Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA-PM (current)


360 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The reduction of summer sulfate and switch from summertime to wintertime PM2.5 concentration maxima in the United States

Authors: Chan, EAW; Gantt, B; McDow, S (2018) Atmospheric Environment 175:25-32. HERO ID: 4386275

[Less] Exposure to particulate matter air pollution with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal . . . [More] Exposure to particulate matter air pollution with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 gm (PM(2.)5) has been associated with health effects including cardiovascular disease and death. Here, we add to the understanding of urban and rural PM2.5 concentrations over large spatial and temporal scales in recent years. We used high-quality, publicly-available air quality monitoring data to evaluate PM2.5 concentration patterns and changes during the years 2000-2015. Compiling and averaging measurements collected across the U.S. revealed that PM2.5 concentrations from urban sites experienced seasonal maxima in both winter and summer. Within each year from 2000 to 2008, the maxima of urban summer peaks were greater than winter peaks. However, from 2012 to 2015, the maxima of urban summertime PM2.5 peaks were smaller than the urban wintertime PM2.5 maxima, due to a decrease in the magnitude of summertime maxima with no corresponding decrease in the magnitude of winter maxima. PM2.5 measurements at rural sites displayed summer peaks with magnitudes relatively similar to those of urban sites, and negligible to no winter peaks through the time period analyzed. Seasonal variations of urban and rural PM2.5 sulfate, PM2.5 nitrate, and PM2.5 organic carbon (OC) were also assessed. Summer peaks in PM2.5 sulfate decreased dramatically between 2000 and 2015, whereas seasonal PM2.5 OC and winter PM2.5 nitrate concentration maxima remained fairly consistent. These findings demonstrate that PM2.5 concentrations, especially those occurring in the summertime, have declined in the U.S. from 2000 to 2015. In addition, reduction strategies targeting sulfate have been successful and the decrease in PM2.5 sulfate contributed to the decline in total PM2.5.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Coupling of organic and inorganic aerosol systems and the effect on gas-particle partitioning in the southeastern US

Authors: Pye, HOT; Zuend, A; Fry, JL; Isaacman-Vanwertz, G; Capps, SL; Appel, KW; Foroutan, H; Xu, Lu; Ng, N; Goldstein, AH (2018) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18:357-370. HERO ID: 4439901

[Less] Several models were used to describe the partitioning of ammonia, water, and organic compounds between . . . [More] Several models were used to describe the partitioning of ammonia, water, and organic compounds between the gas and particle phases for conditions in the southeastern US during summer 2013. Existing equilibrium models and frameworks were found to be sufficient, although additional improvements in terms of estimating pure-species vapor pressures are needed. Thermodynamic model predictions were consistent, to first order, with a molar ratio of ammonium to sulfate of approximately 1.6 to 1.8 (ratio of ammonium to 2 x sulfate, R-N/2S approximate to 0.8 to 0.9) with approximately 70% of total ammonia and ammonium (NHx) in the particle. Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization Network (SEARCH) gas and aerosol and Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air (MARGA) aerosol measurements were consistent with these conditions. CMAQv5.2 regional chemical transport model predictions did not reflect these conditions due to a factor of 3 overestimate of the nonvolatile cations. In addition, gas-phase ammonia was overestimated in the CMAQ model leading to an even lower fraction of total ammonia in the particle. Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) and aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements indicated less ammonium per sulfate than SEARCH and MARGA measurements and were inconsistent with thermodynamic model predictions. Organic compounds were predicted to be present to some extent in the same phase as inorganic constituents, modifying their activity and resulting in a decrease in [H+](air) (H+ in mu g m(-3) air), increase in ammonia partitioning to the gas phase, and increase in pH compared to complete organic vs. inorganic liquid-liquid phase separation. In addition, accounting for nonideal mixing modified the pH such that a fully interactive inorganic-organic system had a pH roughly 0.7 units higher than predicted using traditional methods (pH = 1.5 vs. 0.7). Particle-phase interactions of organic and inorganic compounds were found to increase partitioning towards the particle phase (vs. gas phase) for highly oxygenated (O : C >= 0.6) compounds including several isoprene-derived tracers as well as levoglucosan but decrease particle-phase partitioning for low O : C, monoterpene-derived species.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

2014 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) data

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) (Version 2). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. HERO ID: 4440637


Technical Report
Technical Report

Integrated science assessment for sulfur oxides: Health criteria

Author: U.S. EPA (2017) (EPA/600/R-17/451). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment- RTP. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 4216110


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Description and evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 5.1

Authors: Appel, KW; Napelenok, SL; Foley, KM; Pye, HOT; Hogrefe, C; Luecken, DJ; Bash, JO; Roselle, SJ; Pleim, JE; Foroutan, H; Hutzell, WT; Pouliot, GA; Sarwar, G; Fahey, KM; Gantt, B; Gilliam, RC; Heath, NK; Kang, D; Mathur, R; Schwede, DB; Spero, TL; Wong, DC; Young, JO (2017) Geoscientific Model Development 10:1703-1732. HERO ID: 3846692

[Less] The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a comprehensive multipollutant air quality modeling . . . [More] The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is a comprehensive multipollutant air quality modeling system developed and maintained by the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD). Recently, version 5.1 of the CMAQ model (v5.1) was released to the public, incorporating a large number of science updates and extended capabilities over the previous release version of the model (v5.0.2). These updates include the following: improvements in the meteorological calculations in both CMAQ and the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model used to provide meteorological fields to CMAQ, updates to the gas and aerosol chemistry, revisions to the calculations of clouds and photolysis, and improvements to the dry and wet deposition in the model. Sensitivity simulations isolating several of the major updates to the modeling system show that changes to the meteorological calculations result in enhanced afternoon and early evening mixing in the model, periods when the model historically underestimates mixing. This enhanced mixing results in higher ozone (O-3) mixing ratios on average due to reduced NO titration, and lower fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations due to greater dilution of primary pollutants (e.g., elemental and organic carbon). Updates to the clouds and photolysis calculations greatly improve consistency between the WRF and CMAQ models and result in generally higher O-3 mixing ratios, primarily due to reduced cloudiness and attenuation of photolysis in the model. Updates to the aerosol chemistry result in higher secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations in the summer, thereby reducing summertime PM2.5 bias (PM2.5 is typically underestimated by CMAQ in the summer), while updates to the gas chemistry result in slightly higher O-3 and PM2.5 on average in January and July. Overall, the seasonal variation in simulated PM2.5 generally improves in CMAQv5.1 (when considering all model updates), as simulated PM2.5 concentrations decrease in the winter (when PM2.5 is generally overestimated by CMAQ) and increase in the summer (when PM2.5 is generally underestimated by CMAQ). Ozone mixing ratios are higher on average with v5.1 vs. v5.0.2, resulting in higher O-3 mean bias, as O-3 tends to be overestimated by CMAQ throughout most of the year (especially at locations where the observed O-3 is low); however, O-3 correlation is largely improved with v5.1. Sensitivity simulations for several hypothetical emission reduction scenarios show that v5.1 tends to be slightly more responsive to reductions in NOx (NO + NO2), VOC and SOx (SO2 + SO4) emissions than v5.0.2, representing an improvement as previous studies have shown CMAQ to underestimate the observed reduction in O-3 due to large, widespread reductions in observed emissions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biogenic, urban, and wildfire influences on the molecular composition of dissolved organic compounds in cloud water

Authors: Cook, RD; Lin, YH; Peng, Z; Boone, E; Chu, RK; Dukett, JE; Gunsch, MJ; Zhang, W; Tolic, N; Laskin, A; Pratt, KA (2017) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17:15167-15180. HERO ID: 4304072

[Less] Organic aerosol formation and transformation occurs within aqueous aerosol and cloud droplets, yet little . . . [More] Organic aerosol formation and transformation occurs within aqueous aerosol and cloud droplets, yet little is known about the composition of high molecular weight organic compounds in cloud water. Cloud water samples collected at Whiteface Mountain, New York, during August-September 2014 were analyzed by ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon, with a focus on sulfur-and nitrogen-containing compounds. Organic molecular composition was evaluated in the context of cloud water inorganic ion concentrations, pH, and total organic carbon concentrations to gain insights into the sources and aqueous-phase processes of the observed high molecular weight organic compounds. Cloud water acidity was positively correlated with the average oxygen : carbon ratio of the organic constituents, suggesting the possibility for aqueous acid-catalyzed (prior to cloud droplet activation or during/after cloud droplet evaporation) and/or radical (within cloud droplets) oxidation processes. Many tracer compounds recently identified in laboratory studies of bulk aqueous-phase reactions were identified in the cloud water. Organosulfate compounds, with both biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compound precursors, were detected for cloud water samples influenced by air masses that had traveled over forested and populated areas. Oxidation products of long-chain (C10-12) alkane precursors were detected during urban influence. Influence of Canadian wildfires resulted in increased numbers of identified sulfur-containing compounds and oligomeric species, including those formed through aqueous-phase reactions involving methylglyoxal. Light-absorbing aqueous-phase products of syringol and guaiacol oxidation were observed in the wildfire-influenced samples, and dinitroaromatic compounds were observed in all cloud water samples (wildfire, biogenic, and urban-influenced). Overall, the cloud water molecular composition depended on air mass source influence and reflected aqueous-phase reactions involving biogenic, urban, and biomass burning precursors.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Particulate air pollutants, APOE alleles and their contributions to cognitive impairment in older women and to amyloidogenesis in experimental models

Authors: Cacciottolo, M; Wang, X; Driscoll, I; Woodward, N; Saffari, A; Reyes, J; Serre, ML; Vizuete, W; Sioutas, C; Morgan, TE; Gatz, M; Chui, HC; Shumaker, SA; Resnick, SM; Espeland, MA; Finch, CE; Chen, JC (2017) 7:e1022. HERO ID: 3554274

[Less] Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air and its interactions with APOE alleles may contribute . . . [More] Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air and its interactions with APOE alleles may contribute to the acceleration of brain aging and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurodegenerative effects of particulate air pollutants were examined in a US-wide cohort of older women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) and in experimental mouse models. Residing in places with fine PM exceeding EPA standards increased the risks for global cognitive decline and all-cause dementia respectively by 81 and 92%, with stronger adverse effects in APOE ɛ4/4 carriers. Female EFAD transgenic mice (5xFAD(+/-)/human APOE ɛ3 or ɛ4(+/+)) with 225 h exposure to urban nanosized PM (nPM) over 15 weeks showed increased cerebral β-amyloid by thioflavin S for fibrillary amyloid and by immunocytochemistry for Aβ deposits, both exacerbated by APOE ɛ4. Moreover, nPM exposure increased Aβ oligomers, caused selective atrophy of hippocampal CA1 neurites, and decreased the glutamate GluR1 subunit. Wildtype C57BL/6 female mice also showed nPM-induced CA1 atrophy and GluR1 decrease. In vitro nPM exposure of neuroblastoma cells (N2a-APP/swe) increased the pro-amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We suggest that airborne PM exposure promotes pathological brain aging in older women, with potentially a greater impact in ɛ4 carriers. The underlying mechanisms may involve increased cerebral Aβ production and selective changes in hippocampal CA1 neurons and glutamate receptor subunits.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A novel fluorescent aptasensor for ultrasensitive detection of microcystin-LR based on single-walled carbon nanotubes and dapoxyl

Authors: Taghdisi, SM; Danesh, NM; Ramezani, M; Ghows, N; Mousavi Shaegh, SA; Abnous, K (2017) Talanta 166:187-192. HERO ID: 3603248

[Less] To assure water safety and protect human health, precise and simple analytical approaches are highly . . . [More] To assure water safety and protect human health, precise and simple analytical approaches are highly desired to determine low concentrations of microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR), a toxin, in both water and serum samples. Herein, a simple, rapid and accurate aptamer-based fluorescent sensor was used for selective recognition of MC-LR, based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as immobilizers, dapoxyl as a fluorescent dye, DAP-10 as a specific aptamer for dapoxyl and unmodified MC-LR aptamer (Apt) as a sensing ligand. The sensing method was developed to produce a remarkable fluorescence intensity difference in the absence and presence of MC-LR. Moreover, the Apt was used without any modification. In the absence of MC-LR, the dapoxyl could bind to DAP-10, leading to a strong fluorescence intensity. In the presence of MC-LR, DAP-10 bound to the surface of SWNTs, resulting in a very weak fluorescence intensity. Under optimized conditions, the presented fluorescent analytical approach showed high selectivity toward MC-LR with a limit of detection (LOD) of 138 pM. This new method indicated excellent analytical performance for MC-LR detection in tap water and serum samples with LODs of 135 and 168 pM, respectively.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Influence of exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine urban particulate matter and their biological constituents on neural biomarkers in a randomized controlled crossover study

Authors: Liu, L; Urch, B; Szyszkowicz, M; Speck, M; Leingartner, K; Shutt, R; Pelletier, G; Gold, DR; Scott, JA; Brook, JR; Thorne, PS; Silverman, FS (2017) Environment International 101:89-95. HERO ID: 3603991

[Less] BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution and neuro-psychological conditions. Biological mechanisms behind these findings are still not clear.

OBJECTIVES: We examined changes in blood and urinary neural biomarkers following exposure to concentrated ambient coarse, fine and ultrafine particles.

METHODS: Fifty healthy non-smoking volunteers, mean age 28years, were exposed to coarse (2.5-10μm, mean 213μg/m(3)) and fine (0.15-2.5μm, mean 238μg/m(3)) concentrated ambient particles (CAPs), and filtered ambient and/or medical air. Twenty-five participants were exposed to ultrafine CAP (mean size 59.6nm, range 47.0-69.8nm), mean (136μg/m(3)) and filtered medical air. Exposures lasted 130min, separated by ≥2weeks, and the biological constituents endotoxin and β-1,3-d-glucan of each particle size fraction were measured. Blood and urine samples were collected pre-exposure, and 1-hour and 21-hour post-exposure to determine neural biomarker levels. Mixed-model regressions assessed associations between exposures and changes in biomarker levels.

RESULTS: Results were expressed as percent change from daily pre-exposure biomarker levels. Exposure to coarse CAP was significantly associated with increased urinary levels of the stress-related biomarkers vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and cortisol when compared with exposure to filtered medical air [20% (95% confidence interval: 1.0%, 38%) and 64% (0.2%, 127%), respectively] 21hours post-exposure. However exposure to coarse CAP was significantly associated with decreases in blood cortisol [-26.0% (-42.4%, -9.6%) and -22.4% (-43.7%, -1.1%) at 1h and 21h post-exposure, respectively]. Biological molecules present in coarse CAP were significantly associated with blood biomarkers indicative of blood brain barrier integrity. Endotoxin content was significantly associated with increased blood ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 [UCHL1, 11% (5.3%, 16%) per ln(ng/m(3)+1)] 1-hour post-exposure, while β-1,3-d-glucan was significantly associated with increased blood S100B [6.3% (3.2%, 9.4%) per ln(ng/m(3)+1)], as well as UCHL1 [3.1% (0.4%, 5.9%) per ln(ng/m(3)+1)], one-hour post-exposure. Fine CAP was marginally associated with increased blood UCHL1 when compared with exposure to filtered medical air [17.7% (-1.7%, 37.2%), p=0.07] 21hours post-exposure. Ultrafine CAP was not significantly associated with changes in any blood and urinary neural biomarkers examined.

CONCLUSION: Ambient coarse particulate matter and its biological constituents may influence neural biomarker levels that reflect perturbations of blood-brain barrier integrity and systemic stress response.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evidence of 1991-2013 decrease of biogenic secondary organic aerosol in response to SO2 emission controls

Authors: Marais, EA; Jacob, DJ; Turner, JR; Mickley, LJ (2017) Environmental Research Letters 12. HERO ID: 3842979

[Less] Air quality policy to decrease fine particulate matter mass concentrations (PM2.5) in the US has mainly . . . [More] Air quality policy to decrease fine particulate matter mass concentrations (PM2.5) in the US has mainly targeted sulfate aerosol through controls on sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Organic aerosol (OA) instead of sulfate is now the dominant component of total PM2.5. Long-term surface observations (1991-2013) in the Southeast US in summer show parallel decreases in sulfate (2.8%-4.0% a(-1)) and OA (1.6%-1.9% a(-1)). Decline of anthropogenic OA emissions is uncertain but is unlikely to fully explain this trend because most OA in the Southeast US in summer is biogenic. We conducted a 1991-2013 simulation with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model including inventory decreases in anthropogenic SO2, NOx, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions, constant anthropogenic primary OA emissions, and a new mechanism of aqueous-phase SOA formation from isoprene. This simulation reproduces the observed long-term decreases of sulfate and OA, and attributes the OA decrease to decline in the OA yield from biogenic isoprene as sulfate decreases (driving lower aqueous aerosol volume and acidity). Interannual OA variability in the model (mainly driven by isoprene) is also well correlated with observations. This result provides support for a large air quality co-benefit of SO2 emission controls in decreasing biogenic OA as well as sulfate.