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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evidence of associations of APOBEC3B gene deletion with susceptibility to persistent HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma

Authors: Zhang, T; Cai, J; Chang, J; Yu, D; Wu, C; Yan, T; Zhai, K; Bi, X; Zhao, H; Xu, J; Tan, W; Qu, C; Lin, D (In Press) HERO ID: 1337302

[Less] APOBEC3s are a family of cytidine deaminases involved in innate cellular immunity against virus including . . . [More] APOBEC3s are a family of cytidine deaminases involved in innate cellular immunity against virus including hepatitis B virus (HBV). A germline deletion across APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B (A3B) genes results in complete removal of the A3B coding region and destroys A3B expression. To determine whether this deletion affects susceptibility to HBV infection and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), A3B genotypes were analyzed in 1,124 individuals with HCC, 510 individuals with persistent HBV infection and 826 healthy controls and the association was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) computed by logistic regression. We also examined the effects of APOBEC3B on HBV genome hypermutation and replication in HCC cells. We observed a significantly higher frequency of the A3B deletion allele in persistent HBV carriers (33.3%; P=0.0015) and HCC patients (37.9%; P=1.28×10(-11)) compared with that in controls (27.5%). An increased risk for persistent HBV infection (OR=1.35, 95% CI, 1.03-1.77) and HCC development (OR=1.90, 95% CI, 1.58-2.28) was associated with at least one A3B deletion allele (+/- or -/- genotype) compared with the +/+ genotype. Transfection of A3B in HepG2 cells caused a substantial reduction of HBV RNA levels and G→A hypermutation in HBV genome. Interestingly, a cytidine deaminase null mutant of A3B (E255A) also inhibited HBV RNA production although it was unable to edit HBV. These results suggest that deletion of A3B attenuates HBV clearance, which in turn may result in persistent HBV infection and increased risk for developing HCC. Further studies are needed to verify our findings.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

F18-FDG-PET/CT thyroid incidentalomas: A wide retrospective analysis in three Italian centres on the significance of focal uptake and SUV value

Authors: Bertagna, F; Treglia, G; Piccardo, A; Giovannini, E; Bosio, G; Biasiotto, G; Bahij, EK; Maroldi, R; Giubbini, R (In Press) Endocrine. HERO ID: 1337356

[Less] Thyroid incidental uptake is defined as a thyroid uptake incidentally and newly detected by imaging . . . [More] Thyroid incidental uptake is defined as a thyroid uptake incidentally and newly detected by imaging techniques performed for an unrelated purpose and especially for non-thyroid diseases. Aim of the study was to establish the prevalence and pathological nature of focal thyroid incidentalomas detected at F18-FDG-PET/CT in patients studied for oncological purposes and not for thyroid disease. Secondary end point was to establish a possible maximum standardised uptake value cut-off over which a malignant lesion should be suspected. We have retrospectively evaluated 49519 patients who underwent F18-FDG-PET/CT for oncologic purposes in three Nuclear Medicine Centres (N.1 = 11278, N.2 = 31076, N.3 = 7165). A focal incidental thyroid uptake was diagnosed in 729 (1.5 %) patients (287-39.4 % male and 442-60.6 % female; average age: 65.26). Of 729 thyroid incidentalomas 211 (28.9 %) underwent further investigation to determine the nature of the nodule; 124/211 (58.8 %) incidentalomas were benign, 72/211 (34.1 %) malignant, 4/211 (1.9 %) non-diagnostic at cytological examination in the absence of surgery and histological evaluation and 11/211 (5.2 %) were indeterminate at cytological examination. A centre-based receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis of the patients with a definitive diagnosis was performed to identify a SUVmax cut-off useful in differentiating benign from malignant incidentalomas. In the centre N.1 it was 4.8 (sensitivity = 95.7 %, specificity = 46.4 %, area under the curve = 0.758); 5.3 in the centre N.2 (sensitivity = 76.3 %, specificity = 72.5 %, area under the curve = 0.815); 7 in the centre N.3 (sensitivity = 57.1 %, specificity = 79.3 %, area under the curve = 0.627). F18-FDG-PET/CT thyroid incidentalomas are a relevant diagnostic reality which requires further investigations and clinical management especially considering that, despite mainly benign, approximately one third of focal thyroid uptakes are malignant.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Orally administered nicotine induces urothelial hyperplasia in rats and mice

Authors: Dodmane, PR; Arnold, LL; Pennington, KL; Cohen, SM (2014) Toxicology 315:49-54. HERO ID: 2337872

[Less] Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for multiple human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. . . . [More] Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for multiple human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture containing chemicals that are known carcinogens in humans and/or animals. Aromatic amines a major class of DNA-reactive carcinogens in cigarette smoke, are not present at sufficiently high levels to fully explain the incidence of bladder cancer in cigarette smokers. Other agents in tobacco smoke could be excreted in urine and enhance the carcinogenic process by increasing urothelial cell proliferation. Nicotine is one such major component, as it has been shown to induce cell proliferation in multiple cell types in vitro. However, in vivo evidence specifically for the urothelium is lacking. We previously showed that cigarette smoke induces increased urothelial cell proliferation in mice. In the present study, urothelial proliferative and cytotoxic effects were examined after nicotine treatment in mice and rats. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate was administered in drinking water to rats (52 ppm nicotine) and mice (514 ppm nicotine) for 4 weeks and urothelial changes were evaluated. Histopathologically, 7/10 rats and 4/10 mice showed simple hyperplasia following nicotine treatment compared to none in the controls. Rats had an increased mean BrdU labeling index compared to controls, although it was not statistically significantly elevated in either species. Scanning electron microscopic visualization of the urothelium did not reveal significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that oral nicotine administration induced urothelial hyperplasia (increased cell proliferation), possibly due to a mitogenic effect of nicotine and/or its metabolites.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Angiotensin II potentiates α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in the elderly

Authors: Barrett-O'Keefe, Z; Witman, MAH; McDaniel, J; Fjeldstad, AS; Trinity, JD; Ives, SJ; Conklin, JD; Reese, V; Runnels, S; Morgan, DE; Sander, M; Richardson, RS; Wray, DW (2013) Clinical Science 124:413-422. HERO ID: 1338750

[Less] Aging is characterized by increased sympatho-excitation, expressed through both the α-adrenergic and . . . [More] Aging is characterized by increased sympatho-excitation, expressed through both the α-adrenergic and RAAS (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone) pathways. Although the independent contribution of these two pathways to elevated vasoconstriction with age may be substantial, significant cross-talk exists that could produce potentiating effects. To examine this interaction, 14 subjects (n=8 young, n=6 old) underwent brachial artery catheterization for administration of AngII (angiotensin II; 0.8-25.6 ng/dl per min), NE [noradrenaline (norepinephrine); 2.5-80 ng/dl per min] and AngII with concomitant α-adrenergic antagonism [PHEN (phentolamine); 10 μg/dl per min]. Ultrasound Doppler was utilized to determine blood flow, and therefore vasoconstriction, in both infused and contralateral (control) limbs. Arterial blood pressure was measured directly, and sympathetic nervous system activity was assessed via microneurography and plasma NE analysis. AngII sensitivity was significantly greater in the old, indicated by both greater maximal vasoconstriction (-59±4% in old against -48±3% in young) and a decreased EC50 (half-maximal effective concentration) (1.4±0.2 ng/dl per min in old against 2.6±0.7 μg/dl per min in young), whereas the maximal NE-mediated vasoconstriction was similar between these groups (-58±9% in old and -62±5% in young). AngII also increased venous NE in the old group, but was unchanged in the young group. In the presence of α-adrenergic blockade (PHEN), maximal AngII-mediated vasoconstriction in the old was restored to that of the young (-43±8% in old and -39±6% in young). These findings indicate that, with healthy aging, the increased AngII-mediated vasoconstriction may be attributed, in part, to potentiation of the α-adrenergic pathway, and suggest that cross-talk between the RAAS and adrenergic systems may be an important consideration in therapeutic strategies targeting these two pathways.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prediction of macroscopic findings of hepatocellular carcinoma on hepatobiliary phase of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: Correlation with pathology

Authors: Fujinaga, Y; Kadoya, M; Kozaka, K; Shinmura, R; Matsui, O; Takayama, T; Yamamoto, M; Kokudo, N; Kawasaki, S; Arii, S (2013) 43:488-494. HERO ID: 1338847

[Less] AIM: We aimed to correlate the macroscopic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of hepatocellular . . . [More] AIM: We aimed to correlate the macroscopic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). METHODS: This was a multicenter study, whose study protocol was approved by each institutional review board. One hundred and forty-six resected nodules in 124 patients who had received a preoperative hepatobiliary phase of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) were analyzed. In both findings, we compared the diameter of HCC and macroscopic types divided into five types: (i) small nodular type with indistinct margin (SN-IM); (ii) simple nodular type (with distinct margin) (SN-DM); (iii) simple nodular type with extranodular growth (SN-EG); (iv) confluent multinodular type (CMN); and (v) infiltrative type (IF). RESULTS: The diameters in each finding (D(surg) and D(MRI) ) were significantly correlated (R = 0.961), although D(surg) was larger than D(MRI) (P = 0.0216). There were significant differences between D(surg) in SN-IM and the other groups (P < 0.0001). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 5.3, 99.2 and 87; 84.8, 62.7 and 81.4; 58.1, 91.3 and 84.2; 70.6, 91.5 and 89, in SN-IM, SN-DM, SN-EG and CMN, respectively. The kappa value of every size was as follows: all sizes, 0.45; 20 mm or less, 0.23; more than 20 mm, 0.56. CONCLUSION: EOB-MRI could predict the macroscopic pathological findings except for SN-IM. Small tumor size might be helpful to diagnose SN-IM.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A pilot study of darbepoetin alfa for prophylactic neuroprotection in aortic surgery

Authors: Messé, SR; McGarvey, ML; Bavaria, JE; Pochettino, A; Szeto, WY; Cheung, AT; Leitner, E; Miller, SW; Kasner, SE (2013) Neurocritical Care. HERO ID: 1340244

[Less] BACKGROUND: Descending aortic (DA) surgery poses a high risk for spinal and cerebral infarction and . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Descending aortic (DA) surgery poses a high risk for spinal and cerebral infarction and routine use of lumbar drains allows for measurement of CSF markers of neurologic injury. Erythropoiesis medications have extensive preclinical data demonstrating neuroprotection. We hypothesized that prophylactic darbepoetin alfa (DARB) given before surgery reduces neurologic injury in patients undergoing DA repair. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a prospective adaptive dose-finding trial of prophylactic DARB ( www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00647998) that terminated prematurely following publication of an erythropoietin stroke study showing possible harm. Enrollment halted before dose adjustments; nine patients each received 1 mg/kg IV DARB immediately before surgery. A prospective cohort of nine untreated patients was subsequently obtained for comparison. The primary outcome of death or neurologic impairment at discharge occurred in 1/9 (11 %) DARB patients and 3/9 (33 %) controls (p = 0.58). There were no statistical differences in changes of CSF biomarkers from baseline to 48 h comparing DARB patients to controls: S100β, median 214 versus 260 ng/ml (p = 0.69); glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), median 0.022 versus 0.58 ng/ml (p = 0.45). In patients with early perioperative neurologic ischemia, there were greater changes in CSF biomarkers, compared to those without ischemia: S100β, median 2301 versus 124 ng/ml (p = 0.04); GFAP, median 31.78 versus 0.31 ng/ml (p = 0.34). CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant effects of prophylactic DARB on clinical outcome or CSF markers of neurologic injury in this pilot study, although all point estimates favored treatment. DA repair is a promising model of prophylactic neuroprotection.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Local inflammation and human papillomavirus status of head and neck cancers

Authors: Tezal, M; Scannapieco, FA; Wactawski-Wende, J; Hyland, A; Marshall, JR; Rigual, NR; Stoler, DL (2012) HERO ID: 1340047

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To determine whether periodontitis is associated with human papillomavirus . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To determine whether periodontitis is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) status of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

DESIGN AND SETTING: Hospital-based case-control study in a comprehensive cancer center.

PATIENTS: Evaluation included all patients diagnosed with incident primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, and larynx between 1999 and 2007 for whom tissue samples and dental records were available (N = 124). Patients younger than 21 years and those with a history of cancer were excluded. Periodontitis history was assessed by alveolar bone loss in millimeters from panoramic radiographs by one examiner blinded to cancer status.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The presence of HPV-16 DNA in paraffin-embedded tumor samples was identified by polymerase chain reaction.

RESULTS: The prevalence of HPV-positive HNSCC was 50 of 124 patients (40.3%). A higher proportion of oropharyngeal cancers were HPV-positive (32 of 49 [65.3%]) compared with oral cavity (9 of 31 [29.0%]) and laryngeal (9 of 44 [20.5%]) cancers. Each millimeter of alveolar bone loss was associated with 2.6 times increased odds (odds ratio [OR], 2.61; 95% CI, 1.58-4.30) of HPV-positive tumor status after adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, and smoking status. The strength of the association was greater among patients with oropharyngeal SCC (OR, 11.70; 95% CI, 2.09-65.53) compared with those with oral cavity SCC (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 0.65-8.27) and laryngeal SCC (OR, 3.89; 95% CI, 0.95-15.99).

CONCLUSIONS: A history of chronic inflammatory disease in the oral cavity may be associated with tumor HPV status in patients with HNSCC. This association seems to be stronger among patients with oropharyngeal cancer compared with those who have oral cavity or laryngeal SCC.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Realgar-induced apoptosis and differentiation in all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-sensitive NB4 and ATRA-resistant MR2 cells

Authors: Chen, S; Fang, Y; Ma, L; Liu, S; Li, X (2012) International Journal of Oncology 40:1089-1096. HERO ID: 1341206

[Less] Realgar has been used in Western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine since ancient times, and . . . [More] Realgar has been used in Western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine since ancient times, and its promising anticancer activity has attracted much attention in recent years, especially for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the therapeutic action of realgar treatment for APL remains to be fully elucidated. Cellular cytotoxicity, proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation were comprehensively investigated in realgar-treated cell lines derived from PML-RARα+ APL patient, including the all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-sensitive NB4 and ATRA-resistant MR2 cell lines. For analysis of key regulators of apoptosis and differentiation, gene expression profiles were performed in NB4 cells. Realgar was found to induce apoptosis and differentiation in both cell lines, and these effects were exerted simultaneously. Gene expression profiles indicated that genes influenced by realgar treatment were involved in the modulation of signal transduction, translation, transcription, metabolism and the immune response. Given its low toxicity, realgar is a promising alternative reagent for the therapy of APL. Our data contribute to an understanding of the underlying mechanism responsible for the therapeutic effects of realgar in the clinical treatment of APL.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Can Chlorella pyrenoidosa be a bioindicator for hazardous solid waste detoxification?

Authors: Hu, LF; Long, YY; Shen, DS; Jiang, CJ (2012) Science of the Total Environment 416:232-238. HERO ID: 1240280

[Less] Four kinds of solid waste residue (SWR, S1 to S4) from different stages in a sequential detoxification . . . [More] Four kinds of solid waste residue (SWR, S1 to S4) from different stages in a sequential detoxification process were chosen. The biotoxicity of the leachates from S1 to S4 was tested by Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The growth inhibition, the chlorophyll a (chla) and chlorophyll b (chlb) concentrations, and the ultrastructural morphology of cells of C. pyrenoidosa were studied. It shows that the growth inhibition of C. pyrenoidosa significantly increased with increasing leachate concentration when exposed to the leachates from S1, S2, S3, and S4, respectively. It well reflects the toxicity difference of leachate from SWR at different treatment stages, namely S1>S2>S3>S4. Correspondingly, the chla and chlb concentrations of C. pyrenoidosa increased gradually as SWR was treated deeply. Leachate disrupted chlorophyll synthesis and inhibited cell growth. The changing of the ultrastructural morphology of cells under different leachate exposures, such as volume of chloroplasts and quantity of thylakoids reducing, confirmed the toxicity decrease of leachates from different stages. C. pyrenoidosa is a good bioindicator for hazardous solid waste detoxification. The EC(50) at difference scenarios also suggests that it was feasible to estimate ecological toxicity of leachates to C. pyrenoidosa after exposure times of 72h. C. pyrenoidosa can be introduced to evaluate the effect of hazardous solid waste disposal by biotoxicity assessment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Realgar-induced apoptosis of cervical cancer cell line Siha via cytochrome c release and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation

Authors: Cheng, YX; Liu, R; Wang, Q; Li, BS; Xu, XX; Hu, M; Chen, L; Fu, Q; Pu, DM; Hong, L (2012) Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine 18:359-365. HERO ID: 1247958

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To explore the molecular mechanism of realgar-induced apoptosis of cervical . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To explore the molecular mechanism of realgar-induced apoptosis of cervical cancer cells.

METHODS: The cervical cancer cell line Siha was used to determine the cell viability and apoptosis after treatment with realgar using MTT assay and flow cytometry. The activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 were detected by fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology and colorimetric assay, while the levels of Bcl-2, cytochrome c, and Bax were detected by Western blot method.

RESULTS: Induction of apoptosis by realgar was detected in Siha cell line in a dose-dependent manner. The apoptosis was accompanied by a significant increase in cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 but not caspase-8. Further, the realgar-induced apoptosis was inhibited by a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, a caspase-3 inhibitor, and a caspase-9 inhibitor but not by a caspase-8 inhibitor. Bcl-2 and Bax protein expressions were not changed by realgar.

CONCLUSION: The induction of apoptosis by realgar is mediated through a cytochrome c-dependent pathway, which sequentially activates caspase-9 and caspase-3.