Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Arsenic (Inorganic)

Show Project Details Hide Project Details
2,179 References Were Found:

Journal Article
Journal Article

Silibinin potentially protects arsenic-induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in rats

Authors: Muthumani, M; Prabu, SM (In Press) Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods. HERO ID: 1015878

[Less] Arsenic (As) compounds are reported as environmental toxicants and human carcinogens. Exposure to arsenic . . . [More] Arsenic (As) compounds are reported as environmental toxicants and human carcinogens. Exposure to arsenic imposes a big health issue worldwide. Silibinin (SB) is a major flavonolignan compound of silimarin and is found in milk thistle of Silybum marianum. It has been reported that silibinin has antioxidant efficacy as metal chelators due to the orientation of its functional groups. However, it has not yet been explored in experimental animals. In view of this fact, the purpose of this study was to delineate the ameliorative role of silibinin against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were orally treated with arsenic alone (5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) plus silibinin (75 mg/kg bw/day) for 4weeks. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by the increased activities of serum hepatospecific enzymes namely aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and total bilirubin along with increased elevation of lipid peroxidative markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl content and conjugated dienes. The toxic effect of arsenic was also indicated by significantly decreased activities of membrane bound ATPases, enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase along with nonenzymatic antioxidants like reduced glutathione, total sulfhydryl groups, vitamins C and E. Administration of silibinin exhibited a significant reversal of arsenic-induced toxicity in hepatic tissue. All these changes were supported by reduction of DNA damage in hepatocytes and histopathological observations of the liver. These results suggest that silibinin has a potential protective effect over arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in rat.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ameliorative effect Trichosanthes dioica root against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in male albino rats

Authors: Bhattacharya, S; Haldar, PK (In Press) Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. HERO ID: 1015695

[Less] The present study evaluated the ameliorative potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Trichosanthes dioica . . . [More] The present study evaluated the ameliorative potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Trichosanthes dioica root (TDA) against arsenic induced toxicity in male albino rats. TDA (5 and 10mg/kg) was administered orally to rats for 20 consecutive days before oral administration of sodium arsenite (10mg/kg) for 8 days. Then the body weights, organ weights, haematological profiles, serum biochemical profile; hepatic and renal antioxidative parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and DNA fragmentation were evaluated. Pretreatment with TDA markedly and significantly normalized body weights, organ weights, haematological profiles, serum biochemical profile and significantly modulated all the hepatic and renal biochemical parameters and reduced DNA fragmentation in arsenic intoxicated rats. The present findings conclude that T. dioica root possessed remarkable ameliorative effect against arsenic induced organ toxicity in male albino rats mediated by alleviation of arsenic induced oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Structure-function alteration of hemoglobin in arsenicosis patients: A probable pathway to exert toxicity

Authors: Mondal, B; Chatterjee, D; Bhattacharyya, M (In Press) Journal of Applied Toxicology. HERO ID: 711038

[Less] Chronic arsenicosis, a major public health concern in India and Bangladesh, is mainly caused by ingestion . . . [More] Chronic arsenicosis, a major public health concern in India and Bangladesh, is mainly caused by ingestion of arsenic (As) contaminated ground water. Although this problem has been studied extensively, the mechanism of toxicity remains unknown. This paper investigates the process of trivalent arsenicals binding to hemoglobin (Hb) in chronic arsenicosis patients and consequent modification in the structure-function activity of Hb. In this work peroxidase activity, thermal denaturation profile, oxygen releasing capacity and hydrodynamic diameter have been evaluated for the Hb collected from subjects suffering with chronic arsenicosis. Increased peroxidative activity suggests altered oxidative status of Hb in the diseased state. The thermal denaturation profile indicates the Hb molecule to be more susceptible to unfolding in the pathologic state. The enhanced oxygen releasing capacity and significant reduction in hydrodynamic diameter of Hb is also observed in the diseased condition, suggesting conformational alterations in the Hb molecule. Finally, trivalent arsenic is found to bind with freshly isolated Hb from arsenicosis patients, binding affinity constant being 0.256 μM(-1) . The binding is positively cooperative with a Hill coefficient of +2.961 and isosbestic points at specific wavelengths. Thus, our work explores the structure-function property of Hb in chronic arsenicosis subjects and reveals that the molecule is modified in such a way that comparatively weak binding with oxygen and strong binding with arsenic occur simultaneously. This association may play a crucial role in exerting the pathway for arsenic toxicity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic induced progesterone production in a caspase-3 dependent manner and changed redox status in preovulatory granulosa cells

Authors: Yuan, XH; Lu, CL; Yao, N; An, LS; Yang, BQ; Zhang, CL; Ma, X (In Press) Journal of Cellular Physiology. HERO ID: 710825

[Less] Arsenic contamination is a principal environmental health threat throughout the world. However, little . . . [More] Arsenic contamination is a principal environmental health threat throughout the world. However, little is known about the effect of arsenic on steroidogenesis in granulosa cells (GCs). We found that the treatment of preovulatory GCs with arsenite stimulated progesterone production. A significant increase in serum level of progesterone was observed in female Sprague-Dawley rats following arsenite treatment at a dose of 10 mg/L/rat/day for 7 days. Further experiments demonstrated that arsenite treatment did not change the level of intracellular cAMP or phosphorylated ERK1/2 in preovulatory GCs; however, progesterone production was significantly decreased when cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) or ERK1/2 pathway was inhibited. This implied that the effect of arsenite on progesterone production may require cAMP/PKA and ERK1/2 signaling but not depend on them. Furthermore, we found that arsenite decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) but increased the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in parallel to the changes in progesterone production. Progesterone antagonist blocked the arsenic-stimulated increase of GSH levels. Arsenite treatment induced caspase-3 activation, although no apoptosis was observed. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity significantly decreased progesterone production stimulated by arsenite or follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). GSH depletion with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) led to cell apoptosis in response to arsenite treatment. Collectively, this study demonstrated for the first time that arsenite stimulates progesterone production through cleaved/active caspase-3 dependent pathway, and the increase of GSH level promoted by progesterone production may protect GCs against apoptosis and maintain the steroidogenesis of GCs in response to arsenite treatment. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Oxidative modifications of proteins by sodium arsenite in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

Authors: Lii, C-K; Lin, A-H; Lee, S-L; Chen, H-W; Wang, T-S (In Press) Environmental Toxicology. HERO ID: 711001

[Less] Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that chronic arsenic exposure is associated with the incidence . . . [More] Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that chronic arsenic exposure is associated with the incidence of chronic diseases. This association is partly related to the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) overload and protein oxidation that result from arsenic exposure. In this study, we intended to identify proteins susceptible to oxidative carbonylation by sodium arsenite and the impact of carbonylation on the function of these proteins in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) dot-blot assay revealed that arsenite (0-50 muM) dose-dependently increased protein carbonylation. Consistent with these findings, the cellular ROS level as measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCHF-DA) assay was increased in cells exposed to arsenite. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assist laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS), one glycolytic enzyme, enolase-alpha, two cytoskeleton proteins, fascin (F-actin associated protein) and vimentin, and two protein quality control proteins, HSC70 (heat-shock cognate protein 70), and PDIA3 (protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3) were identified to be arsenic-sensitive carbonlyated proteins. Accompanied by carbonylation, enolase-alpha activity was dose-dependently decreased and the F-actin filament network was disturbed. Taken together, our results suggest that arsenite exposure results in the generation of carbonylated proteins, and the resultant changes in energy metabolism and in the cytoskeletal network may partly lead to cell damage.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

EMT and CSC-like properties mediated by the IKKβ/IκBα/RelA signal pathway via the transcriptional regulator, Snail, are involved in the arsenite-induced neoplastic transformation of human keratinocytes

Authors: Jiang, R; Li, Y; Xu, Y; Zhou, Y; Pang, Y; Shen, L; Zhao, Y; Zhang, J; Zhou, J; Wang, X; Liu, Q (In Press) Archives of Toxicology. HERO ID: 1337675

[Less] Exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic can cause skin cancer. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition . . . [More] Exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic can cause skin cancer. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and acquisition of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties are essential steps in the initiation of human skin cancers; however, the mechanisms of action remain obscure. We have found that, during the neoplastic transformation induced by a low concentration (1.0 μM) of arsenite in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, the cells undergo an EMT and then acquire a malignant CSC-like phenotype. With longer times for transformation of HaCaT cells, there were increased activations of IκB kinase β (IKKβ), inhibitor nuclear factor-kappa B alpha (IκBα), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) RelA and increases in the level of Snail. Further, during the transformation of HaCaT cells, the activation of NF-κB RelA up-regulated Snail levels. Inhibition of NF-κB RelA blocked the arsenite-induced EMT, acquisition of a CSC-like phenotype, and neoplastic transformation. These observations show that EMT, along with acquisition of a CSC-like phenotype mediated by IKKβ/IκBα/RelA signal pathway via Snail, contributes to a low concentration of arsenite-induced tumorigenesis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion, autocrine regulation of STAT3 signaling, and miR-21 expression, processes involved in the EMT and malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

Authors: Luo, F; Xu, Y; Ling, M; Zhao, Y; Xu, W; Liang, X; Jiang, R; Wang, B; Bian, Q; Liu, Q (In Press) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. HERO ID: 2064223

[Less] Arsenite is an established human carcinogen, and arsenite-induced inflammation contributes to malignant . . . [More] Arsenite is an established human carcinogen, and arsenite-induced inflammation contributes to malignant transformation of cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which cancers are produced remain to be established. The present results showed that, evoked by arsenite, secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, led to the activation of STAT3, a transcription activator, and to increased levels of a microRNA, miR-21. Blocking IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced miR-21 expression. For human bronchial epithelial cells, cultured in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody for 3days, the arsenite-induced EMT and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates miR-21in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT induced by arsenite. These data define a link from inflammation to EMT in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. This link, mediated through miRNAs, establishes a mechanism for arsenite-induced lung carcinogenesis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of arsenic on modification of promyelocytic leukemia (PML): PML responds to low levels of arsenite

Authors: Hirano, S; Watanabe, T; Kobayashi, Y (In Press) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. HERO ID: 2088511

[Less] Inorganic arsenite (iAs(3+)) is a two-edged sword. iAs(3+) is a well-known human carcinogen; nevertheless, . . . [More] Inorganic arsenite (iAs(3+)) is a two-edged sword. iAs(3+) is a well-known human carcinogen; nevertheless, it has been used as a therapeutic drug for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), which is caused by a fusion protein comprising retinoic acid receptor-α and promyelocytic leukemia (PML). PML, a nuclear transcription factor, has a RING finger domain with densely positioned cysteine residues. To examine PML-modulated cellular responses to iAs(3+), CHO-K1 and HEK293 cells were each used to establish cell lines that expressed ectopic human PML. Overexpression of PML increased susceptibility to iAs(3+) in CHO-K1 cells, but not in HEK293 cells. Exposure of PML-transfected cells to iAs(3+) caused PML to change from a soluble form to less soluble forms, and this modification of PML was observable even with just 0.1μM iAs(3+) (7.5ppb). Western blot and immunofluorescent microscopic analyses revealed that the biochemical changes of PML were caused at least in part by conjugation with small ubiquitin-like modifier proteins (SUMOylation). A luciferase reporter gene was used to investigate whether modification of PML was caused by oxidative stress or activation of antioxidant response element (ARE) in CHO-K1 cells. Modification of PML protein occurred faster than activation of the ARE in response to iAs(3+), suggesting that PML was not modified as a consequence of oxidative stress-induced ARE activation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analysis of the biological response of mouse liver (Mus musculus) exposed to As2O3 based on integrated -omics approaches

Authors: García-Sevillano, MA; García-Barrera, T; Navarro, F; Gómez-Ariza, JL (In Press) Metallomics. HERO ID: 2088589

[Less] Organic and inorganic mass spectrometries were used to investigate the biochemical response of mice . . . [More] Organic and inorganic mass spectrometries were used to investigate the biochemical response of mice (Mus musculus) to inorganic arsenic exposure using liver as the target organ. The toxicological effects of trivalent inorganic arsenic after oral administration (3 mg kg(-1) body weight and per day) were investigated over a period of 7 days using metallomics, metabonomics and redox proteomics approaches. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with ICP-MS detection was combined with anion exchange chromatography (AEC) to characterize the biological response of the exposed mice. On the other hand, direct infusion mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-QTOF-MS) of polar and lipophilic extracts using positive and negative modes of acquisition (ESI+/ESI-) provided information about time-dependent changes in endogenous metabolites identified by Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). Finally, the study has been complemented with the evaluation of up/down-regulation of enzymes related to oxidative stress such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and peroxidases in connection with metal toxicity issues. The results show that the inorganic arsenic methylation in the liver may reach the saturation point upon chronic exposure to the element. On the other hand, SEC-ICP-MS coupling provided information about metal containing-proteins and metabolites related to arsenic exposure (metallomics) which has been correlated with the changes in the global metabolism (metabonomics), also considering their consequences on the redox status of protein and protein expression (redox proteomics). Our study shows that arsenic causes biochemical pathway alterations, such as energy metabolism (e.g. glycolysis, Krebs cycle), amino acid metabolism, choline metabolism and degradation of membrane phospholipids (apoptosis). This work illustrates the high reliability of the integrated use of organic mass spectrometry for the metabonomic study of biochemical effects induced by As2O3, with inorganic mass spectrometry for metallomic and speciation assessment of arsenic biomethylation in the liver of exposed mice, and redox proteomics to evaluate inhibition of enzymatic activity in different proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) caused by this element. In conclusion, the integration of metallomics, metabolomics and redox proteomics results provides a more comprehensive evaluation about the biological response in experiments dealing with exposure to toxic metals.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Immunomodulatory role of Emblica officinalis in arsenic induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice

Authors: Singh, MK; Yadav, SS; Gupta, V; Khattri, S (In Press) BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. HERO ID: 1797783

[Less] BACKGROUND: Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment and has been found to be associated . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment and has been found to be associated with the various health related problems including skin lesions, cancer, cardiovascular and immunological disorders. The fruit extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) has been shown to have anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory properties. In view of increasing health risk of arsenic, the present study has been carried out to investigate the protective effect of amla against arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice. METHODS: Mice were exposed to arsenic (sodium arsenite 3 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or simultaneously with arsenic and amla for 28 days. The antioxidant enzyme assays were carried out using spectrophotometer and generation of ROS, apoptotic parameters, change in cell cycle were carried out using flow cytometer following the standard protocols. RESULTS: Arsenic exposure to mice caused a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation, ROS production and decreased cell viability, levels of reduced glutathione, the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential in the thymus as compared to controls. Increased activity of caspase-3 linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis and annexin V/PI binding was also observed in mice exposed to arsenic as compared to controls. Co-treatment with arsenic and amla decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation, ROS production, activity of caspase-3, apoptosis and increased cell viability, levels of antioxidant enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study exhibits that arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis significantly protected by co-treatment with amla that could be due to its strong antioxidant potential.