve daily rhythm behavior with published experimental data. Generally, the performance of this proposed biomonitoring system demonstrates fairly good applicability to detect waterborne As concentrations when the field As concentrations are less than 1 mg L-1. We also revealed that the detection times were dependent on As exposure concentrations. This biomonitoring system could particularly provide real-time transmitted information on the waterborne As activity under various aquatic environments. This parsimonious C. fluminea valve rhythm behavior-based real-time biomonitoring system presents a valuable effort to promote the automated biomonitoring and offers early warnings on potential ecotoxicological risks in regions with elevated As exposure concentrations.