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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mass Arsenic Poisoning and the Public Health Response in Maine

Authors: Mills, DA; Tomassoni, AJ; Tallon, LA; Kade, KA; Savoia, ES (In Press) Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness. HERO ID: 1017315

[Less] Created in the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, Maine's Office of Public Health Emergency . . . [More] Created in the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, Maine's Office of Public Health Emergency Preparedness within the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention undertook a major reorganization of epidemiology and laboratory services and began developing relationships with key partners and stakeholders, and a knowledgeable and skilled public health emergency preparedness workforce. In 2003, these newly implemented initiatives were tested extensively during a mass arsenic poisoning at the Gustav Adolph Lutheran Church in the rural northern community of New Sweden, Maine. This episode serves as a prominent marker of how increased preparedness capabilities, as demonstrated by the rapid identification and administration of antidotes and effective collaborations between key partners, can contribute to the management of broader public health emergencies in rural areas.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Transport routes of metalloids into and out of the cell: A review of the current knowledge

Authors: Zangi, R; Filella, M (In Press) Chemico-Biological Interactions. [Review] HERO ID: 1015719

[Less] Except for their extra- and intra-cellular interfaces, cell membranes are hydrophobic and inhibit the . . . [More] Except for their extra- and intra-cellular interfaces, cell membranes are hydrophobic and inhibit the transport of hydrophilic molecules. Metalloids in aqueous solutions form chemical species with oxygen and hydroxyl groups and, therefore, exist as hydrophilic neutral polar solutes or as hydrophilic anions. This characteristic of metalloids introduces a large barrier for their passage through the cell membrane via unaided diffusion. The necessity for an uptake mechanism for metalloids arises from the requirement of these species for the maintenance of life, such as the need of boron for plant cells. Conversely, the transport of these species out of the cell is necessary because some metalloids are toxic, such as arsenic and antimony, and their entrance into the cell is undesirable. The undesired uptake of these toxic species is possible via pathways designed for the uptake of other structurally and chemically similar essential compounds. Therefore, the extrusion of arsenic and antimony out of the cell is an example of a detoxification mechanism. As a consequence of the hydrophobic character of the cell membrane in all living systems, the main route for the uptake and efflux of metalloids is facilitated by transmembrane proteins, driven either by concentration gradients or by energy-fueled pumps. However, metalloids forming or embedded in nano-sized particles escape the need to cross the cell membrane because these particles can be taken into the cell by endocytosis. Here, we review the uptake and efflux pathways of boron, silicon, arsenic, and antimony through the cell membranes of different organisms and the protein channels involved in these processes. In particular, passive diffusion via aquaglyceroporins, active transport via primary and secondary ion pumps, extrusion into vacuoles of metalloid-thiol conjugates via ATP-binding cassette, the efflux of methylated metalloids, and endocytosis are summarized.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bioreporters and biosensors for arsenic detection. Biotechnological solutions for a world-wide pollution problem

Authors: Merulla, D; Buffi, N; Beggah, S; Truffer, F; Geiser, M; Renaud, P; van der Meer, JR (In Press) Current Opinion in Biotechnology. [Review] HERO ID: 1338620

[Less] A wide variety of whole cell bioreporter and biosensor assays for arsenic detection has been developed . . . [More] A wide variety of whole cell bioreporter and biosensor assays for arsenic detection has been developed over the past decade. The assays permit flexible detection instrumentation while maintaining excellent method of detection limits in the environmentally relevant range of 10-50μg arsenite per L and below. New emerging trends focus on genetic rewiring of reporter cells and/or integration into microdevices for more optimal detection. A number of case studies have shown realistic field applicability of bioreporter assays.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of potential health risk for arsenic and heavy metals in some herbal flowers and their infusions consumed in China

Authors: Zhu, F; Wang, X; Fan, W; Qu, L; Qiao, M; Yao, S (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 1338777

[Less] Herbal tea is consumed widely in China due to their therapeutic efficacy, mild features, and relatively . . . [More] Herbal tea is consumed widely in China due to their therapeutic efficacy, mild features, and relatively low cost. To assess the health risk associated with drinking herbal tea, arsenic and seven heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ni, and Pb in eight different types of herbal flowers and their infusions were determined by inductively coupled-mass spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy and precision of the analytical method were confirmed by the certified reference material (GBW 07605). The results suggested that significant differences existed in all metal concentrations determined among different varieties of herbal flowers and their infusions. In general, the concentration of iron was higher than those of seven other metals in the investigated herbal flowers and their infusions. The hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were calculated to evaluate the noncarcinogenic health risk from individual metal and combined metals due to the dietary intakes via consumption of herbal infusions. Both the HQ and HI levels were far below one, suggesting that the dietary intakes of the eight metals determined from daily consumption 4.5 g of the investigated herbal flowers for a normal adult should pose no potential risk to human health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Role of HO-1 in the Arsenite-Induced Neurotoxicity in Primary Cultured Cortical Neurons

Authors: Teng, YC; Tai, YI; Lee, YH; Lin, AM (In Press) Molecular Neurobiology. HERO ID: 1797846

[Less] In the present study, the role of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in sodium arsenite (arsenite)-induced neurotoxicity . . . [More] In the present study, the role of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in sodium arsenite (arsenite)-induced neurotoxicity was investigated using primary cultured cortical neurons. Incubation with arsenite was found to cause cell death of primary cultured cortical neurons in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, arsenite induced caspase 3 activation and decreased procaspase 12 levels, indicating that apoptosis is involved in the arsenite-induced neurotoxicity. The oxidative mechanism underlying arsenite-induced neurotoxicity was investigated. Western blot assay showed that arsenite significantly increased HO-1 levels, a redox-regulated protein. Co-incubation with glutathione (10 mM) attenuated arsenite-induced HO-1 elevation and caspase 3 activation, suggesting that oxidative stress is involved in the arsenite-induced neurotoxicity. The neurotoxic effects of inorganic arsenics were compared; arsenite was more potent than arsenate in inducing HO-1 expression and caspase 3 activation. Moreover, the cell viabilities of arsenite and arsenate were 60 ± 2 and 99 ± 2 % of control, respectively. HO-1 siRNA transfection was employed to prevent arsenite-induced HO-1 elevation. At the same time, arsenite-induced caspase 3 activation and neuronal death were attenuated in the HO-1 siRNA-transfected cells. Taken together, HO-1 appears to be neuroprotective in the arsenite-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured cortical neurons. In addition to antioxidants, HO-1 elevation may be a neuroprotective strategy for arsenite-induced neurotoxicity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Technological options for the removal of arsenic with special reference to South East Asia

Authors: Jain, CK; Singh, RD (In Press) Journal of Environmental Management. [Review] HERO ID: 1070320

[Less] Arsenic contamination in ground water, used for drinking purpose, has been envisaged as a problem of . . . [More] Arsenic contamination in ground water, used for drinking purpose, has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. However, arsenic contamination of ground water in parts of South East Asia is assuming greater proportions and posing a serious threat to the health of millions of people. A variety of treatment technologies based on oxidation, co-precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange and membrane process are available for the removal of arsenic from ground water. However, question remains regarding the efficiency and applicability/appropriateness of the technologies, particularly because of low influent arsenic concentration and differences in source water composition. Some of these methods are quite simple, but the disadvantage associated with them is that they produce large amounts of toxic sludge, which needs further treatment before disposal into the environment. Besides, the system must be economically viable and socially acceptable. In this paper an attempt has been made to review and update the recent advances made in the technological development in arsenic removal technologies to explore the potential of those advances to address the problem of arsenic contamination in South East Asia.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and trophic transfer of arsenic in the aquatic food chain

Authors: Azizur Rahman, M; Hasegawa, H; Lim, RP (In Press) Environmental Research. [Review] HERO ID: 1070386

[Less] The occurrence, distribution, speciation, and biotransformation of arsenic in aquatic environment (marine . . . [More] The occurrence, distribution, speciation, and biotransformation of arsenic in aquatic environment (marine and freshwater) have been studied extensively by several research groups during last couple of decades. However, most of those studies have been conducted in marine waters, and the results are available in a number of reviews. Speciation, bioaccumulation, and biotransformation of arsenic in freshwaters have been studied in recent years. Although inorganic arsenic (iAs) species dominates in both marine and freshwaters, it is biotransformed to methyl and organoarsenic species by aquatic organisms. Phytoplankton is considered as a major food source for the organisms of higher trophic levels in the aquatic food chain, and this autotrophic organism plays important role in biotransformation and distribution of arsenic species in the aquatic environment. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic by phytoplankton, and trophic transfer of arsenic in marine and freshwater food chains have been important concerns because of possible human health effects of the toxic metalloid from dietary intake. To-date, most of the studies on arsenic biotransformation, speciation, and trophic transfer have focused on marine environments; little is known about these processes in freshwater systems. This article has been reviewed the bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and trophic transfer of arsenic in marine and freshwater food chain.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Construction of small plasmid vectors for use in genetic improvement of the extremely acidophilic Acidithiobacillus caldus

Authors: Meng, J; Wang, H; Liu, X; Lin, J; Pang, X; Lin, J (In Press) Microbiological Research. HERO ID: 1579238

[Less] The genetic improvement of biomining bacteria including Acidithiobacillus caldus could facilitate the . . . [More] The genetic improvement of biomining bacteria including Acidithiobacillus caldus could facilitate the bioleaching process of sulfur-containing minerals. However, the available vectors for use in A. caldus are very scanty and limited to relatively large broad-host-range IncQ plasmids. In this study, a set of small, mobilizable plasmid vectors (pBBR1MCS-6, pMSD1 and pMSD2) were constructed based on plasmid pBBR1MCS-2, which does not belong to the IncQ, IncW, or IncP groups. The function of the tac promoter on 5.8-kb pMSD2 was determined by inserting a kanamycin-resistant reporter gene. The resulting recombinant pMSD2-Km was successfully transferred by conjugation into A. caldus MTH-04 with transfer frequency of 1.38±0.64×10(-5). The stability and plasmid copy number of pMSD2-Km in A. caldus MTH-04 were 75±2.7% and 5-6 copies per cell, respectively. By inserting an arsABC operon into pMSD2, an arsenic-resistant recombinant pMSD2-As was constructed and transferred into A. caldus MTH-04 by conjugation. The arsenic tolerance of A. caldus MTH-04 containing pMSD2-As was obviously increased up to 45mM of NaAsO2. These vectors could be applied in genetic improvement of A. caldus as well as other bioleaching bacteria.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Evaluating the spatial distribution of quantitative risk and hazard level of arsenic exposure in groundwater, case study of Qorveh County, Kurdistan Iran

Authors: Nasrabadi, T; Bidabadi, NS (In Press) HERO ID: 1579325

[Less] Regional distribution of quantitative risk and hazard levels due to arsenic poisoning in some parts . . . [More] Regional distribution of quantitative risk and hazard levels due to arsenic poisoning in some parts of Iran's Kurdistan province is considered. To investigate the potential risk and hazard level regarding arsenic-contaminated drinking water and further carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on villagers, thirteen wells in rural areas of Qorveh County were considered for evaluation of arsenic concentration in water. Sampling campaign was performed in August 2010 and arsenic concentration was measured via the Silver Diethyldithiocarbamate method. The highest and lowest arsenic concentration are reported in Guilaklu and Qezeljakand villages with 420 and 67 mug/L, respectively. None of thirteen water samples met the maximum contaminant level issued by USEPA and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (10 ppb). The highest arsenic concentration and consequently risk and hazard levels belong to villages situated alongside the eastern frontiers of the county. Existence of volcanic activities within the upper Miocene and Pleistocene in this part of the study area may be addressed as the main geopogenic source of arsenic pollution. Quantitative risk values are varying from 1.49E-03 in Qezeljakand to 8.92E-03 in Guilaklu and may be interpreted as very high when compared by similar studies in Iran. Regarding non-carcinogenic effects, all thirteen water samples are considered hazardous while all calculated chronic daily intakes are greater than arsenic reference dose. Such drinking water source has the potential to impose adverse carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on villagers. Accordingly, an urgent decision must be made to substitute the current drinking water source with a safer one.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic in the human food chain: The Latin American perspective

Authors: Bundschuh, J; Nath, B; Bhattacharya, P; Liu, C-W; Armienta, MA; Moreno López, MV; Lopez, DL; Jean, J-S; Cornejo, L; Lauer Macedo, LF; Filho, AT (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. [Review] HERO ID: 1021992

[Less] Many regions of Latin America are widely reported for the occurrence of high arsenic (As) in groundwater . . . [More] Many regions of Latin America are widely reported for the occurrence of high arsenic (As) in groundwater and surface water due to a combination of geological processes and/or anthropogenic activities. In this paper, we review the available literature (both in English and Spanish languages) to delineate human As exposure pathways through the food chain. Numerous studies show that As accumulations in edible plants and crops are mainly associated with the presence of high As in soils and irrigation waters. However, factors such as As speciation, type and composition of soil, and plant species have a major control on the amount of As uptake. Areas of high As concentrations in surface water and groundwater show high As accumulations in plants, fish/shellfish, livestock meat, milk and cheese. Such elevated As concentrations in food may result in widespread health risks to local inhabitants, including health of indigenous populations and residents living close to mining industries. Some studies show that As can be transferred from the water to prepared meals, thereby magnifying the As content in the human diet. Arsenic speciation might also change during food preparation, especially during high temperature cooking, such as grilling and frying. Finally, the review of the available literature demonstrates the necessity of more rigorous studies in evaluating pathways of As exposure through the human food chain in Latin America.