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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Members of rice plasma membrane intrinsic proteins subfamily are involved in arsenite permeability and tolerance in plants

Authors: Mosa, KA; Kumar, K; Chhikara, S; Mcdermott, J; Liu, Z; Musante, C; White, JC; Dhankher, OP (In Press) Transgenic Research. HERO ID: 1015734

[Less] Rice accumulates high level of arsenic (As) in its edible parts and thus plays an important role in . . . [More] Rice accumulates high level of arsenic (As) in its edible parts and thus plays an important role in the transfer of As into the food chain. However, the mechanisms of As uptake and its detoxification in rice are not well understood. Recently, members of the Nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily of plant aquaporins were shown to transport arsenite in rice and Arabidopsis. Here we report that members of the rice plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily are also involved in As tolerance and transport. Based on the homology search with the mammalian AQP9 and yeast Fps1 arsenite transporters, we identified and cloned five rice PIP gene subfamily members. qRT-PCR analysis of PIPs in rice root and shoot tissues revealed a significant down regulation of transcripts encoding OsPIP1;2, OsPIP1;3, OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in response to arsenite treatment. Heterologous expression of OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in Xenopus laevis oocytes significantly increased the uptake of arsenite. Overexpression of OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in Arabidopsis yielded enhanced arsenite tolerance and higher biomass accumulation. Further, these transgenic plants showed no significant accumulation of As in shoot and root tissues in long term uptake assays. Whereas, short duration exposure to arsenite caused both active influx and efflux of As in the roots. The data suggests a bidirectional arsenite permeability of rice PIPs in plants. These rice PIPs genes will be highly useful for engineering important food and biofuel crops for enhanced crop productivity on contaminated soils without increasing the accumulation of toxic As in the biomass or edible tissues.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mass Arsenic Poisoning and the Public Health Response in Maine

Authors: Mills, DA; Tomassoni, AJ; Tallon, LA; Kade, KA; Savoia, ES (In Press) Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness. HERO ID: 1017315

[Less] Created in the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, Maine's Office of Public Health Emergency . . . [More] Created in the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, Maine's Office of Public Health Emergency Preparedness within the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention undertook a major reorganization of epidemiology and laboratory services and began developing relationships with key partners and stakeholders, and a knowledgeable and skilled public health emergency preparedness workforce. In 2003, these newly implemented initiatives were tested extensively during a mass arsenic poisoning at the Gustav Adolph Lutheran Church in the rural northern community of New Sweden, Maine. This episode serves as a prominent marker of how increased preparedness capabilities, as demonstrated by the rapid identification and administration of antidotes and effective collaborations between key partners, can contribute to the management of broader public health emergencies in rural areas.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Transport routes of metalloids into and out of the cell: A review of the current knowledge

Authors: Zangi, R; Filella, M (In Press) Chemico-Biological Interactions. [Review] HERO ID: 1015719

[Less] Except for their extra- and intra-cellular interfaces, cell membranes are hydrophobic and inhibit the . . . [More] Except for their extra- and intra-cellular interfaces, cell membranes are hydrophobic and inhibit the transport of hydrophilic molecules. Metalloids in aqueous solutions form chemical species with oxygen and hydroxyl groups and, therefore, exist as hydrophilic neutral polar solutes or as hydrophilic anions. This characteristic of metalloids introduces a large barrier for their passage through the cell membrane via unaided diffusion. The necessity for an uptake mechanism for metalloids arises from the requirement of these species for the maintenance of life, such as the need of boron for plant cells. Conversely, the transport of these species out of the cell is necessary because some metalloids are toxic, such as arsenic and antimony, and their entrance into the cell is undesirable. The undesired uptake of these toxic species is possible via pathways designed for the uptake of other structurally and chemically similar essential compounds. Therefore, the extrusion of arsenic and antimony out of the cell is an example of a detoxification mechanism. As a consequence of the hydrophobic character of the cell membrane in all living systems, the main route for the uptake and efflux of metalloids is facilitated by transmembrane proteins, driven either by concentration gradients or by energy-fueled pumps. However, metalloids forming or embedded in nano-sized particles escape the need to cross the cell membrane because these particles can be taken into the cell by endocytosis. Here, we review the uptake and efflux pathways of boron, silicon, arsenic, and antimony through the cell membranes of different organisms and the protein channels involved in these processes. In particular, passive diffusion via aquaglyceroporins, active transport via primary and secondary ion pumps, extrusion into vacuoles of metalloid-thiol conjugates via ATP-binding cassette, the efflux of methylated metalloids, and endocytosis are summarized.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Long-Term Prospective Study of 6104 Survivors of Arsenic Poisoning During Infancy Due to Contaminated Milk Powder in 1955

Authors: Tanaka, H; Tsukuma, H; Oshima, A (In Press) Journal of Epidemiology. HERO ID: 710977

[Less] Background: In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning caused by ingestion of arsenic-contaminated dry . . . [More] Background: In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning caused by ingestion of arsenic-contaminated dry milk occurred in western Japan. We assessed the excess mortality among Japanese who were poisoned during this episode as infants.Methods: We identified and enrolled 6104 survivors (mean age at enrollment, 27.4 years) who had ingested contaminated milk when they were age 2 years or younger; they were followed until 2006 (mean duration of follow-up, 24.3 years). Death certificates of subjects who died between 1982 and 2006 were examined to calculate cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) using the mortality rate among Osaka residents as the standard.Results: There was no significant excess overall mortality (SMR: 1.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.0-1.2). However, significant excess mortality in both sexes was observed from diseases of the nervous system (3.7, 1.9-6.2). Excess mortality from all causes of death decreased to unity beyond 10 years after study enrollment. The 408 men who were unemployed at the time of enrollment in the study had a significantly elevated risk of death from diseases of the nervous system (25.3, 10.8-58.8), respiratory diseases (8.6, 3.1-16.8), circulatory diseases (3.2, 1.6-5.2), and external causes (2.6, 1.4-4.1).Conclusions: As compared with the general population, survivors of arsenic poisoning during infancy had a significantly higher mortality risk from diseases of the nervous system.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Technological options for the removal of arsenic with special reference to South East Asia

Authors: Jain, CK; Singh, RD (In Press) Journal of Environmental Management. [Review] HERO ID: 1070320

[Less] Arsenic contamination in ground water, used for drinking purpose, has been envisaged as a problem of . . . [More] Arsenic contamination in ground water, used for drinking purpose, has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. However, arsenic contamination of ground water in parts of South East Asia is assuming greater proportions and posing a serious threat to the health of millions of people. A variety of treatment technologies based on oxidation, co-precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange and membrane process are available for the removal of arsenic from ground water. However, question remains regarding the efficiency and applicability/appropriateness of the technologies, particularly because of low influent arsenic concentration and differences in source water composition. Some of these methods are quite simple, but the disadvantage associated with them is that they produce large amounts of toxic sludge, which needs further treatment before disposal into the environment. Besides, the system must be economically viable and socially acceptable. In this paper an attempt has been made to review and update the recent advances made in the technological development in arsenic removal technologies to explore the potential of those advances to address the problem of arsenic contamination in South East Asia.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary excretion of platinum, arsenic and selenium of cancer patients from the Antofagasta region in Chile treated with platinum-based drugs

Authors: Román, DA; Pizarro, I; Rivera, L; Torres, C; Avila, J; Cortés, P; Gill, M (In Press) BMC Research Notes. HERO ID: 1070367

[Less] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure increases the risk of non-cancerous and cancerous diseases. In . . . [More] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure increases the risk of non-cancerous and cancerous diseases. In the Antofagasta region in Chile, an established relationship exists between arsenic exposure and the risk of cancer of the bladder, lung and skin. Platinum-based drugs are first-line treatments, and many works recognise selenium as a cancer-fighting nutrient. We characterised the short-term urinary excretion amounts of arsenic, selenium and platinum in 24-h urine samples from patients with lung cancer and those with cancer other than lung treated with cisplatin or/and carboplatin. As - Se - Pt inter-element relationships were also investigated. RESULTS: The amounts of platinum excreted in urine were not significantly different between patients with lung cancer and those with other cancers treated with cisplatin, despite the significant variation in platinum amounts supplied from platinum-based drugs. In general, the analytical amounts of excreted selenium were greater than those for arsenic, which could imply that platinum favours the excretion of selenium. For other types of cancers treated with drugs without platinum, excretion of selenium was also greater than that of arsenic, suggesting an antagonist selenium-anti-cancer drug relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Regards the baseline status of patients, the analytical amounts of excreted Se is greater than those for As, particularly, for cisplatin chemotherapy. This finding could imply that for over the As displacement Pt favours the excretion of Se. The analytical amounts of excreted Se were greater than those for As, either with and without Pt-containing drugs, suggesting an antagonist Se-anti-cancer drug relationship. However, it seemed that differences existed between As - Se - Pt inter-element associations in patients treated for lung cancer in comparison with those treated for cancer other than lung. Therefore, knowledge obtained in this work, can contribute to understanding the arsenic cancer mechanism and the As - Se - Pt inter-element association for lung cancer and other types of cancer, which in some cases respond at a linear mathematical model.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and trophic transfer of arsenic in the aquatic food chain

Authors: Azizur Rahman, M; Hasegawa, H; Lim, RP (In Press) Environmental Research. [Review] HERO ID: 1070386

[Less] The occurrence, distribution, speciation, and biotransformation of arsenic in aquatic environment (marine . . . [More] The occurrence, distribution, speciation, and biotransformation of arsenic in aquatic environment (marine and freshwater) have been studied extensively by several research groups during last couple of decades. However, most of those studies have been conducted in marine waters, and the results are available in a number of reviews. Speciation, bioaccumulation, and biotransformation of arsenic in freshwaters have been studied in recent years. Although inorganic arsenic (iAs) species dominates in both marine and freshwaters, it is biotransformed to methyl and organoarsenic species by aquatic organisms. Phytoplankton is considered as a major food source for the organisms of higher trophic levels in the aquatic food chain, and this autotrophic organism plays important role in biotransformation and distribution of arsenic species in the aquatic environment. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic by phytoplankton, and trophic transfer of arsenic in marine and freshwater food chains have been important concerns because of possible human health effects of the toxic metalloid from dietary intake. To-date, most of the studies on arsenic biotransformation, speciation, and trophic transfer have focused on marine environments; little is known about these processes in freshwater systems. This article has been reviewed the bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and trophic transfer of arsenic in marine and freshwater food chain.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[6]-Gingerol isolated from ginger attenuates sodium arsenite induced oxidative stress and plays a corrective role in improving insulin signaling in mice

Authors: Chakraborty, D; Mukherjee, A; Sikdar, S; Paul, A; Ghosh, S; Khuda-Bukhsh, AR (In Press) Toxicology Letters. HERO ID: 1015815

[Less] Arsenic toxicity induces type 2 diabetes via stress mediated pathway. In this study, we attempt to reveal . . . [More] Arsenic toxicity induces type 2 diabetes via stress mediated pathway. In this study, we attempt to reveal how sodium arsenite (iAs) could induce stress mediated impaired insulin signaling in mice and if an isolated active fraction of ginger, [6]-gingerol could attenuate the iAs intoxicated hyperglycemic condition of mice and bring about improvement in their impaired insulin signaling. [6]-Gingerol treatment reduced elevated blood glucose level and oxidative stress by enhancing activity of super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and GSH. [6]-Gingerol also helped in increasing plasma insulin level, brought down after iAs exposure. iAs treatment to primary cell culture of β-cells and hepatocytes in vitro produced cyto-degenerative effect and accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes of mice. [6]-Gingerol appeared to inhibit/intervene iAs induced cyto-degeneration of pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes, helped in scavenging the free radicals. The over-expression of TNFα and IL6 in iAs intoxicated mice was down-regulated by [6]-gingerol treatment. iAs intoxication reduced expression levels of GLUT4, IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3K, AKT, PPARγ signaling molecules; [6]-gingerol mediated its action through enhancing the expressions of these signaling molecules, both at protein and mRNA levels. Thus, our results suggest that [6]-gingerol possesses an anti-hyperglycemic property and can improve impaired insulin signaling in arsenic intoxicated mice.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic in the human food chain: The Latin American perspective

Authors: Bundschuh, J; Nath, B; Bhattacharya, P; Liu, C-W; Armienta, MA; Moreno López, MV; Lopez, DL; Jean, J-S; Cornejo, L; Lauer Macedo, LF; Filho, AT (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. [Review] HERO ID: 1021992

[Less] Many regions of Latin America are widely reported for the occurrence of high arsenic (As) in groundwater . . . [More] Many regions of Latin America are widely reported for the occurrence of high arsenic (As) in groundwater and surface water due to a combination of geological processes and/or anthropogenic activities. In this paper, we review the available literature (both in English and Spanish languages) to delineate human As exposure pathways through the food chain. Numerous studies show that As accumulations in edible plants and crops are mainly associated with the presence of high As in soils and irrigation waters. However, factors such as As speciation, type and composition of soil, and plant species have a major control on the amount of As uptake. Areas of high As concentrations in surface water and groundwater show high As accumulations in plants, fish/shellfish, livestock meat, milk and cheese. Such elevated As concentrations in food may result in widespread health risks to local inhabitants, including health of indigenous populations and residents living close to mining industries. Some studies show that As can be transferred from the water to prepared meals, thereby magnifying the As content in the human diet. Arsenic speciation might also change during food preparation, especially during high temperature cooking, such as grilling and frying. Finally, the review of the available literature demonstrates the necessity of more rigorous studies in evaluating pathways of As exposure through the human food chain in Latin America.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic contamination of coarse-grained and nanostructured nitinol surfaces induced by chemical treatment in hydrofluoric acid

Authors: Korotin, DM; Bartkowski, S; Kurmaev, EZ; Borchers, C; Müller, M; Neumann, M; Gunderov, DV; Valiev, RZ; Cholakh, SO (In Press) Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B: Applied Biomaterials. HERO ID: 1255514

[Less] XPS measurements of coarse-grained and nanostructured nitinol (Ni(50.2) Ti(49.8) ) before and after . . . [More] XPS measurements of coarse-grained and nanostructured nitinol (Ni(50.2) Ti(49.8) ) before and after chemical treatment in hydrofluoric acid (40% HF, 1 min) are presented. The nanostructured state, providing the excellent mechanical properties of nitinol, is achieved by severe plastic deformation. The near-surface layers of nitinol were studied by XPS depth profiling. According to the obtained results, a chemical treatment in hydrofluoric acid reduces the thickness of the protective TiO(2) oxide layer and induces a nickel release from the nitinol surface and an arsenic contamination, and can therefore not be recommended as conditioning to increase the roughness of NiTi-implants. A detailed evaluation of the resulting toxicological risks is given.