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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Augmenting effects of gestational arsenite exposure of C3H mice on the hepatic tumors of the F2 male offspring via the F1 male offspring

Authors: Nohara, K; Okamura, K; Suzuki, T; Murai, H; Ito, T; Shinjo, K; Takumi, S; Michikawa, T; Kondo, Y; Hata, K (2015) Journal of Applied Toxicology 36:105-112. HERO ID: 2854728

[Less] Gestational exposure can affect the F2 generation through exposure of F1 germline cells. Previous studies . . . [More] Gestational exposure can affect the F2 generation through exposure of F1 germline cells. Previous studies reported that arsenite exposure of only F0 females during their pregnancy increases hepatic tumors in the F1 males in C3H mice, whose males are predisposed spontaneously to develop hepatic tumors later in life. The present study addressed the effects of gestational arsenite exposure on tumorigenesis of the F2 males in C3H mice. Expression analysis of several genes in the normal livers at 53 and 80 weeks of age clearly showed significant changes in the F2 males obtained by crossing gestational arsenite-exposed F1 (arsenite-F1 ) males and females compared to the control F2 males. Some of the changes were shown to occur in a late-onset manner. Then the tumor incidence was assessed at 75-82 weeks of age in the F2 males obtained by reciprocal crossing between the control and arsenite-F1 males and females. The results demonstrated that the F2 males born to arsenite-F1 males developed tumors at a significantly higher rate than the F2 males born to the control F1 males, irrespective of exposure of F1 females. Gene expressions of hepatocellular carcinoma markers β-catenin (CTNNB1) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in the tumors were significantly upregulated in the F2 males born to arsenite-F1 males compared to those born to the control F1 males. These results show that arsenite exposure of only F0 pregnant mice causes late-onset changes and augments tumors in the livers of the F2 males by affecting the F1 male offspring. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Locomotor activity and sensory-motor developmental alterations in rat offspring exposed to arsenic prenatally and via lactation

Authors: Gumilar, F; Lencinas, I; Bras, C; Giannuzzi, L; Minetti, A (2015) Neurotoxicology and Teratology 49:1-9. HERO ID: 2821992

[Less] Arsenic (As) is one of the most toxic naturally occurring contaminants in the environment. The major . . . [More] Arsenic (As) is one of the most toxic naturally occurring contaminants in the environment. The major source of human exposure to inorganic As (iAs) is through contaminated drinking water. Although both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity derived from this metalloid have been thoroughly studied, the effects of iAs on the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS) have received less attention and only a few studies have focused on neurobehavioral effects. Thus, in order to characterize developmental and behavioral alterations induced by iAs exposure, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 0.05 and 0.10mg/L iAs through drinking water during gestation and lactation. Sensory-motor reflexes in each pup were analyzed and the postnatal day when righting reflex, cliff aversion and negative geotaxis were observed was recorded. Functional Observational Battery (FOB) and locomotor activity in an open field were assessed in 90-day-old offspring. Results show that rats exposed to low iAs concentrations through drinking water during early development evidence a delay in the development of sensory-motor reflexes. Both FOB procedure and open-field tests showed a decrease in locomotor activity in adult rats. This study reveals that exposure to the above-mentioned iAs concentrations produces dysfunction in the CNS mechanisms whose role is to regulate motor and sensory development and locomotor activity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure to sodium arsenite alters placental glucose 1, 3, and 4 transporters in Balb/c mice

Authors: Sarahi Gutierrez-Torres, D; Gonzalez-Horta, C; Maria Del Razo, Luz; Infante-Ramirez, R; Ramos-Martinez, E; Levario-Carrillo, M; Sanchez-Ramirez, B (2015) BioMed Research International 2015:175025. HERO ID: 3005178

[Less] Inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure induces a decrease in glucose type 4 transporter (GLUT4) expression . . . [More] Inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure induces a decrease in glucose type 4 transporter (GLUT4) expression on the adipocytemembrane, which may be related to premature births and low birth weight infants in women exposed to iAs at reproductive age. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) exposure on GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4 protein expression and on placental morphology. Female Balb/c mice (n = 15) were exposed to 0, 12, and 20 ppm of NaAsO2 in drinking water from 8th to 18th day of gestation. Morphological changes and GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4 expression were evaluated in placentas by immunohistochemical and image analysis and correlated with iAs and arsenical species concentration, which were quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. NaAsO2 exposure induced a significant decrease in fetal and placental weight (P < 0.01) and increases in infarctions and vascular congestion. Whereas GLUT1 expression was unchanged in placentas from exposed group, GLUT3 expression was found increased. In contrast, GLUT4 expression was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in placentas from females exposed to 12 ppm. The decrease in placental GLUT4 expression might affect the provision of adequate fetal nutrition and explain the low fetal weight observed in the exposed groups.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Behavioral and general effects of subacute oral arsenic exposure in rats with and without fluoride

Authors: Sárközi, K; Horváth, E; Vezér, T; Papp, A; Paulik, E (2014) International Journal of Environmental Health Research 25:1-14. HERO ID: 2520828

[Less] Consequences of oral arsenic and fluoride exposure on motor behavior and general toxicity were modeled . . . [More] Consequences of oral arsenic and fluoride exposure on motor behavior and general toxicity were modeled in young adult male rats which received sodium (meta)arsenite (10 mg/kg b.w.), sodium fluoride (5 mg/kg b.w.), and their combination by gavage, once daily, 5 days a week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, 6 animals per group were dissected, while the other 6 were kept for 6 more weeks untreated. Body weight, together with food and water consumption, was measured daily. Arsenic, alone or along with fluoride, caused significant decrease in rearing, and increase in immobility and local activity in the open field in the 3rd and 6th week. By the 12th week, these changes mostly diminished. Weight gain, and food and water consumption were significantly reduced by arsenic but normalized post treatment. Fluoride had no own effect and mostly no influence on effects of arsenic. Massive deposition of arsenic in the rats' blood, cerebral cortex, and liver by the 6th week, and partial elimination by the 12th week, was seen. The results underline the risk of neuro-functional damage by arsenic and call for further investigations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal sodium arsenite affects early development of serotonergic neurons in the fetal rat brain

Authors: Senuma, M; Mori, C; Ogawa, T; Kuwagata, M (2014) International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 38:204-212. HERO ID: 2773337

[Less] Prenatal arsenite exposure has been associated with developmental disorders in children, including reduced . . . [More] Prenatal arsenite exposure has been associated with developmental disorders in children, including reduced IQ and language abnormalities. Animal experiments have also shown that exposure to arsenite during development induced developmental neurotoxicity after birth. However, the evidence is not enough, and the mechanism is poorly understood, especially on the exposure during early brain development. This study assessed effects of sodium (meta) arsenite shortly after exposure on early developing fetal rat brains. Pregnant rats were administered 50mg/L arsenite in their drinking water or 20mg/kg arsenite orally using a gastric tube, on gestational days (GD) 9-15. Fetal brains were examined on GD16. Pregnant rats administered 20mg/kg arsenite showed reductions in maternal body weight gain and food consumption during treatment, but not with 50mg/L arsenite. Arsenite did not affect fetal development, as determined by body weight, mortality and brain size. Arsenite also did not induce excessive cell death or affect neural cell division in any region of the fetal neuroepithelium. Thyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry revealed no difference in the distribution of catecholaminergic neurons between fetuses of arsenite treated and control rats. However, reductions in the number of serotonin positive cells in the fetal median and dorsal raphe nuclei were observed following maternal treatment with 20mg/kg arsenite. Image analysis showed that the serotonin positive areas decreased in all fetal mid- and hind-brain areas without altering distribution patterns. Maternal stress induced by arsenite toxicity did not alter fetal development. These results suggest that arsenite-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity involves defects in the early development of the serotonin nervous system.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lung tumors in mice induced by "whole-life" inorganic arsenic exposure at human-relevant doses

Authors: Waalkes, MP; Qu, W; Tokar, EJ; Kissling, GE; Dixon, D (2014) Archives of Toxicology 88:1619-1629. HERO ID: 2347513

[Less] In mice, inorganic arsenic in the drinking water in the parts per million range via the dam during in . . . [More] In mice, inorganic arsenic in the drinking water in the parts per million range via the dam during in utero life or with whole-life exposure is a multi-site carcinogen in the offspring. However, human arsenic exposure is typically in the parts per billion (ppb) range. Thus, we studied "whole-life" inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis in mice at levels more relevant to humans. Breeder male and female CD1 mice were exposed to 0, 50, 500 or 5,000 ppb arsenic (as sodium arsenite) in the drinking water for 3 weeks prior to breeding, during pregnancy and lactation, and after weaning (at week 3) groups of male and female offspring (initial n = 40) were exposed for up to 2 years. Tumors were assessed in these offspring. Arsenic exposure had no effect on pregnant dam weights or water consumption, litter size, offspring birthweight or weight at weaning compared to control. In male offspring mice, arsenic exposure increased (p < 0.05) bronchiolo-alveolar tumor (adenoma or carcinoma) incidence at 50-ppb group (51 %) and 500-ppb group (54 %), but not at 5,000-ppb group (28 %) compared to control (22 %). These arsenic-induced bronchiolo-alveolar tumors included increased (p < 0.05) carcinoma at 50-ppb group (27 %) compared to controls (8 %). An increase (p < 0.05) in lung adenoma (25 %) in the 50-ppb group compared to control (11 %) occurred in female offspring. Thus, in CD1 mice whole-life arsenic exposure induced lung tumors at human-relevant doses (i.e., 50 and 500 ppb).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The novel regulations of MEF2A, CAMKK2, CALM3, and TNNI3 in ventricular hypertrophy induced by arsenic exposure in rats

Authors: Phan, NN; Wang, C-Y; Lin, Y-C (2014) Toxicology 324:123-135. HERO ID: 2347634

[Less] Arsenic is a ubiquitous toxic compound that exists naturally in many sources such as soil, groundwater, . . . [More] Arsenic is a ubiquitous toxic compound that exists naturally in many sources such as soil, groundwater, and food; in which vast majority forms are arsenite (As(3+)) or arsenate (As(5+)). The mechanism of arsenic detoxification in humans still remains obscured. Epidemiologic studies documented that arsenic pollution caused black foot disease, cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, hypotension, cardiomyopathy), bladder cancer and skin cancer in many countries in which Taiwan is considered as high arsenic exposure country for long time ago. However, the effects of arsenic to cardiac functions still lacked of investigation while some studies mainly focus on inflammatory and cancer mechanisms. In the present study, we found cardiac hypertrophy signaling may be the most significant pathway for up regulated genes in arsenic exposed patients via bioinformatics approach. To verify our bioinformatics prediction, arsenic was fed orally to rats at different concentration based on previous studies in Taiwan. Using hemodynamic method as the main tool to measure the changes in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and left ventricular contractility index, the findings suggest that highly exposure to arsenic lead to hypertension; elevated left ventricular diastolic pressure and alteration in cardiac contractility which are supposed to be the interaction between arsenic and cardiac nerves activity via the changing in calcium homeostasis. Collectively, based on our real-time PCR and western blot data strongly suggest that calcium homeostasis may also go through MEF2A, TNNI3, CAMKK2, CALM3 and cardiac hypertrophy relative signaling pathway.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Elevated blood pressure in offspring of rats exposed to diverse chemicals during pregnancy

Authors: Rogers, JM; Ellis-Hutchings, RG; Grey, BE; Zucker, RM; Norwood, J, Jr; Grace, CE; Gordon, CJ; Lau, C (2014) Toxicological Sciences 137:436-446. HERO ID: 2149155

[Less] Adverse intrauterine environments have been associated with increased risk of later cardiovascular disease . . . [More] Adverse intrauterine environments have been associated with increased risk of later cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In an animal model using diverse developmental toxicants, we measured blood pressure (BP), renal nephron endowment, renal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expression, and serum aldosterone in offspring of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to dexamethasone (Dex), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), atrazine, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), arsenic or nicotine. BP was assessed by tail cuff photoplethysmography, nephron endowment by confocal microscopy, and renal GR mRNA by qPCR. BP was also measured by telemetry, and corticosterone (CORT) was measured in resting or restrained Dex and atrazine offspring. Treated dams gained less weight during treatment in all groups except arsenic. There were chemical- and sex-specific effects on birth weight, but offspring body weights were similar by weaning. BP was higher in Dex, PFOS, atrazine and PFNA male offspring by 7-10 weeks. Female offspring exhibited elevated BP at 10 weeks for PFNA and arsenic, and at 37 weeks for Dex, PFOS and atrazine. Dex, PFOS and atrazine offspring still exhibited elevated BP at 52-65 weeks of age; others did not. Elevated BP was associated with lower nephron counts. Dex, PFOS and atrazine offspring had elevated renal GR gene expression. Elevations in BP were also observed in Dex and atrazine offspring by radiotelemetry. Atrazine offspring exhibited enhanced CORT response to restraint. Elevated offspring BP was induced by maternal exposure to toxicants. Since all treatments affected maternal gestational weight gain, maternal stress may be a common underlying factor in these observations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effectiveness of zinc in modulating perinatal effects of arsenic on the teratological effects in mice offspring

Authors: Ahmad, M; Wadaan, MA; Farooq, M; Daghestani, MH; Sami, AS (2013) Biological Research 46:131-138. HERO ID: 1936109

[Less] Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is considered as a worldwide problem. Studies have shown that . . . [More] Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is considered as a worldwide problem. Studies have shown that arsenic exposure during pregnancy affects embryogenesis and offspring development in rats and mice. Zinc as a micronutrient regulates many physiological functions, including an antioxidative role under various toxic conditions. However, studies on the perinatal protective effect of zinc on offspring need further attention. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of zinc in mitigating the adverse effects in the offspring of arsenic exposure during pregnancy. The arsenic (40mg/kg body weight) and zinc (4% w/v) doses formed the only drinking fluid source for the experimental groups of dams during the perinatal period of the experiment. The early development of sensory motor coordination reflexes together with morphological development in the male pups was measured during the weaning period. In adolescence, the offspring were tested for their motor behavior. The enzyme γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) and the oxidative stress indices like reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were also estimated in the serum of the young adult male mice. Perinatal arsenic exposure caused depletion in body weight gain, delay in morphological development and retardation in the development of all sensory motor reflexes of the pups. In young adults, significant decrease in motor behavior with significant decrease in GSH level in the serum was observed. On the other hand, γ-GT and TBARS were significantly increased in the serum due to arsenic treatment. However, animals exposed to arsenic in the presence of zinc showed a remarkable ameliorating effect of zinc on all observed teratological and biochemical arsenic toxicity in male offspring. It was observed that zinc has an antioxidative role in the perinatal toxicity of arsenic. It is concluded from the present study that zinc consumed during the perinatal period of pregnancy can ameliorate the possible toxicities of arsenic exposure in the offspring by acting as an ameliorative supplement.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Immunomodulatory effects of nanocurcumin in arsenic-exposed rats

Authors: Sankar, P; Telang, AG; Suresh, S; Kesavan, M; Kannan, K; Kalaivanan, R; Sarkar, SN (2013) International Immunopharmacology 17:65–70. HERO ID: 1644871

[Less] We evaluated whether the nanoformulation of curcumin could be more effective than free curcumin against . . . [More] We evaluated whether the nanoformulation of curcumin could be more effective than free curcumin against arsenic-induced immune dysfunction in rats. Curcumin was encapsulated in polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA). Nanocurcumin (CUR-NP) exhibited a spherical shape with the mean particle size of 130.8nm. Rats were randomly divided into five groups of six each. Group I was kept as the control. In Group II, rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (25ppm) daily through drinking water for 42days. Groups III, IV and V were treated with arsenic as in Group II, however, they were administered with nanoparticle, curcumin (100mg/kgbw) and CUR-NP (100mg/kgbw), respectively, by oral gavage during the last 14days of arsenic exposure. At term, serum and spleen were collected. Immune dysfunction was evaluated by assessing cellular and humoral immunities. Arsenic significantly decreased the splenic lymphocyte proliferation in response to the antigen - Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) and mitogen - concanavalin-A. Arsenic reduced both the delayed type hypersensitivity response and secondary antibody (IgG) response to KLH. It also reduced the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide production in splenic lymphocytes. Free curcumin and CUR-NP treatment significantly attenuated these arsenic-mediated effects. However, the magnitude of the effects indicates that CUR-NP has better ameliorative potential than free curcumin at the equivalent dose level.