Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA-PM (2019)


14,251 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Longitudinal associations between ambient air pollution with insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and adiposity in Los Angeles Latino children: Supplementary material

Authors: Alderete, TL; Habre, R; Toledo-Corral, CM; Berhane, K; Chen, Z; Lurmann, FW; Weigensberg, MJ; Goran, MI; Gilliland, FD (In Press) Diabetes. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3800414


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Supplemental information: Understanding particles emitted from spray and wall-guided gasoline direct injection and flex fuel vehicles operating on ethanol and iso-butanol gasoline blends

Authors: Short, D; Vu, D; Chen, V; Espinoza, C; Berte, T; Karavalakis, G; Durbin, TD; Asa-Awuku, A (In Press) Aerosol Science and Technology. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3554428


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Outdoor Air Pollution and Incidence of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Small-Area Level Ecological Study

Authors: Maheswaran, R; Pearson, T; Smeeton, NC; Beevers, SD; Campbell, MJ; Wolfe, CD (In Press) Stroke. HERO ID: 842306

[Less] BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evidence linking outdoor air pollution and incidence of stroke is limited. We . . . [More] BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evidence linking outdoor air pollution and incidence of stroke is limited. We examined effects of outdoor air pollution on the incidence of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke at the population level focusing on middle-aged and older people. METHODS: We used a small-area level ecological study design and a stroke register set up to capture all incident cases of first-ever stroke occurring in a defined geographical area in south London (948 census output areas) where road traffic contributes to spatial variation in air pollution. Population-weighted averages were calculated for output areas using outdoor nitrogen dioxide and PM(10) concentrations modeled at a 20-m resolution. RESULTS: There were 1832 ischemic and 348 hemorrhagic strokes in 1995 to 2004 occurring among a resident population of 267 839. Mean (SD) concentration was 25.1 (1.2) μg/m(3) (range, 23.3-36.4 μg/m(3)) for PM(10) and 41.4 (3.0) μg/m(3) (range, 35.4-68.0 μg/m(3)) for nitrogen dioxide. For ischemic stroke, adjusted rate ratios per 10-μg/m(3) increase, for all ages, 40 to 64 and 65 to 79 years, respectively, were 1.22 (0.77-1.93), 1.12 (0.55-2.28), and 1.86 (1.10-3.13) for PM(10) and 1.11 (0.93-1.32), 1.13 (0.86-1.50), and 1.23 (0.99-1.53) for nitrogen dioxide. For hemorrhagic stroke, the corresponding rate ratios were 0.52 (0.20-1.37), 0.78 (0.17-3.51), and 0.51 (0.12-2.22) for PM(10) and 0.86 (0.60-1.24), 1.12 (0.66-1.90), and 0.78 (0.44-1.39) for nitrogen dioxide. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was no significant association between outdoor air pollutants and ischemic stroke incidence for all ages combined, there was a suggestion of increased risk among people aged 65 to 79 years. There was no evidence of increased incidence in hemorrhagic stroke.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Titanium Dioxide Exposure Induces Acute Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation in Rabbits

Authors: Choi, GS; Oak, C; Chun, BK; Wilson, D; Jang, TW; Kim, HK; Jung, M; Tutkun, E; Park, EK (In Press) Industrial Health. HERO ID: 2337959

[Less] Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 . . . [More] Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250 µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24hr after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24hr after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1hr after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24hr, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24hr. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air pollution-induced placental epigenetic alterations in early life: A candidate miRNA approach

Authors: Tsamou, M; Vrijens, K; Madhloum, N; Lefebvre, W; Vanpoucke, C; Nawrot, TS (In Press) Epigenetics. HERO ID: 3359719

[Less] Particulate matter (PM) exposure during in utero life may entail adverse health outcomes in later-life. . . . [More] Particulate matter (PM) exposure during in utero life may entail adverse health outcomes in later-life. Air pollution's adverse effects are known to alter gene expression profiles, which can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). We investigate the potential influence of air pollution exposure in prenatal life on placental miRNA expression. Within the framework of the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, we measured the expression of six candidate miRNAs in placental tissue from 210 mother-newborn pairs by qRT-PCR. Trimester-specific PM2.5 exposure levels were estimated for each mother's home address using a spatiotemporal model. Multiple regression models were used to study miRNA expression and in utero exposure to PM2.5 over various time windows during pregnancy. The placental expression of miR-21 (-33.7%, 95% CI: -53.2 to -6.2, P=0.022), miR-146a (-30.9%, 95% CI: -48.0 to -8.1, P=0.012) and miR-222 (-25.4%, 95% CI: -43.0 to -2.4, P=0.034) was inversely associated with PM2.5 exposure during the 2(nd) trimester of pregnancy, while placental expression of miR-20a and miR-21 was positively associated with 1(st) trimester exposure. Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was identified as a common target of the miRNAs significantly associated with PM exposure. Placental PTEN expression was strongly and positively associated (+59.6% per 5 μg/m³ increment, 95% CI: 26.9 to 100.7, P<0.0001) with 3(rd) trimester PM2.5 exposure. Further research is required to establish the role these early miRNA and mRNA expression changes might play in PM-induced health effects. We provide molecular evidence showing that in utero PM2.5 exposure affects miRNAs expression as well as its downstream target PTEN.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

SARS-Cov-2RNA found on particulate matter of Bergamo in Northern Italy: First evidence

Authors: Setti, L; Passarini, F; De Gennaro, G; Barbieri, P; Perrone, MG; Borelli, M; Palmisani, J; Di Gilio, A; Torboli, V; Fontana, F; Clemente, L; Pallavicini, A; Ruscio, M; Piscitelli, P; Miani, A (2020) HERO ID: 6574477

[Less] BACKGROUND: The burden of COVID-19 was extremely severe in Northern Italy, an area . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The burden of COVID-19 was extremely severe in Northern Italy, an area characterized by high concentrations of particulate matter (PM), which is known to negatively affect human health. Consistently with evidence already available for other viruses, we initially hypothesized the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 presence on PM, and we performed a first experiment specifically aimed at confirming or excluding this research hyphotesys.

METHODS: We have collected 34 PM10 samples in Bergamo area (the epicenter of the Italian COVID-19 epidemic) by using two air samplers over a continuous 3-weeks period. Filters were properly stored and underwent RNA extraction and amplification according to WHO protocols in two parallel blind analyses performed by two different authorized laboratories. Up to three highly specific molecular marker genes (E, N, and RdRP) were used to test the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on particulate matter.

RESULTS: The first test showed positive results for gene E in 15 out of 16 samples, simultaneously displaying positivity also for RdRP gene in 4 samples. The second blind test got 5 additional positive results for at least one of the three marker genes. Overall, we tested 34 RNA extractions for the E, N and RdRP genes, reporting 20 positive results for at least one of the three marker genes, with positivity separately confirmed for all the three markers. Control tests to exclude false positivities were successfully accomplished.

CONCLUSION: This is the first evidence that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be present on PM, thus suggesting a possible use as indicator of epidemic recurrence.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Estimating long-term pollution exposure effects through inverse probability weighting methods with Cox proportional hazards models

Authors: Higbee, JD; Lefler, JS; Burnett, RT; Ezzati, M; Marshall, JD; Kim, SY; Bechle, M; Robinson, AL; Pope, CA (2020) HERO ID: 6672380

[Less] Background: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with negative health outcomes . . . [More] Background: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with negative health outcomes in both the short and long term. However, the cohort studies that have produced many of the estimates of long-term exposure associations may fail to account for selection bias in pollution exposure as well as covariate imbalance in the study population; therefore, causal modeling techniques may be beneficial.

Methods: Twenty-nine years of data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was compiled and linked to modeled annual average outdoor PM2.5 concentration and restricted-use mortality data. A series of Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted using inverse probability weights, yielded causal risk estimates of long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 on all-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality.

Results: Covariate-adjusted estimated relative risks per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure were estimated to be 1.117 (1.083, 1.152) for all-cause mortality and 1.232 (1.174, 1.292) for cardiopulmonary mortality. Inverse probability weighted Cox models provide relatively consistent and robust estimates similar to those in the unweighted baseline multivariate Cox model, though they have marginally lower point estimates and higher standard errors.

Conclusions: These results provide evidence that long-term exposure to PM2.5 contributes to increased mortality risk in US adults and that the estimated effects are generally robust to modeling choices. The size and robustness of estimated associations highlight the importance of clean air as a matter of public health. Estimated confounding due to measured covariates appears minimal in the NHIS cohort, and various distributional assumptions have little bearing on the magnitude or standard errors of estimated causal associations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Estimating Causal Effects of Particulate Matter Regulation on Mortality

Authors: Sanders, NJ; Barreca, AI; Neidell, MJ (2020) HERO ID: 6671796

[Less] BACKGROUND: Estimating the causal effect of pollution on human health is integral for . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Estimating the causal effect of pollution on human health is integral for evaluating returns to pollution regulation, yet separating out confounding factors remains a perennial challenge.

METHODS: We use a quasi-experimental design to investigate the causal relationship between regulation of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter (PM2.5) and mortality among those 65 years of age and older. We exploit regulatory changes in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). Regulation in 2005 impacted areas of the United States differentially based on pre-regulation air quality levels for PM2.5. We use county-level mortality data, extracted from claims data managed by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, merged to county-level average PM2.5 readings and attainment status as classified by the Environmental Protection Agency.

RESULTS: Based on estimates from log-linear difference-in-differences models, our results indicate after the CAAA designation for PM2.5 in 2005, PM2.5 levels decreased 1.59 micrograms per cubic meter (95% CI = 1.39, 1.80) and mortality rates among those 65 and older decreased by 0.93% (95% CI = 0.10%, 1.77%) in nonattainment counties, relative to attainment ones. Results are robust to a series of alternate models, including nearest-neighbor matching based on propensity score estimates.

CONCLUSION: This analysis suggests large health returns to the 2005 PM2.5 designations, and provides evidence of a causal association between pollution and mortality among the Medicare population.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lowering Air Pollution Levels in Massachusetts May Prevent Cardiovascular Hospital Admissions

Authors: Yitshak-Sade, M; Nethery, R; Abu Awad, Y; Mealli, F; Dominici, F; Kloog, I; Zanobetti, A (2020) HERO ID: 6672458


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

PM2.5 air pollution and cause-specific cardiovascular disease mortality

Authors: Hayes, RB; Lim, C; Zhang, Y; Cromar, K; Shao, Y; Reynolds, HR; Silverman, DT; Jones, RR; Park, Y; Jerrett, M; Ahn, J; Thurston, GD (2020) HERO ID: 6672384

[Less] BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet uncertainty remains about the size of risks at lower levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure which now occur in the USA and elsewhere.

METHODS: We investigated the relationship of ambient PM2.5 exposure with cause-specific cardiovascular disease mortality in 565 477 men and women, aged 50 to 71 years, from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. During 7.5 x 106 person-years of follow up, 41 286 cardiovascular disease deaths, including 23 328 ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and 5894 stroke deaths, were ascertained using the National Death Index. PM2.5 was estimated using a hybrid land use regression (LUR) geostatistical model. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

RESULTS: Each increase of 10  μg/m3 PM2.5 (overall range, 2.9-28.0  μg/m3) was associated, in fully adjusted models, with a 16% increase in mortality from ischaemic heart disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1.16; 95% CI 1.09-1.22] and a 14% increase in mortality from stroke (HR 1.14; CI 1.02-1.27). Compared with PM2.5 exposure <8  μg/m3 (referent), risks for CVD were increased in relation to PM2.5 exposures in the range of 8-12  μg/m3 (CVD: HR 1.04; 95% CI 1.00-1.08), in the range 12-20  μg/m3 (CVD: HR 1.08; 95% CI 1.03-1.13) and in the range 20+ μg/m3 (CVD: HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.10-1.28). Results were robust to alternative approaches to PM2.5 exposure assessment and statistical analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution is associated with ischaemic heart disease and stroke mortality, with excess risks occurring in the range of and below the present US long-term standard for ambient exposure to PM2.5 (12  µg/m3), indicating the need for continued improvements in air pollution abatement for CVD prevention.