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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Relationships between arsenic concentrations in drinking water and lung and bladder cancer incidence in U.S. counties

Authors: Mendez, WM; Eftim, S; Cohen, J; Warren, I; Cowden, J; Lee, JS; Sams, R (2017) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 27:235-243. HERO ID: 3449421

[Less] Increased risks of lung and bladder cancer have been observed in populations exposed to high levels . . . [More] Increased risks of lung and bladder cancer have been observed in populations exposed to high levels of inorganic arsenic. However, studies at lower exposures (i.e., less than 100 μg/l in water) have shown inconsistent results. We therefore conducted an ecological analysis of the association between historical drinking water arsenic concentrations and lung and bladder cancer incidence in U.S. counties. We used drinking water arsenic concentrations measured by the U.S. Geological Survey and state agencies in the 1980s and 1990s as proxies for historical exposures in counties where public groundwater systems and private wells are important sources of drinking water. Relationships between arsenic levels and cancer incidence in 2006-2010 were explored by Poisson regression analyses, adjusted for groundwater dependence and important demographic covariates. The median and 95th percentile county mean arsenic concentrations were 1.5 and 15.4 μg/l, respectively. Water arsenic concentrations were significant and positively associated with female and male bladder cancer, and with female lung cancer. Our findings support an association between low water arsenic concentrations and lung and bladder cancer incidence in the United States. However, the limitations of the ecological study design suggest caution in interpreting these results.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 30 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.58.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Elevated Bladder Cancer in Northern New England: The Role of Drinking Water and Arsenic

Authors: Baris, D; Waddell, R; Beane Freeman, LE; Schwenn, M; Colt, JS; Ayotte, JD; Ward, MH; Nuckols, J; Schned, A; Jackson, B; Clerkin, C; Rothman, N; Moore, LE; Taylor, A; Robinson, G; Hosain, GM; Armenti, KR; Mccoy, R; Samanic, C; Hoover, RN; Fraumeni, JF; Johnson, A; Karagas, MR; Silverman, DT (2016) Journal of the National Cancer Institute 108. HERO ID: 3379733

[Less] BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer mortality rates have been elevated in northern New England . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer mortality rates have been elevated in northern New England for at least five decades. Incidence rates in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont are about 20% higher than the United States overall. We explored reasons for this excess, focusing on arsenic in drinking water from private wells, which are particularly prevalent in the region.

METHODS: In a population-based case-control study in these three states, 1213 bladder cancer case patients and 1418 control subjects provided information on suspected risk factors. Log transformed arsenic concentrations were estimated by linear regression based on measurements in water samples from current and past homes. All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS: Bladder cancer risk increased with increasing water intake (Ptrend = .003). This trend was statistically significant among participants with a history of private well use (Ptrend = .01). Among private well users, this trend was apparent if well water was derived exclusively from shallow dug wells (which are vulnerable to contamination from manmade sources, Ptrend = .002) but not if well water was supplied only by deeper drilled wells (Ptrend = .48). If dug wells were used pre-1960, when arsenical pesticides were widely used in the region, heavier water consumers (>2.2 L/day) had double the risk of light users (<1.1 L/day, Ptrend = .01). Among all participants, cumulative arsenic exposure from all water sources, lagged 40 years, yielded a positive risk gradient (Ptrend = .004); among the highest-exposed participants (97.5th percentile), risk was twice that of the lowest-exposure quartile (odds ratio = 2.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.29 to 3.89).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support an association between low-to-moderate levels of arsenic in drinking water and bladder cancer risk in New England. In addition, historical consumption of water from private wells, particularly dug wells in an era when arsenical pesticides were widely used, was associated with increased bladder cancer risk and may have contributed to the New England excess.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Postnatal arsenic exposure and attention impairment in school children

Authors: Rodríguez-Barranco, M; Gil, F; Hernández, AF; Alguacil, J; Lorca, A; Mendoza, R; Gómez, I; Molina-Villalba, I; González-Alzaga, B; Aguilar-Garduño, C; Rohlman, DS; Lacasaña, M (2016) Cortex 74:370-382. HERO ID: 2822071

[Less] Over the last few decades there has been an increased concern about the health risks from exposure to . . . [More] Over the last few decades there has been an increased concern about the health risks from exposure to metallic trace elements, including arsenic, because of their potential neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. This study assessed whether urinary arsenic (UA) levels are associated with attention performance and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children living in an area with high industrial and mining activities in Southwestern Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 children aged 6-9 years. Arsenic levels were determined in urine samples. Attention was measured by using 4 independent tools: a) tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) designed to measure attention function: Simple Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT); b) AULA Test, a virtual reality (VR)-based test that evaluates children's response to several stimuli in an environment simulating a classroom; c) Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), administered to parents; and d) Teacher's Report Form (TRF), administered to teachers. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between UA levels and attention performance scores. Higher UA levels were associated with an increased latency of response in RTT (β = 12.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5-21.1) and SAT (β = 3.6; 95% CI: .4-6.8) as well as with worse performance on selective and focalized attention in the AULA test (β for impulsivity = .6; 95% CI: .1-1.1; β for inattention = .5; 95% CI: .03-1.0). A dose-response relationship was observed between UA levels and inattention and impulsivity scores. In contrast, results from the CBCL and TRF tests failed to show a significant association with UA levels. In conclusion, UA levels were associated with impaired attention/cognitive function, even at levels considered safe. These results provide additional evidence that postnatal arsenic exposure impairs neurological function in children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Environmental factors and apoptotic indices in patients with intrauterine growth retardation: A nested case-control study

Authors: El-Baz, MA; El-Deeb, TS; El-Noweihi, AM; Mohany, KM; Shaaban, OM; Abbas, AM (2015) Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 39:589-596. HERO ID: 2822073

[Less] BACKGROUND: Egypt has one of the highest incidences of IUGR. The current study investigates . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Egypt has one of the highest incidences of IUGR. The current study investigates the effect of heavy metals toxicity as risk factors of IUGR and determines the possible role of increased apoptosis in their pathogenesis.

METHODS: This study was conducted in Assiut, Egypt, included 60 women diagnosed to have IUGR. We measured lead and cadmium levels in blood besides arsenic and cadmium levels in urine. Neonatal scalp hair sample were analyzed for arsenic content. Quantitative determination of human placental Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were performed.

RESULTS: There are significantly higher levels of heavy metals and caspase-3 and lower levels of placental Bcl-2 in the IUGR group. The levels of heavy metals were positively correlated with caspase-3 while negatively correlated (except cadmium) with Bcl-2 levels.

CONCLUSIONS: There is an alarming high level of heavy metals toxicity in Egypt that was positively correlated to IUGR. Increased placental apoptosis may be one of the possible mechanisms behind the effect.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Birth outcomes and background exposures to select elements, the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE)

Authors: Bloom, MS; Buck Louis, GM; Sundaram, R; Maisog, JM; Steuerwald, AJ; Parsons, PJ (2015) Environmental Research 138:118-129. HERO ID: 2824472

[Less] Evidence suggests that trace exposures to select elements may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes. . . . [More] Evidence suggests that trace exposures to select elements may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes. To investigate further, we used multiple regression to assess associations between preconception parental exposures to Pb, Cd, and total Hg in blood, and 21 elements in urine, with n=235 singleton birth outcomes, adjusted for confounders and partner's exposure. Earlier gestational age at delivery (GA) was associated with higher tertiles of urine maternal W (-1.22 days) and paternal U (-1.07 days), but GA was later for higher tertiles of maternal (+1.11 days) and paternal (+1.30 days) blood Hg. Additional analysis indicated shorter GA associated with higher paternal urine Ba, W, and U, and with higher maternal blood Pb for boys, but GA was longer in association with higher maternal urine Cr. Birth weight (BW) was lower for higher tertiles of paternal urine Cs (-237.85g), U (-187.34g), and Zn (-209.08g), and for higher continuous Cr (P=0.021). In contrast, BW was higher for higher tertiles of paternal urine As (+194.71g) and counterintuitively for maternal blood Cd (+178.52g). Birth length (BL) was shorter for higher tertiles of urine maternal W (-1.22cm) and paternal U (-1.10cm). Yet, higher tertiles of maternal (+1.11cm) and paternal (+1.30) blood Hg were associated with longer BL. Head circumference at delivery was lower for higher tertiles of paternal urine U (-0.83cm), and for higher continuous Mo in boys (-0.57cm). Overall, associations were most consistently indicated for GA and measures of birth size with urine W and U, and paternal exposures were more frequently associated than maternal. Though limited by several factors, ours is the largest multi-element investigation of prospective couple-level trace exposures and birth outcomes to date; the novel observations for W and U merit further investigation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Home environment and cord blood levels of lead, arsenic, and zinc on neurodevelopment of 24 months children living in Chitwan Valley, Nepal

Authors: Parajuli, RP; Fujiwara, T; Umezaki, M; Watanabe, C (2015) Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 29:315-320. HERO ID: 2773006

[Less] In a birth cohort living in Chitwan Valley, lowland Nepal, we have previously reported inverse associations . . . [More] In a birth cohort living in Chitwan Valley, lowland Nepal, we have previously reported inverse associations between in utero levels of lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and neurodevelopment at birth measured by the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, third edition (NBAS III). In the present paper, a follow-up of the same cohort was made on 24-month-old infants regarding the neurodevelopmental effects of these metals, taking the postnatal environment into account. In total, the same100 mother-infant pairs as the previous study, whose Pb, As, and Zn concentrations in cord blood were known, were recruited. Postnatal raising environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME) scale. Neurodevelopment of children at 24 months of age (n=74) was assessed using the Bayley Scale of Infant Development, Second Edition (BSID II). Multivariable regression adjusting for covariates was performed to determine the associations of in utero levels of toxic and essential elements and the home environment with neurodevelopment scores. Unlike the NBAS III conducted for newborns, none of the BSID II cluster scores in 24-month-old infants were associated with cord blood levels of Pb, As, and Zn. The total HOME score was positively associated with the mental development scale (MDI) score (coefficient=0.67, at 95% CI=0.03 to 1.31). In this cohort, a detrimental effect of in utero Pb and As on neurodevelopmental indicators observed at birth disappeared at 24 months, while an association between neurodevelopment and home environment continued.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

Authors: Vibol, S; Hashim, JH; Sarmani, S (2015) Environmental Research 137C:329-337. HERO ID: 2773037

[Less] The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal . . . [More] The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300-500μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50-300μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57-4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93µg/g among those from the highly contaminated study site, showed clear evidence of neurobehavioral effects.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Metals exposure and risk of small-for-gestational age birth in a Canadian birth cohort: The MIREC study

Authors: Thomas, S; Arbuckle, TE; Fisher, M; Fraser, WD; Ettinger, A; King, W (2015) Environmental Research 140:430-439. HERO ID: 2854553

[Less] BACKGROUND: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic are some of the most common toxic metals to which Canadians are exposed. The effect of exposure to current low levels of toxic metals on fetal growth restriction is unknown.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine relationships between exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic during pregnancy, and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth.

METHODS: Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic levels were measured in blood samples from the first and third trimesters in 1835 pregnant women from across Canada. Arsenic species in first trimester urine were also assessed. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log binomial multivariate regression. Important covariates including maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking, were considered in the analysis. An exploratory analysis was performed to examine potential effect modification of these relationships by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and GSTO1 genes.

RESULTS: No association was found between blood lead, cadmium or arsenic and risk for SGA. We observed an increased risk for SGA for the highest compared to the lowest tertile of exposure for mercury (>1.6µg/L, RR=1.56.; 95% CI=1.04-2.58) and arsenobetaine (>2.25µg/L, RR=1.65; 95% CI=1.10-2.47) after adjustment for the effects of parity and smoking. A statistically significant interaction was observed in the relationship between dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) levels in urinary arsenic and SGA between strata of GSTO1 A104A (p for interaction=0.02). A marginally significant interaction was observed in the relationship between blood lead and SGA between strata of GSTP1 A114V (p for interaction=0.06).

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a small increase in risk for SGA in infants born to women exposed to mercury and arsenic. Given the conflicting evidence in the literature this warrants further investigation in other pregnant populations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cardiovascular disease and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China: a case control study

Authors: Wade, TJ; Xia, Y; Mumford, J; Wu, K; Le, XC; Sams, E; Sanders, WE (2015) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 14:35. HERO ID: 2854656

[Less] BACKGROUND: Millions of people are at risk from the adverse effects of arsenic exposure . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Millions of people are at risk from the adverse effects of arsenic exposure through drinking water. Increasingly, non-cancer effects such as cardiovascular disease have been associated with drinking water arsenic exposures. However, most studies have been conducted in highly exposed populations and lacked individual measurements.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between cardiovascular disease and well-water arsenic exposure.

METHODS: We conducted a hospital based case control study in Inner Mongolia, China. Cases and controls were prospectively identified and enrolled from a large hospital in the Hangjin Hou area. Cases were patients diagnosed with cardiovascular disease and controls were patients free from cardiovascular disease, admitted for conditions unrelated to arsenic exposure. Water from the primary water source and toenail samples were collected from each subject and tested for inorganic arsenic.

RESULTS: Arsenic exposures were moderate with mean and median arsenic exposures of 8.9 μg/L and 13.1 μg/L, respectively. A total of 298 cases and 275 controls were enrolled. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for a 10 μg/L increase in water arsenic were 1.19 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.38). Compared to exposures less than 10 μg/L, the AOR for water arsenic exposures above 40 μg/L was 4.05 (95% CI: 1.1-14.99, p = 0.04). Nail arsenic above 1.38 μg/g was also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

CONCLUSIONS: By using standardized case definitions and collecting individual measurements of arsenic, this study addressed several limitations of previous studies. The results provide further evidence of the association between cardiovascular disease and arsenic at moderate exposures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Urinary arsenic and insulin resistance in US adolescents

Authors: Peng, Q; Harlow, SD; Park, SK (2015) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 218:407-413. HERO ID: 2854711

[Less] Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with increased diabetes risk in adults. Insulin resistance . . . [More] Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with increased diabetes risk in adults. Insulin resistance (IR) has been proposed as a mechanism of arsenic-related diabetes. Although limited evidence in adults found no association between arsenic and IR, the association in adolescents is largely unknown. We examined the association between urinary arsenic and insulin resistance in US adolescents. Eight hundred thirty five adolescents aged 12-19 years, with complete data on urinary arsenic (total arsenic, inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA)), fasting glucose, insulin and key covariates were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003/2004 through 2009/2010. Generalized additive mixed models accounting for intra-cluster correlation arising from the complex survey design were used to estimate the association between the updated Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2)-IR and each type of arsenic. After adjusting for potential confounders, including urinary creatinine, sociodemographic factors, BMI, waist circumference, and arsenobetaine, arsenic exposure was not associated with HOMA2-IR. Interquartile range increases in total arsenic, inorganic arsenic and DMA were associated with 1.5% (95% CI: -2.0, 5.2), 1.1% (95% CI: -1.5, 3.8) and 0.25% (95% CI: -2.3, 2.9) increases in HOMA2-IR, respectively. In conclusion, despite arsenic's association with diabetes in adults and potential role in insulin resistance, our findings do not support the hypothesis that arsenic exposure at levels common in the US contributes to insulin resistance in adolescents. Whether higher doses and longer exposure duration are required for appreciable influence on insulin resistance, or that arsenic does not act through insulin resistance to induce diabetes needs further investigation.