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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evidence of associations of APOBEC3B gene deletion with susceptibility to persistent HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma

Authors: Zhang, T; Cai, J; Chang, J; Yu, D; Wu, C; Yan, T; Zhai, K; Bi, X; Zhao, H; Xu, J; Tan, W; Qu, C; Lin, D (In Press) HERO ID: 1337302

[Less] APOBEC3s are a family of cytidine deaminases involved in innate cellular immunity against virus including . . . [More] APOBEC3s are a family of cytidine deaminases involved in innate cellular immunity against virus including hepatitis B virus (HBV). A germline deletion across APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B (A3B) genes results in complete removal of the A3B coding region and destroys A3B expression. To determine whether this deletion affects susceptibility to HBV infection and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), A3B genotypes were analyzed in 1,124 individuals with HCC, 510 individuals with persistent HBV infection and 826 healthy controls and the association was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) computed by logistic regression. We also examined the effects of APOBEC3B on HBV genome hypermutation and replication in HCC cells. We observed a significantly higher frequency of the A3B deletion allele in persistent HBV carriers (33.3%; P=0.0015) and HCC patients (37.9%; P=1.28×10(-11)) compared with that in controls (27.5%). An increased risk for persistent HBV infection (OR=1.35, 95% CI, 1.03-1.77) and HCC development (OR=1.90, 95% CI, 1.58-2.28) was associated with at least one A3B deletion allele (+/- or -/- genotype) compared with the +/+ genotype. Transfection of A3B in HepG2 cells caused a substantial reduction of HBV RNA levels and G→A hypermutation in HBV genome. Interestingly, a cytidine deaminase null mutant of A3B (E255A) also inhibited HBV RNA production although it was unable to edit HBV. These results suggest that deletion of A3B attenuates HBV clearance, which in turn may result in persistent HBV infection and increased risk for developing HCC. Further studies are needed to verify our findings.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

F18-FDG-PET/CT thyroid incidentalomas: A wide retrospective analysis in three Italian centres on the significance of focal uptake and SUV value

Authors: Bertagna, F; Treglia, G; Piccardo, A; Giovannini, E; Bosio, G; Biasiotto, G; Bahij, EK; Maroldi, R; Giubbini, R (In Press) Endocrine. HERO ID: 1337356

[Less] Thyroid incidental uptake is defined as a thyroid uptake incidentally and newly detected by imaging . . . [More] Thyroid incidental uptake is defined as a thyroid uptake incidentally and newly detected by imaging techniques performed for an unrelated purpose and especially for non-thyroid diseases. Aim of the study was to establish the prevalence and pathological nature of focal thyroid incidentalomas detected at F18-FDG-PET/CT in patients studied for oncological purposes and not for thyroid disease. Secondary end point was to establish a possible maximum standardised uptake value cut-off over which a malignant lesion should be suspected. We have retrospectively evaluated 49519 patients who underwent F18-FDG-PET/CT for oncologic purposes in three Nuclear Medicine Centres (N.1 = 11278, N.2 = 31076, N.3 = 7165). A focal incidental thyroid uptake was diagnosed in 729 (1.5 %) patients (287-39.4 % male and 442-60.6 % female; average age: 65.26). Of 729 thyroid incidentalomas 211 (28.9 %) underwent further investigation to determine the nature of the nodule; 124/211 (58.8 %) incidentalomas were benign, 72/211 (34.1 %) malignant, 4/211 (1.9 %) non-diagnostic at cytological examination in the absence of surgery and histological evaluation and 11/211 (5.2 %) were indeterminate at cytological examination. A centre-based receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis of the patients with a definitive diagnosis was performed to identify a SUVmax cut-off useful in differentiating benign from malignant incidentalomas. In the centre N.1 it was 4.8 (sensitivity = 95.7 %, specificity = 46.4 %, area under the curve = 0.758); 5.3 in the centre N.2 (sensitivity = 76.3 %, specificity = 72.5 %, area under the curve = 0.815); 7 in the centre N.3 (sensitivity = 57.1 %, specificity = 79.3 %, area under the curve = 0.627). F18-FDG-PET/CT thyroid incidentalomas are a relevant diagnostic reality which requires further investigations and clinical management especially considering that, despite mainly benign, approximately one third of focal thyroid uptakes are malignant.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Orally administered nicotine induces urothelial hyperplasia in rats and mice

Authors: Dodmane, PR; Arnold, LL; Pennington, KL; Cohen, SM (2014) Toxicology 315:49-54. HERO ID: 2337872

[Less] Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for multiple human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. . . . [More] Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for multiple human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture containing chemicals that are known carcinogens in humans and/or animals. Aromatic amines a major class of DNA-reactive carcinogens in cigarette smoke, are not present at sufficiently high levels to fully explain the incidence of bladder cancer in cigarette smokers. Other agents in tobacco smoke could be excreted in urine and enhance the carcinogenic process by increasing urothelial cell proliferation. Nicotine is one such major component, as it has been shown to induce cell proliferation in multiple cell types in vitro. However, in vivo evidence specifically for the urothelium is lacking. We previously showed that cigarette smoke induces increased urothelial cell proliferation in mice. In the present study, urothelial proliferative and cytotoxic effects were examined after nicotine treatment in mice and rats. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate was administered in drinking water to rats (52 ppm nicotine) and mice (514 ppm nicotine) for 4 weeks and urothelial changes were evaluated. Histopathologically, 7/10 rats and 4/10 mice showed simple hyperplasia following nicotine treatment compared to none in the controls. Rats had an increased mean BrdU labeling index compared to controls, although it was not statistically significantly elevated in either species. Scanning electron microscopic visualization of the urothelium did not reveal significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that oral nicotine administration induced urothelial hyperplasia (increased cell proliferation), possibly due to a mitogenic effect of nicotine and/or its metabolites.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Angiotensin II potentiates α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in the elderly

Authors: Barrett-O'Keefe, Z; Witman, MAH; McDaniel, J; Fjeldstad, AS; Trinity, JD; Ives, SJ; Conklin, JD; Reese, V; Runnels, S; Morgan, DE; Sander, M; Richardson, RS; Wray, DW (2013) Clinical Science 124:413-422. HERO ID: 1338750

[Less] Aging is characterized by increased sympatho-excitation, expressed through both the α-adrenergic and . . . [More] Aging is characterized by increased sympatho-excitation, expressed through both the α-adrenergic and RAAS (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone) pathways. Although the independent contribution of these two pathways to elevated vasoconstriction with age may be substantial, significant cross-talk exists that could produce potentiating effects. To examine this interaction, 14 subjects (n=8 young, n=6 old) underwent brachial artery catheterization for administration of AngII (angiotensin II; 0.8-25.6 ng/dl per min), NE [noradrenaline (norepinephrine); 2.5-80 ng/dl per min] and AngII with concomitant α-adrenergic antagonism [PHEN (phentolamine); 10 μg/dl per min]. Ultrasound Doppler was utilized to determine blood flow, and therefore vasoconstriction, in both infused and contralateral (control) limbs. Arterial blood pressure was measured directly, and sympathetic nervous system activity was assessed via microneurography and plasma NE analysis. AngII sensitivity was significantly greater in the old, indicated by both greater maximal vasoconstriction (-59±4% in old against -48±3% in young) and a decreased EC50 (half-maximal effective concentration) (1.4±0.2 ng/dl per min in old against 2.6±0.7 μg/dl per min in young), whereas the maximal NE-mediated vasoconstriction was similar between these groups (-58±9% in old and -62±5% in young). AngII also increased venous NE in the old group, but was unchanged in the young group. In the presence of α-adrenergic blockade (PHEN), maximal AngII-mediated vasoconstriction in the old was restored to that of the young (-43±8% in old and -39±6% in young). These findings indicate that, with healthy aging, the increased AngII-mediated vasoconstriction may be attributed, in part, to potentiation of the α-adrenergic pathway, and suggest that cross-talk between the RAAS and adrenergic systems may be an important consideration in therapeutic strategies targeting these two pathways.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prediction of macroscopic findings of hepatocellular carcinoma on hepatobiliary phase of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: Correlation with pathology

Authors: Fujinaga, Y; Kadoya, M; Kozaka, K; Shinmura, R; Matsui, O; Takayama, T; Yamamoto, M; Kokudo, N; Kawasaki, S; Arii, S (2013) 43:488-494. HERO ID: 1338847

[Less] AIM: We aimed to correlate the macroscopic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of hepatocellular . . . [More] AIM: We aimed to correlate the macroscopic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). METHODS: This was a multicenter study, whose study protocol was approved by each institutional review board. One hundred and forty-six resected nodules in 124 patients who had received a preoperative hepatobiliary phase of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) were analyzed. In both findings, we compared the diameter of HCC and macroscopic types divided into five types: (i) small nodular type with indistinct margin (SN-IM); (ii) simple nodular type (with distinct margin) (SN-DM); (iii) simple nodular type with extranodular growth (SN-EG); (iv) confluent multinodular type (CMN); and (v) infiltrative type (IF). RESULTS: The diameters in each finding (D(surg) and D(MRI) ) were significantly correlated (R = 0.961), although D(surg) was larger than D(MRI) (P = 0.0216). There were significant differences between D(surg) in SN-IM and the other groups (P < 0.0001). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 5.3, 99.2 and 87; 84.8, 62.7 and 81.4; 58.1, 91.3 and 84.2; 70.6, 91.5 and 89, in SN-IM, SN-DM, SN-EG and CMN, respectively. The kappa value of every size was as follows: all sizes, 0.45; 20 mm or less, 0.23; more than 20 mm, 0.56. CONCLUSION: EOB-MRI could predict the macroscopic pathological findings except for SN-IM. Small tumor size might be helpful to diagnose SN-IM.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A pilot study of darbepoetin alfa for prophylactic neuroprotection in aortic surgery

Authors: Messé, SR; McGarvey, ML; Bavaria, JE; Pochettino, A; Szeto, WY; Cheung, AT; Leitner, E; Miller, SW; Kasner, SE (2013) Neurocritical Care. HERO ID: 1340244

[Less] BACKGROUND: Descending aortic (DA) surgery poses a high risk for spinal and cerebral infarction and . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Descending aortic (DA) surgery poses a high risk for spinal and cerebral infarction and routine use of lumbar drains allows for measurement of CSF markers of neurologic injury. Erythropoiesis medications have extensive preclinical data demonstrating neuroprotection. We hypothesized that prophylactic darbepoetin alfa (DARB) given before surgery reduces neurologic injury in patients undergoing DA repair. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a prospective adaptive dose-finding trial of prophylactic DARB ( www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00647998) that terminated prematurely following publication of an erythropoietin stroke study showing possible harm. Enrollment halted before dose adjustments; nine patients each received 1 mg/kg IV DARB immediately before surgery. A prospective cohort of nine untreated patients was subsequently obtained for comparison. The primary outcome of death or neurologic impairment at discharge occurred in 1/9 (11 %) DARB patients and 3/9 (33 %) controls (p = 0.58). There were no statistical differences in changes of CSF biomarkers from baseline to 48 h comparing DARB patients to controls: S100β, median 214 versus 260 ng/ml (p = 0.69); glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), median 0.022 versus 0.58 ng/ml (p = 0.45). In patients with early perioperative neurologic ischemia, there were greater changes in CSF biomarkers, compared to those without ischemia: S100β, median 2301 versus 124 ng/ml (p = 0.04); GFAP, median 31.78 versus 0.31 ng/ml (p = 0.34). CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant effects of prophylactic DARB on clinical outcome or CSF markers of neurologic injury in this pilot study, although all point estimates favored treatment. DA repair is a promising model of prophylactic neuroprotection.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Renewable resource-based magnetic nanocomposites for removal and recovery of phosphorous from contaminated waters

Authors: Ramasahayam, SK; Gunawan, G; Finlay, C; Viswanathan, T (2012) HERO ID: 1352061

[Less] Water pollution by P (phosphorous) is a serious water-related issue being faced by mankind during the . . . [More] Water pollution by P (phosphorous) is a serious water-related issue being faced by mankind during the past two decades. Several technologies already exist to remove P from contaminated water, but each has its own drawbacks. The present paper discusses a novel microwave-assisted synthesis of reduced iron oxide containing renewable-resource-based media for P removal from contaminated waters. It provides a fast, easy, and economical way to produce reduced iron oxide nanocomposites without requiring the need for hydrogen or inert gas during the transformation. A wide range of other metal/ carbon nanocomposites can also be synthesized using this technology and therefore holds tremendous economic promise. The prepared media were highly effective and efficient in removing P. A 100 % P removal efficiency was attained using a 1 mg/L standard P stock solution and a maximum capacity of 43.7 mg P/g of composite was achieved using 500 mg/L standard P stock solution. The present technology is highly economical as the carbon source employed was a renewable resource media with a high regeneration capacity. The present technology may also be used for arsenic removal from similarly contaminated water. The method of preparation of media, treatment methodology, and characterization methods are also discussed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Adipocyte deficiency of angiotensinogen prevents obesity-induced hypertension in male mice

Authors: Yiannikouris, F; Gupte, M; Putnam, K; Thatcher, S; Charnigo, R; Rateri, DL; Daugherty, A; Cassis, LA (2012) HERO ID: 1337583

[Less] Previous studies demonstrated that diet-induced obesity increased plasma angiotensin II concentrations . . . [More] Previous studies demonstrated that diet-induced obesity increased plasma angiotensin II concentrations and elevated systolic blood pressures in male mice. Adipocytes express angiotensinogen and secrete angiotensin peptides. We hypothesize that adipocyte-derived angiotensin II mediates obesity-induced increases in systolic blood pressure in male high fat-fed C57BL/6 mice. Systolic blood pressure was measured by radiotelemetry during week 16 of low-fat or high-fat feeding in Agt(fl/fl) and adipocyte angiotensinogen-deficient mice (Agt(aP2)). Adipocyte angiotensinogen deficiency had no effect on diet-induced obesity. Basal 24-hour systolic blood pressure was not different in low fat-fed Agt(fl/fl) compared with Agt(aP2) mice (124±3 versus 128±3 mm Hg, respectively). In Agt(fl/fl) mice, high-fat feeding significantly increased systolic blood pressure (24 hours; 134±2 mm Hg; P<0.05). In contrast, high fat-fed Agt(aP2) mice did not exhibit an increase in systolic blood pressure (126±2 mm Hg). Plasma angiotensin II concentrations were increased by high-fat feeding in Agt(fl/fl) mice (low fat, 32±14; high fat, 219±58 pg/mL; P<0.05). In contrast, high fat-fed Agt(aP2) mice did not exhibit elevated plasma angiotensin II concentrations (high fat, 18±7 pg/mL). Similarly, adipose tissue concentrations of angiotensin II were significantly decreased in low fat- and high fat-fed Agt(aP2) mice compared with controls. In conclusion, adipocyte angiotensinogen deficiency prevented high fat-induced elevations in plasma angiotensin II concentrations and systolic blood pressure. These results suggest that adipose tissue serves as a major source of angiotensin II in the development of obesity hypertension.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Combination therapy patterns and predictors of ADHD in commercially insured and medicaid populations

Authors: Molife, C; Bernauer, MJ; Farr, AM; Haynes, VS; Kelsey, D (2012) HERO ID: 1337632

[Less] Objectives: Several stimulant and nonstimulant medications are used alone or in combination to treat . . . [More] Objectives: Several stimulant and nonstimulant medications are used alone or in combination to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Little is known about the current prevalence and predictors of combination therapy. This analysis describes ADHD medication use focusing on combination versus monotherapy. Methods: Health insurance claims from the Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial Database and Multi-State Medicaid Database were analyzed for patients with an ADHD diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 314.0x). Patients included were aged ≥ 6 years as of January 2010, continuously enrolled from July 2009 through December 2010, and had a claim for an ADHD medication in 2010. Medication use was measured in treatment months during 2010. Baseline demographic and clinical predictors of combination therapy (> 1 ADHD medication class in the same month) involving atomoxetine, long-acting stimulants, and α2-adrenergic agonists were explored using logistic regression, with generalized estimating equations to account for within-patient correlation between months. Results: Commercially insured patients with ADHD (N = 211 226) were primarily aged 6 to 17 years (58.4%) and male (61.5%). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with hyperactivity was present in 15.8% of these patients. Combination therapy was used in 10.3% of 1 125 119 treatment months. Short-acting stimulants and α2-adrenergic agonists had the highest combination use (45.3% and 54.0%, respectively). Patients with ADHD insured through Medicaid (N = 125 104) were primarily aged 6 to 17 years (94.4%) and male (69.5%). Hyperactivity was present in 39.7% of these patients. Combination therapy was used in 24.0% of 721 986 treatment months. Short-acting stimulants, α2-adrenergic agonists, and intermediate-acting stimulants had the highest combination use (70.0%, 63.8%, and 51.8%, respectively). In multivariate models for both data sources, female patients were less likely to use combination therapy. Patients with hyperactivity were more likely to use combination therapy. Tics/Tourette's syndrome was associated with combination therapy for atomoxetine and long-acting stimulants. Conclusion: In commercially insured and Medicaid ADHD populations, combination therapy rates differed by medication class, as did the demographic and clinical characteristics statistically significantly associated with combination therapy. This suggests that these medications may be used differently in clinical practice.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Erlotinib has better efficacy than gefitinib in adenocarcinoma patients without EGFR-activating mutations, but similar efficacy in patients with EGFR-activating mutations

Authors: Wu, WS; Chen, YM; Tsai, CM; Shih, JF; Chiu, CH; Chou, KT; Lai, SL; Wu, CH; Luo, YH; Huang, CY; Lee, YC; Perng, RP; Whang-Peng, J (2012) HERO ID: 1338903

[Less] Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are an effective treatment for . . . [More] Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are an effective treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of gefitinib and erlotinib in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma, whose tumor EGFR mutation status was known. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients who began receiving gefitinib or erlotinib treatment from January 2005 to December 2010, and whose tumor EGFR mutation status had been determined, were included. Clinical data, type of treatment response and survival time data were collected. Of the 224 patients enrolled, 124 received gefitinib treatment and 100 received erlotinib treatment. Of these patients, 146 individuals had tumors with EGFR-activating mutations (exon 19 deletions and/point mutation of L858R in exon 21) and 78 did not. There was no difference in treatment response whether or not the patients had tumors with EGFR-activating mutations at the time they received gefitinib or erlotinib treatment. The median progression-free survival (PFS) of the gefitinib and erlotinib groups was 7.6 and 7.9 months, respectively (p=0.4731). PFS was significantly longer for patients without EGFR-activating mutations who received erlotinib treatment (n=48; median, 4.5 months) than for those who received gefitinib treatment (n=30; median, 2.3 months), with a hazard ratio of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.35-0.96; p=0.0339). Patients whose tumors had EGFR-activating mutations displayed no difference in PFS with either gefitinib (n=94; median, 10.5 months) or erlotinib treatment (n=52; median, 10.4 months). In conclusion, PFS showed no difference with either agent in patients whose tumors had EGFR-activating mutations, but was significantly longer in patients whose tumors did not have EGFR-activating mutations when receiving erlotinib treatment.