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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Proteomic analysis of arsenite - Mediated multiple antibiotic resistance in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A

Authors: Mallik, S; Virdi, JS; Johri, AK (In Press) Journal of Basic Microbiology. HERO ID: 1003606

[Less] Arsenic is one of the most important global environmental pollutants. In the present study, fifty one . . . [More] Arsenic is one of the most important global environmental pollutants. In the present study, fifty one clinical strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A showed high resistance to arsenite and arsenate. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of arsenite (0.625-20 mM) was lower than arsenate (10-80 mM). Growth of Y. enterocolitica in 2 mM arsenite led to 2-8 fold increase in MICs of the five antibiotics (amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, kanamycin and tetracycline), suggesting expression of arsenite-induced multiple antibiotic resistance among the strains. Proteomic analysis of Y. enterocolitica revealed differential expression of certain proteins following arsenite exposure, which included a putative outer membrane porin (OmpA) and a putative amino acid transporter protein. In conclusion, modulation of membrane permeability may be involved in the induction of arsenite-mediated expression of multiple antibiotic resistance in Y. enterocolitica. (© 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A periplasmic arsenite-binding protein involved in regulating arsenite oxidation

Authors: Liu, G; Liu, M; Kim, E-H; Matty, WS; Bothner, B; Lei, B; Rensing, C; Wang, G; McDermott, TR (In Press) Environmental Microbiology. HERO ID: 1003591

[Less] Arsenic (As) is the most common toxic element in the environment, ranking first on the Superfund List . . . [More] Arsenic (As) is the most common toxic element in the environment, ranking first on the Superfund List of Hazardous Substances. Microbial redox transformations are the principal drivers of As chemical speciation, which in turn dictates As mobility and toxicity. Consequently, in order to manage or remediate environmental As, land managers need to understand how and why microorganisms react to As. Studies have demonstrated a two-component signal transduction system comprised of AioS (sensor kinase) and AioR (response regulator) is involved in regulating microbial AsIII oxidation, with the AsIII oxidase structural genes aioB and aioA being upregulated by AsIII. However, it is not known whether AsIII is first detected directly by AioS or by an intermediate. Herein we demonstrate the essential role of a periplasmic AsIII-binding protein encoded by aioX, which is upregulated by AsIII. An ΔaioX mutant is defective for upregulation of the aioBA genes and consequently AsIII oxidation. Purified AioX expressed without its TAT-type signal peptide behaves as a monomer (MW 32 kDa), and Western blots show AioX to be exclusively associated with the cytoplasmic membrane. AioX binds AsIII with a K(D) of 2.4 µM AsIII; however, mutating a conserved Cys108 to either alanine or serine resulted in lack of AsIII binding, lack of aioBA induction, and correlated with a negative AsIII oxidation phenotype. The discovery and characterization of AioX illustrates a novel AsIII sensing mechanism that appears to be used in a range of bacteria and also provides one of the first examples of a bacterial signal anchor protein.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Photovoltaic device on a single ZnO nanowire p-n homojunction

Authors: Cho, HD; Zakirov, AS; Yuldashev, SU; Ahn, CW; Yeo, YK; Kang, TW (In Press) Nanotechnology. HERO ID: 1015707

[Less] A photovoltaic device was successfully grown solely based on the single ZnO p-n homojunction nanowire. . . . [More] A photovoltaic device was successfully grown solely based on the single ZnO p-n homojunction nanowire. The ZnO nanowire p-n diode consists of an as-grown n-type segment and an in situ arsenic-doped p-type segment. This p-n homojunction acts as a good photovoltaic cell, producing a photocurrent almost 45 times larger than the dark current under reverse-biased conditions. Our results demonstrate that the present ZnO p-n homojunction nanowire can be used as a self-powered ultraviolet photodetector as well as a photovoltaic cell, which can also be used as an ultralow electrical power source for nanoscale electronic, optoelectronic and medical devices.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenate toxicity and stress responses in the freshwater ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis

Authors: Zhang, Y-Y; Yang, J; Yin, X-X; Yang, S-P; Zhu, Y-G (In Press) European Journal of Protistology. HERO ID: 1015745

[Less] The arsenic metabolism in different biological organisms has been studied extensively. However, little . . . [More] The arsenic metabolism in different biological organisms has been studied extensively. However, little is known about protozoa. Herein, we investigated the cell stress responses of the freshwater ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis to arsenate toxicity. An acute toxicity assay revealed an 18-h EC(50) arsenate concentration of ca. 40μM, which caused significant changes in the cell shape, growth and organism mobility. Whereas, under exposure to 30μM arsenate, T. pyriformis could grow reasonably well, indicating a certain resistance of this organism. Arsenic speciation analysis revealed that 94-98% of the total arsenate in cells of T. pyriformis could be transformed to monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid and a small proportion of arsenite after 18h of arsenate exposure, thus indicating the major detoxification pathway by arsenic oxidation/reduction and biomethylation. Finally, comparative proteomic analysis unveiled significant changes in the expression of multiple proteins involved in anti-oxidation, sugar and energy metabolism, proteolysis, and signal transduction. Our results revealed multiple pathways of arsenate detoxification in T. pyriformis, and indicated that protozoa may play important roles in the biogeochemical cycles of arsenic.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Field Testing of Arsenic in Groundwater Samples of Bangladesh Using a Test Kit Based on Lyophilized Bioreporter Bacteria

Authors: Siegfried, K; Endes, C; Bhuiyan, AF; Kuppardt, A; Mattusch, J; van der Meer, JR; Chatzinotas, A; Harms, H (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1015751

[Less] A test kit based on living, lyophilized bacterial bioreporters emitting bioluminescence as a response . . . [More] A test kit based on living, lyophilized bacterial bioreporters emitting bioluminescence as a response to arsenite and arsenate was applied during a field campaign in six villages across Bangladesh. Bioreporter field measurements of arsenic in groundwater from tube wells were in satisfying agreement with the results of spectroscopic analyses of the same samples conducted in the lab. The practicability of the bioreporter test in terms of logistics and material requirements, suitability for high sample throughput, and waste disposal was much better than that of two commercial chemical test kits that were included as references. The campaigns furthermore demonstrated large local heterogeneity of arsenic in groundwater, underscoring the use of well switching as an effective remedy to avoid high arsenic exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Solution structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis NmtR in the Apo state: Insights into Ni(II)-mediated allostery

Authors: Lee, CW; Chakravorty, DK; Chang, F-MJ; Reyes-Caballero, H; Ye, Y; Merz, KM, Jr; Giedroc, DP (In Press) Biochemistry. HERO ID: 1015682

[Less] Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate human respiratory pathogen that encodes approximately 10 arsenic . . . [More] Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an obligate human respiratory pathogen that encodes approximately 10 arsenic repressor (ArsR) family regulatory proteins that allow the organism to respond to a wide range of changes in its immediate microenvironment. How individual ArsR repressors have evolved to respond to selective stimuli is of intrinsic interest. The Ni(II)/Co(II)-specific repressor NmtR and related actinomycete nickel sensors harbor a conserved N-terminal α-NH(2)-Gly2-His3-Gly4 sequence. Here, we present the solution structure of homodimeric apo-NmtR and show that the core of the molecule adopts a typical winged-helix ArsR repressor (α1-α2-α3-αR-β1-β2-α5) "open conformation" that is similar to that of the related zinc sensor Staphylococcus aureus CzrA, but harboring long, flexible N-terminal (residues 2-16) and C-terminal (residues 109-120) extensions. Binding of Ni(II) to the regulatory sites induces strong paramagnetic broadening of the α5 helical region and the extreme N-terminal tail to residue 10. Ratiometric pulse chase amidination mass spectrometry reveals that the rate of amidination of the α-amino group of Gly2 is strongly attenuated in the Ni(II) complex relative to the apo state and noncognate Zn(II) complex. Ni(II) binding also induces dynamic disorder on the microsecond to millisecond time scale of key DNA interacting regions that likely contributes to the negative regulation of DNA binding by Ni(II). Molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations reveal that NmtR readily accommodates a distal Ni(II) hexacoordination model involving the α-amine and His3 of the N-terminal region and α5 residues Asp91', His93', His104, and His107, which collectively define a new metal sensing site configuration in ArsR family regulators.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reversible inhibition of Co(2) fixation by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase through the synergic effect of arsenite and a monothiol

Authors: Sudhani, HPK; García-Murria, M-J; Moreno, J (In Press) Plant, Cell and Environment. HERO ID: 1337298

[Less] The activity of the photosynthetic carbon-fixing enzyme, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase . . . [More] The activity of the photosynthetic carbon-fixing enzyme, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), is partially inhibited by arsenite in the millimolar concentration range. However, micromolar arsenite can fully inhibit Rubisco in the presence of a potentiating monothiol such as cysteine, cysteamine, 2-mercaptoethanol or N-acetylcysteine, but not glutathione. Arsenite reacts specifically with the vicinal Cys172-Cys192 from the large subunit of Rubisco and with the monothiol to establish a ternary complex which is suggested to be a trithioarsenical. The stability of the complex is strongly dependent on the nature of the monothiol. Enzyme activity is fully recovered through the disassembly of the complex after eliminating arsenite and/or the thiol from the medium. The synergic combination of arsenite and a monothiol acts also in vivo stopping carbon dioxide fixation in illuminated cultures of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Again, this effect may be reverted by washing the cells. However, in vivo inhibition does not result from the blocking of Rubisco since mutant strains carrying Rubiscos with Cys172 and/or Cys192 substitutions (which are insensitive to arsenite in vitro) are also arrested. This suggests the existence of a specific sensor controlling carbon fixation that is even more sensitive than Rubisco to the arsenite-thiol synergism.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evidence of associations of APOBEC3B gene deletion with susceptibility to persistent HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma

Authors: Zhang, T; Cai, J; Chang, J; Yu, D; Wu, C; Yan, T; Zhai, K; Bi, X; Zhao, H; Xu, J; Tan, W; Qu, C; Lin, D (In Press) HERO ID: 1337302

[Less] APOBEC3s are a family of cytidine deaminases involved in innate cellular immunity against virus including . . . [More] APOBEC3s are a family of cytidine deaminases involved in innate cellular immunity against virus including hepatitis B virus (HBV). A germline deletion across APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B (A3B) genes results in complete removal of the A3B coding region and destroys A3B expression. To determine whether this deletion affects susceptibility to HBV infection and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), A3B genotypes were analyzed in 1,124 individuals with HCC, 510 individuals with persistent HBV infection and 826 healthy controls and the association was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) computed by logistic regression. We also examined the effects of APOBEC3B on HBV genome hypermutation and replication in HCC cells. We observed a significantly higher frequency of the A3B deletion allele in persistent HBV carriers (33.3%; P=0.0015) and HCC patients (37.9%; P=1.28×10(-11)) compared with that in controls (27.5%). An increased risk for persistent HBV infection (OR=1.35, 95% CI, 1.03-1.77) and HCC development (OR=1.90, 95% CI, 1.58-2.28) was associated with at least one A3B deletion allele (+/- or -/- genotype) compared with the +/+ genotype. Transfection of A3B in HepG2 cells caused a substantial reduction of HBV RNA levels and G→A hypermutation in HBV genome. Interestingly, a cytidine deaminase null mutant of A3B (E255A) also inhibited HBV RNA production although it was unable to edit HBV. These results suggest that deletion of A3B attenuates HBV clearance, which in turn may result in persistent HBV infection and increased risk for developing HCC. Further studies are needed to verify our findings.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

F18-FDG-PET/CT thyroid incidentalomas: A wide retrospective analysis in three Italian centres on the significance of focal uptake and SUV value

Authors: Bertagna, F; Treglia, G; Piccardo, A; Giovannini, E; Bosio, G; Biasiotto, G; Bahij, EK; Maroldi, R; Giubbini, R (In Press) Endocrine. HERO ID: 1337356

[Less] Thyroid incidental uptake is defined as a thyroid uptake incidentally and newly detected by imaging . . . [More] Thyroid incidental uptake is defined as a thyroid uptake incidentally and newly detected by imaging techniques performed for an unrelated purpose and especially for non-thyroid diseases. Aim of the study was to establish the prevalence and pathological nature of focal thyroid incidentalomas detected at F18-FDG-PET/CT in patients studied for oncological purposes and not for thyroid disease. Secondary end point was to establish a possible maximum standardised uptake value cut-off over which a malignant lesion should be suspected. We have retrospectively evaluated 49519 patients who underwent F18-FDG-PET/CT for oncologic purposes in three Nuclear Medicine Centres (N.1 = 11278, N.2 = 31076, N.3 = 7165). A focal incidental thyroid uptake was diagnosed in 729 (1.5 %) patients (287-39.4 % male and 442-60.6 % female; average age: 65.26). Of 729 thyroid incidentalomas 211 (28.9 %) underwent further investigation to determine the nature of the nodule; 124/211 (58.8 %) incidentalomas were benign, 72/211 (34.1 %) malignant, 4/211 (1.9 %) non-diagnostic at cytological examination in the absence of surgery and histological evaluation and 11/211 (5.2 %) were indeterminate at cytological examination. A centre-based receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis of the patients with a definitive diagnosis was performed to identify a SUVmax cut-off useful in differentiating benign from malignant incidentalomas. In the centre N.1 it was 4.8 (sensitivity = 95.7 %, specificity = 46.4 %, area under the curve = 0.758); 5.3 in the centre N.2 (sensitivity = 76.3 %, specificity = 72.5 %, area under the curve = 0.815); 7 in the centre N.3 (sensitivity = 57.1 %, specificity = 79.3 %, area under the curve = 0.627). F18-FDG-PET/CT thyroid incidentalomas are a relevant diagnostic reality which requires further investigations and clinical management especially considering that, despite mainly benign, approximately one third of focal thyroid uptakes are malignant.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenite interferes with protein folding and triggers formation of protein aggregates in yeast

Authors: Jacobson, T; Navarrete, C; Sharma, SK; Sideri, TC; Ibstedt, S; Priya, S; Grant, CM; Christen, P; Goloubinoff, P; Tamás, MJ (In Press) Journal of Cell Science. HERO ID: 1339148

[Less] Several metals and metalloids profoundly affect biological systems, but their impact on the proteome . . . [More] Several metals and metalloids profoundly affect biological systems, but their impact on the proteome and mechanisms of toxicity are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that arsenite causes protein aggregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Various molecular chaperones were found to be associated with arsenite-induced aggregates indicating that this metalloid promotes protein misfolding. Using in vivo and in vitro assays, we show that proteins in the process of synthesis/folding are particularly sensitive to arsenite-induced aggregation, that arsenite interferes with protein folding by acting on unfolded polypeptides, and that arsenite directly inhibits chaperone activity. Thus, folding inhibition contributes to arsenite toxicity in two ways: by aggregate formation and by chaperone inhibition. Importantly, arsenite-induced protein aggregates can act as seeds committing other, labile proteins to misfold and aggregate. Our findings describe a novel mechanism of toxicity that may explain the suggested role of this metalloid in the etiology and pathogenesis of protein folding disorders associated with arsenic poisoning.