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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Interaction effects of lead on bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of arsenic in the rat

Authors: Diacomanolis, V; Noller, BN; Ng, JC (In Press) Environmental Geochemistry and Health. HERO ID: 1677622

[Less] Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are common contaminants found in mine waste materials. For an evidence-based . . . [More] Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are common contaminants found in mine waste materials. For an evidence-based risk assessment, it is important to better understand the potential interaction of mixed contaminants; and this interaction study was investigated in an in vivo rat model. Following co-administration of a fixed dose of As(V) as in sodium arsenate and different doses of Pb as lead acetate to Sprague-Dawley rats, blood arsenic concentration and bioavailability decreased. A decrease in As blood concentration when lead was co-administered was observed with increasing lead doses. Pharmacokinetic parameters for As in the blood showed faster absorption and elimination of this metalloid in the presence of Pb. The elimination half-life of As decreased from 67 days in As solo group to 27-30 with doses of Pb. Bioavailability of As was also decreased by 30-43 % in the presence of Pb. Decreased urinary excretion of Pb and tissue accumulation were also observed. It indicates lower absorption of As when co-administered with Pb. A probable explanation for these findings is that As co-administration with Pb could have resulted in the formation of less soluble lead arsenate. However, such an interaction between As and Pb could only explain about one-third of the variation when real mine waste materials containing both of these elements were administered to rats. This suggests that other effects from physical and chemical parameters could contribute to the bioavailability of arsenic in complex real environmental samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Health risk associated with dietary co-exposure to high levels of antimony and arsenic in the world's largest antimony mine area

Authors: Wu, F; Fu, Z; Liu, B; Mo, C; Chen, B; Corns, W; Liao, H (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 737608

[Less] Like arsenic (As), antimony (Sb) is known to be a genotoxic element in vitro and in vivo. Sb is now . . . [More] Like arsenic (As), antimony (Sb) is known to be a genotoxic element in vitro and in vivo. Sb is now recognized as a global contaminant and has aroused the global concerns recently. However, knowledge is scarce concerning the transfer of Sb from the environment to humans and the related hazards to human health. In this pilot study, the health risk and main pathway of long-term human exposure to Sb and As for residents around Chinese Xikuangshan (XKS) Sb mine, the world's largest Sb mine, were evaluated by dietary exposure and hair accumulations survey. The concentrations and species of Sb and As in food samples (n=209) from three main categories and six subcategories, and in hair samples (n=89) were determined. Residents in the vicinity of XKS had an estimated dietary intake of Sb (554μg/day) which was 1.5 times higher than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) (Sb, 360μg/day), whereas their dietary intake of inorganic As (107μg/day) was slightly lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 15μg/kg BW/week (equal to 129μg As/day). Hair Sb and As concentrations (Sb, 15.7mg/kg, DW; As, 3.99mg/kg, DW) in XKS residents are both above the normal/toxic level. Rice, vegetables (especially leafy vegetable), drinking water, and meat/poultry were the dominant dietary intake sources of Sb for the residents. In contrast, rice was the uniquely dominant dietary intake source of As. Antimonate (Sb(V)) was the dominant Sb species in vegetables, drinking water and residents' hairs. This study highlighted the difference of exposure characteristics between Sb and As. The preliminary results suggested that dietary exposures to Sb, rather than As, was the dominant health risk to local residents. Nevertheless, the adverse effects of As levels on the health of residents still can not be ignored since the elevated As concentrations in human hair have reached the critical level for health risks. In addition, this pilot study did not consider the possible Sb and As combined effects.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of selenomethionine supplementation in food on the excretion and toxicity of arsenic exposure in female mice

Authors: Rodríguez-Sosa, M; García-Montalvo, EA; Del Razo, LM; Vega, L (In Press) Biological Trace Element Research. HERO ID: 2149154

[Less] Selenium (Se) is an essential component of several major metabolic pathways and controls immune function. . . . [More] Selenium (Se) is an essential component of several major metabolic pathways and controls immune function. Arsenic (As) is a human carcinogen with immunotoxic and genotoxic activities, functioning mainly by producing oxidative stress. Due to the ability of Se to interact with As and to possibly block its toxic effects, we investigated the impact of dietary Se-methionine (Se-Met) supplementation on the toxicity of As exposure in vivo in a mouse model. Sufficient and excess levels of Se-Met (0.2 and 2 ppm, respectively) were fed to C57BL/6N female mice exposed to sodium arsenite (3, 6 and 10 mg/kg) in tap water for 9 days. We observed that As exposure increased Se-Met excretion in the urine. Se-Met supplementation increased the relative liver weight and decreased the concentration of total liver proteins in animals exposed to 10 mg/kg of As. Se-Met supplementation maintained a normal pool of glutathione in the liver and increased glutathione peroxidase concentration, although the lipoperoxidation level was increased by Se-Met even without As exposure. Se-Met supplementation helped to maintain the CD4/CD8 ratio of lymphocytes in the spleen, although it increased the proportion of B cells. Se-Met supplementation prior to As exposure increased the secretion of interleukin-4, IL-12 and interferon-γ and the stimulation index of the spleen cells in in vitro assays. Se-Met intake improved the basal immunological parameters but did not reduce the damage caused by oxidative stress after low-dose As exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cancer and non-cancer health effects from food contaminant exposures for children and adults in California: A risk assessment

Authors: Vogt, R; Bennett, D; Cassady, D; Frost, J; Ritz, B; Hertz-Picciotto, I (In Press) Environmental Health. HERO ID: 1337520

[Less] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In the absence of current cumulative dietary exposure assessments, this analysis . . . [More] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In the absence of current cumulative dietary exposure assessments, this analysis was conducted to estimate exposure to multiple dietary contaminants for children, who are more vulnerable to toxic exposure than adults. METHODS: We estimated exposure to multiple food contaminants based on dietary data from preschool-age children (2--4 years, n=207), school-age children (5--7 years, n=157), parents of young children (n=446), and older adults (n=149). We compared exposure estimates for eleven toxic compounds (acrylamide, arsenic, lead, mercury, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, chlordane, DDE, and dioxin) based on self-reported food frequency data by age group. To determine if cancer and non-cancer benchmark levels were exceeded, chemical levels in food were derived from publicly available databases including the Total Diet Study. RESULTS: Cancer benchmark levels were exceeded by all children (100%) for arsenic, dieldrin, DDE, and dioxins. Non-cancer benchmarks were exceeded by >95% of preschool-age children for acrylamide and by 10% of preschool-age children for mercury. Preschool-age children had significantly higher estimated intakes of 6 of 11 compounds compared to school-age children (p<0.0001 to p=0.02). Based on self-reported dietary data, the greatest exposure to pesticides from foods included in this analysis were tomatoes, peaches, apples, peppers, grapes, lettuce, broccoli, strawberries, spinach, dairy, pears, green beans, and celery. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary strategies to reduce exposure to toxic compounds for which cancer and non-cancer benchmarks are exceeded by children vary by compound. These strategies include consuming organically produced dairy and selected fruits and vegetables to reduce pesticide intake, consuming less animal foods (meat, dairy, and fish) to reduce intake of persistent organic pollutants and metals, and consuming lower quantities of chips, cereal, crackers, and other processed carbohydrate foods to reduce acrylamide intake.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inflammatory responses induced by fluoride and arsenic at toxic concentration in rabbit aorta

Authors: Ma, Y; Niu, R; Sun, Z; Wang, J; Luo, G; Zhang, J; Wang, J (In Press) Archives of Toxicology. HERO ID: 1015659

[Less] Epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the atherogenic effects of environmental . . . [More] Epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the atherogenic effects of environmental toxicant arsenic and fluoride. Inflammatory mechanism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of chronic exposure to arsenic and fluoride alone or combined on inflammatory response in rabbit aorta. We analyzed the expression of genes involved in leukocyte adhesion [P-selectin (P-sel) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1)], recruitment and transendothelial migration of leukocyte [interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)] and those involved in pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-6 (IL-6)]. We found that fluoride and arsenic alone or combined increased the expression of VCAM-1, P-sel, MCP-1, IL-8, and IL-6 at the RNA and protein levels. The gene expressions of inflammatory-related molecules were attenuated when co-exposure to the two toxicants compared with just one of them. We also examined the lipid profile of rabbits exposed to fluoride and (or) arsenic. The results showed that fluoride slightly increased the serum lipids but arsenic decreased serum triglyceride. We showed that inflammatory responses but not lipid metabolic disorder may play a crucial role in the mechanism of the cardiovascular toxicity of arsenic and fluoride.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

SLCO1B1 variants and urine arsenic metabolites in the strong heart family study

Authors: Gribble, MO; Voruganti, VS; Cropp, CD; Francesconi, KA; Goessler, W; Umans, JG; Silbergeld, EK; Laston, SL; Haack, K; Kao, WHL; Fallin, MD; MacCluer, JW; Cole, SA; Navas-Acien, A (In Press) Toxicological Sciences. HERO ID: 1936044

[Less] Arsenic species patterns in urine are associated with risk for cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The . . . [More] Arsenic species patterns in urine are associated with risk for cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The organic anion transporter gene SLCO1B1 may transport arsenic species, but its association with arsenic metabolites in human urine has not yet been studied.Objective. To evaluate associations of urine arsenic metabolites with variants in the candidate gene SLCO1B1 in adults from the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS).Methods. We estimated associations between % arsenic species biomarker traits and 5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLCO1B1 gene in 157 participants, assuming additive genetics. Linear regression models for each SNP accounted for kinships and were adjusted for sex, body mass index and study center.Results. The minor allele of rs1564370 was associated with lower %MMA (p = 0.0003) and higher %DMA (p = 0.0002), accounting for 8% of the variance for %MMA and 9% for %DMA. The rs1564370 minor allele homozygote frequency was 17% and the heterozygote frequency was 43%. The minor allele of rs2291075 was associated with lower %MMA (p = 0.0006) and higher %DMA (p = 0.0014), accounting for 7% of the variance for %MMA and 5% for %DMA. The frequency of rs2291075 minor allele homozygotes was 1% and of heterozygotes it was 15%.Conclusions. Common variants in SLCO1B1 were associated with differences in arsenic metabolites in a preliminary candidate gene study. Replication of this finding in other populations and analyses with respect to disease outcomes are needed to determine whether this novel candidate gene is important for arsenic-associated disease risks.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

GSTO and AS3MT genetic polymorphisms and differences in urinary arsenic concentrations among residents in Bangladesh

Authors: Rodrigues, EG; Kile, M; Hoffman, E; Quamruzzaman, Q; Rahman, M; Mahiuddin, G; Hsueh, Y; Christiani, DC (In Press) Biomarkers. HERO ID: 1015752

[Less] We determined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glutathione S-transferase omega . . . [More] We determined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glutathione S-transferase omega (GSTO) and arsenic(III)methyltransferase (AS3MT) genes were associated with concentrations of urinary arsenic metabolites among 900 individuals without skin lesions in Bangladesh. Four SNPs were assessed in these genes. A pathway analysis evaluated the association between urinary arsenic metabolites and SNPs. GSTO1 rs4925 homozygous wild type was significantly associated with higher monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid urinary concentrations, whereas wild-type AS3MT rs11191439 had significantly lower levels of As(III) and MMA. Genetic polymorphisms GSTO and As3MT modify arsenic metabolism as evidenced by altered urinary arsenic excretion.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

N-6-Adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase 1 (N6AMT1) polymorphisms and arsenic methylation in Andean women

Authors: Harari, F; Engström, K; Concha, G; Colque, G; Vahter, M; Broberg, K (In Press) Environmental Health Perspectives. HERO ID: 1597348

[Less] Background: In humans, inorganic arsenic is metabolized to methylated metabolites mainly by arsenic . . . [More] Background: In humans, inorganic arsenic is metabolized to methylated metabolites mainly by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT). AS3MT polymorphisms are associated with arsenic metabolism efficiency. Recently, a putative N-6-adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase 1 (N6AMT1) was found to methylate arsenic in vitro. Objective: We evaluated the role of N6AMT1 polymorphisms in arsenic methylation efficiency in humans. Methods: We assessed arsenic methylation efficiency in 188 women exposed to arsenic via drinking water (~ 200 µg/L) in the Argentinean Andes by measuring the relative concentrations of arsenic metabolites in urine [inorganic arsenic, methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid] by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We performed genotyping for N6AMT1 and AS3MT polymorphisms by Taqman assays, and gene expression (in blood; n = 63) with Illumina HumanHT-12 v4.0. Results: Five N6AMT1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs1997605, rs2205449, rs2705671, rs16983411, and rs1048546) and two N6AMT1 haplotypes were significantly associated with the percentage of MMA (%MMA) in urine, even after adjusting for AS3MT haplotype. %MMA increased monotonically according to the number of alleles for each SNP (e.g., for rs1048546, mean %MMA was 7.5% for GG, 8.8% for GT, and 9.7% for TT carriers). Three SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium (R2 > 0.8). Estimated associations for joint effects of N6AMT1 (haplotype 1) and AS3MT (haplotype 2) were generally consistent with expectations for additive effects of each haplotype on %MMA. Carriers of N6AMT1 genotypes associated with lower %MMA showed the lowest N6AMT1 expression, but associations were monotonic according to copy number for only one genotype and one haplotype. Conclusions: N6AMT1 polymorphisms were associated with arsenic methylation in Andean women, independent of AS3MT. N6AMT1 polymorphisms may be susceptibility markers for arsenic-related toxic effects.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Gut microbiome perturbations induced by bacterial infection affect arsenic biotransformation

Authors: Lu, K; Cable, PH; Abo, RP; Ru, H; Graffam, ME; Schlieper, KA; Parry, NMA; Levine, S; Bodnar, WM; Wishnok, JS; Styblo, M; Swenberg, JA; Fox, JG; Tannenbaum, SR (In Press) Chemical Research in Toxicology. HERO ID: 2088513

[Less] Exposure to arsenic affects large human populations worldwide, and has been associated with a long list . . . [More] Exposure to arsenic affects large human populations worldwide, and has been associated with a long list of human diseases, including skin, bladder, lung, and liver cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders. In addition, there are large individual differences in susceptibility to arsenic-induced diseases, which are frequently associated with different patterns of arsenic metabolism. Several underlying mechanisms, such as genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics, have been proposed, as these factors closely impact the individuals' capacity to metabolize arsenic. In this context, the role of the gut microbiome in directly metabolizing arsenics and triggering systemic responses in diverse organs raises the possibility that perturbations of the gut microbial communities affect the spectrum of metabolized arsenic species and subsequent toxicological effects. In this study, we used an animal model with altered gut microbiome induced by bacterial infection, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)-based arsenic speciation to examine the effect of gut microbiome perturbations on the biotransformation of arsenic. Metagenomics sequencing revealed that bacterial infection significantly perturbed the gut microbiome composition in C57BL/6 mice, which in turn resulted in altered spectra of arsenic metabolites in urine, with inorganic arsenic species and methylated arsenics being up- and down-regulated, respectively. These data clearly illustrated that gut microbiome phenotypes significantly affected arsenic metabolic reactions, including reduction, methylation and thiolation. These findings improve our understanding of how infectious diseases and environmental exposure interact, and may also provide novel insight regarding the gut microbiome composition as a new risk factor of individual susceptibility to environmental chemicals.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Antiapoptotic efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B(12) against arsenic-induced toxicity

Authors: Majumdar, S; Maiti, A; Karmakar, S; Sekhar Das, A; Mukherjee, S; Das, D; Mitra, C (In Press) Environmental Toxicology. HERO ID: 1017429

[Less] Earlier, we proposed that the ability of folic acid and vitamin B(12) to preserve systemic and mitochondrial . . . [More] Earlier, we proposed that the ability of folic acid and vitamin B(12) to preserve systemic and mitochondrial function after short-term exposure to arsenic may prevent further progression to more permanent injury and pathological changes leading to cell death. To elucidate its mechanism, the present study examined the antiapoptotic efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B(12) against short-term arsenic exposure-induced hepatic mitochondria oxidative stress and dysfunction. Sixteen to eighteen weeks old male albino rats weighing 140-150 × g were divided into five groups: Control (A), Arsenic-treated (B), Arsenic + folic acid (C), Arsenic +vitamin B(12) (D), and Arsenic + folic acid + vitamin B(12) (E). Data generated indicated that folic acid and vitamin B(12) separately or in combination can give significant protection against alterations in oxidative stress and apoptotic marker parameters and downstream changes in mitochondria, namely pro-oxidative (NO, TBARS, OH(-)) and antioxidative defense (SOD, CAT, GSH) markers, iNOS protein expression, mitochondrial swelling, cytochrome c oxidase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, Ca(2+) content, caspase-3 activity. Additionally, results of hepatic cell DNA fragmentation, arsenic load of blood, hepatic tissue and urine, and histological observations, all strongly support that both these supplements have efficacy in preventing apoptotic changes and cellular damage. As the mechanisms of actions of both of these supplements are methylation related, a combined application was more effective. Results further reveal new molecular targets through which folic acid and vitamin B(12) separately or in combination work to alleviate one critical component of arsenic-induced liver injury: mitochondria dysfunction. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2010.