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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Relationships between arsenic concentrations in drinking water and lung and bladder cancer incidence in U.S. counties

Authors: Mendez, WM; Eftim, S; Cohen, J; Warren, I; Cowden, J; Lee, JS; Sams, R (2017) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 27:235-243. HERO ID: 3449421

[Less] Increased risks of lung and bladder cancer have been observed in populations exposed to high levels . . . [More] Increased risks of lung and bladder cancer have been observed in populations exposed to high levels of inorganic arsenic. However, studies at lower exposures (i.e., less than 100 μg/l in water) have shown inconsistent results. We therefore conducted an ecological analysis of the association between historical drinking water arsenic concentrations and lung and bladder cancer incidence in U.S. counties. We used drinking water arsenic concentrations measured by the U.S. Geological Survey and state agencies in the 1980s and 1990s as proxies for historical exposures in counties where public groundwater systems and private wells are important sources of drinking water. Relationships between arsenic levels and cancer incidence in 2006-2010 were explored by Poisson regression analyses, adjusted for groundwater dependence and important demographic covariates. The median and 95th percentile county mean arsenic concentrations were 1.5 and 15.4 μg/l, respectively. Water arsenic concentrations were significant and positively associated with female and male bladder cancer, and with female lung cancer. Our findings support an association between low water arsenic concentrations and lung and bladder cancer incidence in the United States. However, the limitations of the ecological study design suggest caution in interpreting these results.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 30 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.58.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Elevated Bladder Cancer in Northern New England: The Role of Drinking Water and Arsenic

Authors: Baris, D; Waddell, R; Beane Freeman, LE; Schwenn, M; Colt, JS; Ayotte, JD; Ward, MH; Nuckols, J; Schned, A; Jackson, B; Clerkin, C; Rothman, N; Moore, LE; Taylor, A; Robinson, G; Hosain, GM; Armenti, KR; Mccoy, R; Samanic, C; Hoover, RN; Fraumeni, JF; Johnson, A; Karagas, MR; Silverman, DT (2016) Journal of the National Cancer Institute 108. HERO ID: 3379733

[Less] BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer mortality rates have been elevated in northern New England . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer mortality rates have been elevated in northern New England for at least five decades. Incidence rates in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont are about 20% higher than the United States overall. We explored reasons for this excess, focusing on arsenic in drinking water from private wells, which are particularly prevalent in the region.

METHODS: In a population-based case-control study in these three states, 1213 bladder cancer case patients and 1418 control subjects provided information on suspected risk factors. Log transformed arsenic concentrations were estimated by linear regression based on measurements in water samples from current and past homes. All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS: Bladder cancer risk increased with increasing water intake (Ptrend = .003). This trend was statistically significant among participants with a history of private well use (Ptrend = .01). Among private well users, this trend was apparent if well water was derived exclusively from shallow dug wells (which are vulnerable to contamination from manmade sources, Ptrend = .002) but not if well water was supplied only by deeper drilled wells (Ptrend = .48). If dug wells were used pre-1960, when arsenical pesticides were widely used in the region, heavier water consumers (>2.2 L/day) had double the risk of light users (<1.1 L/day, Ptrend = .01). Among all participants, cumulative arsenic exposure from all water sources, lagged 40 years, yielded a positive risk gradient (Ptrend = .004); among the highest-exposed participants (97.5th percentile), risk was twice that of the lowest-exposure quartile (odds ratio = 2.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.29 to 3.89).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support an association between low-to-moderate levels of arsenic in drinking water and bladder cancer risk in New England. In addition, historical consumption of water from private wells, particularly dug wells in an era when arsenical pesticides were widely used, was associated with increased bladder cancer risk and may have contributed to the New England excess.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Postnatal arsenic exposure and attention impairment in school children

Authors: Rodríguez-Barranco, M; Gil, F; Hernández, AF; Alguacil, J; Lorca, A; Mendoza, R; Gómez, I; Molina-Villalba, I; González-Alzaga, B; Aguilar-Garduño, C; Rohlman, DS; Lacasaña, M (2016) Cortex 74:370-382. HERO ID: 2822071

[Less] Over the last few decades there has been an increased concern about the health risks from exposure to . . . [More] Over the last few decades there has been an increased concern about the health risks from exposure to metallic trace elements, including arsenic, because of their potential neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. This study assessed whether urinary arsenic (UA) levels are associated with attention performance and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children living in an area with high industrial and mining activities in Southwestern Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 children aged 6-9 years. Arsenic levels were determined in urine samples. Attention was measured by using 4 independent tools: a) tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) designed to measure attention function: Simple Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT); b) AULA Test, a virtual reality (VR)-based test that evaluates children's response to several stimuli in an environment simulating a classroom; c) Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), administered to parents; and d) Teacher's Report Form (TRF), administered to teachers. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between UA levels and attention performance scores. Higher UA levels were associated with an increased latency of response in RTT (β = 12.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5-21.1) and SAT (β = 3.6; 95% CI: .4-6.8) as well as with worse performance on selective and focalized attention in the AULA test (β for impulsivity = .6; 95% CI: .1-1.1; β for inattention = .5; 95% CI: .03-1.0). A dose-response relationship was observed between UA levels and inattention and impulsivity scores. In contrast, results from the CBCL and TRF tests failed to show a significant association with UA levels. In conclusion, UA levels were associated with impaired attention/cognitive function, even at levels considered safe. These results provide additional evidence that postnatal arsenic exposure impairs neurological function in children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Statistical analysis of causes of death (2005-2010) in villages of Simav Plain, Turkey, with high arsenic levels in drinking water supplies

Authors: Gunduz, O; Bakar, C; Simsek, C; Baba, A; Elci, A; Gurleyuk, H; Mutlu, M; Cakir, A (2015) Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health 70:35-46. HERO ID: 2279042

[Less] The purpose of this research was to compare the causes of death in five villages situated in Simav Plain, . . . [More] The purpose of this research was to compare the causes of death in five villages situated in Simav Plain, Turkey during 2005-2010 where different arsenic levels were detected in drinking water supplies. Since groundwater in Simav plain had arsenic concentrations that ranged between 7.1 and 833.9 ppb, a two phase research was formulated. In the first phase, public health surveys were conducted with 1003 villagers to determine the distribution of diseases. In the second phase, verbal autopsy surveys and official death records were used to investigate the causes of death. Totally, 402 death cases were found in the study area where cardiovascular system diseases (44%) and cancers (15.2%) were major causes. Cancers of lung (44.3%), prostate (9.8%), colon (9.8%) and stomach (8.2%) were comparably higher in villages with high arsenic levels in drinking water supplies. Furthermore, the majority of cases of liver, bladder and stomach cancers were observed in villages with high arsenic levels.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association of Urinary Metal Profiles with Altered Glucose Levels and Diabetes Risk: A Population-Based Study in China

Authors: Feng, W; Cui, X; Liu, B; Liu, C; Xiao, Y; Lu, W; Guo, H; He, M; Zhang, X; Yuan, J; Chen, W; Wu, T (2015) PLoS ONE 10:e0123742. HERO ID: 2824433

[Less] BACKGROUND: Elevated heavy metals and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were both . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Elevated heavy metals and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were both associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, studies on the associations of heavy metals and essential elements with altered FPG and diabetes risk were limited or conflicting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential associations of heavy metals and essential trace elements with FPG and diabetes risk among general Chinese population.

METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of urinary concentrations of 23 metals with FPG, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes among 2242 community-based Chinese adults in Wuhan. We used the false discovery rate (FDR) method to correct for multiple hypothesis tests.

RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, urinary aluminum, titanium, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, strontium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, barium, tungsten and lead were associated with altered FPG, IFG or diabetes risk (all P< 0.05); arsenic was only dose-dependently related to diabetes (P< 0.05). After additional adjustment for multiple testing, titanium, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, tungsten and lead were still significantly associated with one or more outcomes (all FDR-adjusted P< 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that multiple metals in urine are associated with FPG, IFG or diabetes risk. Because the cross-sectional design precludes inferences about causality, further prospective studies are warranted to validate our findings.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A nested case-control study indicating heavy metal residues in meconium associate with maternal gestational diabetes mellitus risk

Authors: Peng, S; Liu, L; Zhang, X; Heinrich, J; Zhang, Jie; Schramm, KW; Huang, Q; Tian, M; Eqani, S; Shen, H (2015) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 14. HERO ID: 2854852

[Less] Background: Environmental pollutant exposure may play certain roles in the pathogenesis and progression . . . [More] Background: Environmental pollutant exposure may play certain roles in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetes mellitus including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We hypothesize that heavy metal exposure may trigger GDM during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible associations between selected heavy metal exposure and GDM risk.

Methods: This investigation is a retrospective case-control study nested within a cohort of 1359 pregnant women. These participants were recruited in Xiamen Maternity and Child Care Hospital, China, during June to July, 2012. All their newborns' meconium samples were collected. By reviewing the antenatal care records, 166 GDM mothers were screened out from the 1359 participants; 137 of 166 GDM mothers offered their newborns' meconium samples for the metal analysis. Those 137 mothers were set as the case group. Similarly, 294 healthy mothers without any gestational complication were initially screened out from the rest 1193 non-GDM mothers. 190 of the 294 healthy mothers offered their newborns' meconium samples for the metal analysis. Those 190 mothers were set as the control group. Arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) levels in these case-control meconium samples were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The possible association between the metal levels and maternal GDM risk of studied subjects was assessed by binary logistic regression.

Results: GDM prevalence of 12.21% was observed in the investigated 1359 participants. The concentrations of As, Hg, Cr and Cd in studied cases were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of controls. After adjustments for maternal age, pre-pregnant body mass index, gravidity, parity, hepatitis B virus infection, and newborn sex, As, Cd and Cr were found to be positively associated with GDM prevalence in dose-dependent manners. Among them, As was detected in all samples and its levels associated the maternal GDM with the adjusted odds ratios of 3.28 [95% CI 1.24, 8.71], 3.35 [95% CI 1.28, 8.75] and 5.25 [95% CI 1.99, 13.86] for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartiles, respectively.

Conclusions: The present work implies that exposure to some of the selected metals (noticeably As) may contribute to maternal GDM risk during pregnancy.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Relationship between arsenic-containing drinking water and skin cancers in the arseniasis endemic areas in Taiwan

Authors: Cheng, PS; Weng, SF; Chiang, CH; Lai, FJ (2015) Journal of Dermatology 43:181-186. HERO ID: 3005418

[Less] Artesian well-water had high concentrations of arsenic that led to the well-known black foot disease . . . [More] Artesian well-water had high concentrations of arsenic that led to the well-known black foot disease in Taiwan around the 1950s, and the associated cancers including skin cancer, bladder cancers and lung cancers. We sought to estimate the standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the black foot disease endemic areas (BFDEA) in Taiwan. A nationwide retrospective population-based survey was done with the data from the National Taiwan Cancer Registry Center between 1979 and 2007. Among the 29-year period, there were 11 191 cases with SCC and 13 684 cases with BCC diagnosed pathologically. The incidence rates were 4-6-fold higher for SCC and 3-4-fold higher for BCC in the BFDEA compared with the rest of Taiwan. The SMR decreased after stopping arsenic-containing well-water drinking in the 1970s. The arsenic level in the drinking water, amount of contaminated water intake, occupation and sun-exposure time were not documented. This is the first nationwide, population-based study that shows the relationship between arsenic intoxication and non-melanoma skin cancers (SCC and BCC) through comparing the data in people living in the BFDEA and non-BFDEA in Taiwan.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Environmental factors and apoptotic indices in patients with intrauterine growth retardation: A nested case-control study

Authors: El-Baz, MA; El-Deeb, TS; El-Noweihi, AM; Mohany, KM; Shaaban, OM; Abbas, AM (2015) Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 39:589-596. HERO ID: 2822073

[Less] BACKGROUND: Egypt has one of the highest incidences of IUGR. The current study investigates . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Egypt has one of the highest incidences of IUGR. The current study investigates the effect of heavy metals toxicity as risk factors of IUGR and determines the possible role of increased apoptosis in their pathogenesis.

METHODS: This study was conducted in Assiut, Egypt, included 60 women diagnosed to have IUGR. We measured lead and cadmium levels in blood besides arsenic and cadmium levels in urine. Neonatal scalp hair sample were analyzed for arsenic content. Quantitative determination of human placental Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were performed.

RESULTS: There are significantly higher levels of heavy metals and caspase-3 and lower levels of placental Bcl-2 in the IUGR group. The levels of heavy metals were positively correlated with caspase-3 while negatively correlated (except cadmium) with Bcl-2 levels.

CONCLUSIONS: There is an alarming high level of heavy metals toxicity in Egypt that was positively correlated to IUGR. Increased placental apoptosis may be one of the possible mechanisms behind the effect.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Birth outcomes and background exposures to select elements, the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE)

Authors: Bloom, MS; Buck Louis, GM; Sundaram, R; Maisog, JM; Steuerwald, AJ; Parsons, PJ (2015) Environmental Research 138:118-129. HERO ID: 2824472

[Less] Evidence suggests that trace exposures to select elements may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes. . . . [More] Evidence suggests that trace exposures to select elements may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes. To investigate further, we used multiple regression to assess associations between preconception parental exposures to Pb, Cd, and total Hg in blood, and 21 elements in urine, with n=235 singleton birth outcomes, adjusted for confounders and partner's exposure. Earlier gestational age at delivery (GA) was associated with higher tertiles of urine maternal W (-1.22 days) and paternal U (-1.07 days), but GA was later for higher tertiles of maternal (+1.11 days) and paternal (+1.30 days) blood Hg. Additional analysis indicated shorter GA associated with higher paternal urine Ba, W, and U, and with higher maternal blood Pb for boys, but GA was longer in association with higher maternal urine Cr. Birth weight (BW) was lower for higher tertiles of paternal urine Cs (-237.85g), U (-187.34g), and Zn (-209.08g), and for higher continuous Cr (P=0.021). In contrast, BW was higher for higher tertiles of paternal urine As (+194.71g) and counterintuitively for maternal blood Cd (+178.52g). Birth length (BL) was shorter for higher tertiles of urine maternal W (-1.22cm) and paternal U (-1.10cm). Yet, higher tertiles of maternal (+1.11cm) and paternal (+1.30) blood Hg were associated with longer BL. Head circumference at delivery was lower for higher tertiles of paternal urine U (-0.83cm), and for higher continuous Mo in boys (-0.57cm). Overall, associations were most consistently indicated for GA and measures of birth size with urine W and U, and paternal exposures were more frequently associated than maternal. Though limited by several factors, ours is the largest multi-element investigation of prospective couple-level trace exposures and birth outcomes to date; the novel observations for W and U merit further investigation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Home environment and cord blood levels of lead, arsenic, and zinc on neurodevelopment of 24 months children living in Chitwan Valley, Nepal

Authors: Parajuli, RP; Fujiwara, T; Umezaki, M; Watanabe, C (2015) Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 29:315-320. HERO ID: 2773006

[Less] In a birth cohort living in Chitwan Valley, lowland Nepal, we have previously reported inverse associations . . . [More] In a birth cohort living in Chitwan Valley, lowland Nepal, we have previously reported inverse associations between in utero levels of lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and neurodevelopment at birth measured by the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, third edition (NBAS III). In the present paper, a follow-up of the same cohort was made on 24-month-old infants regarding the neurodevelopmental effects of these metals, taking the postnatal environment into account. In total, the same100 mother-infant pairs as the previous study, whose Pb, As, and Zn concentrations in cord blood were known, were recruited. Postnatal raising environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME) scale. Neurodevelopment of children at 24 months of age (n=74) was assessed using the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID II). Multivariable regression adjusting for covariates was performed to determine the associations of in utero levels of toxic and essential elements and the home environment with neurodevelopment scores. Unlike the NBAS III conducted for newborns, none of the BSID II cluster scores in 24-month-old infants were associated with cord blood levels of Pb, As, and Zn. The total HOME score was positively associated with the mental development scale (MDI) score (coefficient=0.67, at 95% CI=0.03 to 1.31). In this cohort, a detrimental effect of in utero Pb and As on neurodevelopmental indicators observed at birth disappeared at 24 months, while an association between neurodevelopment and home environment continued.