Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA-PM (current)


50 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The reduction of summer sulfate and switch from summertime to wintertime PM2.5 concentration maxima in the United States

Authors: Chan, EAW; Gantt, B; McDow, S (2018) Atmospheric Environment 175:25-32. HERO ID: 4386275

[Less] Exposure to particulate matter air pollution with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal . . . [More] Exposure to particulate matter air pollution with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 gm (PM(2.)5) has been associated with health effects including cardiovascular disease and death. Here, we add to the understanding of urban and rural PM2.5 concentrations over large spatial and temporal scales in recent years. We used high-quality, publicly-available air quality monitoring data to evaluate PM2.5 concentration patterns and changes during the years 2000-2015. Compiling and averaging measurements collected across the U.S. revealed that PM2.5 concentrations from urban sites experienced seasonal maxima in both winter and summer. Within each year from 2000 to 2008, the maxima of urban summer peaks were greater than winter peaks. However, from 2012 to 2015, the maxima of urban summertime PM2.5 peaks were smaller than the urban wintertime PM2.5 maxima, due to a decrease in the magnitude of summertime maxima with no corresponding decrease in the magnitude of winter maxima. PM2.5 measurements at rural sites displayed summer peaks with magnitudes relatively similar to those of urban sites, and negligible to no winter peaks through the time period analyzed. Seasonal variations of urban and rural PM2.5 sulfate, PM2.5 nitrate, and PM2.5 organic carbon (OC) were also assessed. Summer peaks in PM2.5 sulfate decreased dramatically between 2000 and 2015, whereas seasonal PM2.5 OC and winter PM2.5 nitrate concentration maxima remained fairly consistent. These findings demonstrate that PM2.5 concentrations, especially those occurring in the summertime, have declined in the U.S. from 2000 to 2015. In addition, reduction strategies targeting sulfate have been successful and the decrease in PM2.5 sulfate contributed to the decline in total PM2.5.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Integrated science assessment for oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur and particulate matter -Ecological criteria (2nd external review draft)

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) (EPA/600/R-18/097). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment. HERO ID: 4591704

[Less] This draft Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the . . . [More] This draft Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and PM10 since the prior release of the final assessment. The draft ISA was prepared as part of the review of the secondary (welfare-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur, and particulate matter. The ISA, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments, provides the scientific basis for EPA’s decisions on the adequacy of the current NAAQS and the appropriateness of possible alternative standards.

Oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur, and particulate matter are three of six criteria pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS. Periodically, EPA reviews the scientific basis for these standards by preparing an ISA (formerly called an Air Quality Criteria Document). The ISA, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments, provides the scientific basis for EPA’s decisions on the adequacy of the current NAAQS and the appropriateness of possible alternative standards. The intent of the ISA, as described in the Clean Air Act, is to 'accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air.' It includes scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure and deposition, biogeochemistry, hydrology, soil science, marine science, plant physiology, animal physiology, and ecology conducted at multiple scales (e.g., population, community, ecosystem, landscape levels).

Key information and judgments formerly found in the AQCDs for oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter for ecological effects are included; appendices provide additional details supporting the ISA. Together, the ISA and appendices serve to update and revise the last oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur ISA which was published in 2008 and the ecological portion of the last particulate matter ISA, which was published in 2009.

Additionally, the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) is an independent science advisory committee whose review and advisory functions are mandated by Section 109(d)(2) of the Clean Air Act, and charged (among other things) with performing an independent scientific review of all the EPA’s air quality criteria.

Archival Material
Archival Material

EPA's report on the environment (ROE)

Author: U.S. EPA (2017) Available online at https://cfpub.epa.gov/roe/index.cfm. (Jan 2, 2018). [Website] HERO ID: 4154630

[Less] EPA's Report on the Environment (ROE) shows how the condition of the U.S. environment and human health . . . [More] EPA's Report on the Environment (ROE) shows how the condition of the U.S. environment and human health is changing over time. The ROE presents the best available indicators of national trends in five theme areas: Air, Water, Land, Human Exposure and Health, and Ecological Condition. The 80+ ROE indicators help answer 23 questions critical to EPA's mission of protecting the environment and human health. EPA updates the ROE indicators frequently to provide the latest available data. Use the multi-colored navigation bar at the top of every ROE Web page to explore the ROE themes, the associated questions, and the indicators that help answer these questions.

Archival Material
Archival Material

NHLBI fact book, fiscal year 2012: Disease statistics

Author: NHLBI (2017) Available online at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/about/documents/factbook/2012/chapter4. (Aug 4, 2017). [Website] HERO ID: 3980932


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ultrafine article metrics and research considerations: Review of the 2015 UFP Workshop

Authors: Baldauf, RW; Devlin, RB; Gehr, P; Giannelli, R; Hassett-Sipple, B; Jung, H; Martini, G; McDonald, J; Sacks, JD; Walker, K (2016) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13. HERO ID: 3454236

[Less] In February 2015, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a workshop in Research . . . [More] In February 2015, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a workshop in Research Triangle Park, NC, USA to review the current state of the science one missions, air quality impacts, and health effects associated with exposures to ultrafine particles[1].[...].

Technical Report
Technical Report

Integrated review plan for the national ambient air quality standards for particulate matter

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA-452/R-16-005). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3838532

[Less] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a review of the existing air quality criteria . . . [More] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a review of the existing air quality criteria for particulate matter (PM) and of the primary (health-based) and secondary (welfare-based) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for PM. This review will provide an integrative assessment of relevant scientific information on PM and will focus on the basic elements of the PM NAAQS: the indicator, averaging time, form, and level. These elements, which together serve to define each NAAQS, are considered collectively in evaluating the protection to public health and public welfare afforded by the standards. The purpose of this Integrated Review Plan (IRP) is to communicate the plan for reviewing the air quality criteria and the primary and secondary NAAQS for PM.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Preamble to the integrated science assessments

Author: U.S. EPA (2015) (EPA/600/R-15/067). Research Triangle Park, NC: National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3037426


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Validity of a questionnaire-based diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a general population-based study

Authors: Murgia, N; Brisman, J; Claesson, A; Muzi, G; Olin, AC; Torén, K (2014) BMC Pulmonary Medicine 14:49. HERO ID: 2342685

[Less] BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based on airflow obstruction. In epidemiological studies, spirometric data have often been lacking and researchers have had to rely almost solely on questionnaire answers. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of questionnaire answers to detect COPD.

METHODS: A sample of the Swedish general population without physician-diagnosed asthma was randomly selected and interviewed using a respiratory questionnaire. All eligible subjects aged 25-75 years (n = 3892) performed spirometry for detection of airflow obstruction using Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) or American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), positive predictive values (PPVs), and negative predictive values (NPVs) were calculated to define diagnostic accuracy of questionnaire answers.

RESULTS: The sensitivity of the question "Have you been diagnosed by a physician as having COPD or emphysema?" in detecting airflow obstruction was 5.7% using GOLD, and 9.8% using ATS/ERS, criteria; specificity was 99.7% for GOLD and 99.5% for ATS/ERS. Sensitivity, specificity, and PPV were higher for the question compared to self-reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis in identifying subjects with airflow obstruction.

CONCLUSIONS: The high specificity and good PPV suggest that the question "Have you been diagnosed by a physician as having COPD or emphysema?" is more likely to identify those who do not have airflow obstruction, whereas the low sensitivity of this question could underestimate the real burden of COPD in the general population.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Climate change impacts in the United States: The third National Climate Assessment

(2014) In Melillo, JM; Richmond, T; Yohe, GW (Eds.), Climate change impacts in the United States: The third National Climate Assessment. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. HERO ID: 3004838

[Less] The National Climate Assessment assesses the science of climate change and its impacts across the United . . . [More] The National Climate Assessment assesses the science of climate change and its impacts across the United States, now and throughout this century. It documents climate change related impacts and responses for various sectors and regions, with the goal of better informing public and private decision-making at all levels.

A team of more than 300 experts (see page 98), guided by a 60-member National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (listed on page vi) produced the full report – the largest and most diverse team to produce a U.S. climate assessment. Stakeholders involved in the development of the assessment included decision-makers from the public and private sectors, resource and environmental managers, researchers, representatives from businesses and non-governmental organizations, and the general public. More than 70 workshops and listening sessions were held, and thousands of public and expert comments on the draft report provided additional input to the process.

The assessment draws from a large body of scientific peer-reviewed research, technical input reports, and other publicly available sources; all sources meet the standards of the Information Quality Act. The report was extensively reviewed by the public and experts, including a panel of the National Academy of Sciences, the 13 Federal agencies of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, and the Federal Committee on Environment, Natural Resources, and Sustainability.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Systematic review and evidence integration for literature-based environmental health science assessments

Authors: Rooney, AA; Boyles, AL; Wolfe, MS; Bucher, JR; Thayer, KA (2014) Environmental Health Perspectives 122:711-718. HERO ID: 2520120

[Less] BACKGROUND: Systematic-review methodologies provide objectivity and transparency to . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Systematic-review methodologies provide objectivity and transparency to the process of collecting and synthesizing scientific evidence in reaching conclusions on specific research questions. There is increasing interest in applying these procedures to address environmental health questions.

OBJECTIVES: The goal was to develop a systematic-review framework to address environmental health questions by extending approaches developed for clinical medicine to handle the breadth of data relevant to environmental health sciences (e.g., human, animal, and mechanistic studies).

METHODS: The Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) adapted guidance from authorities on systematic-review and sought advice during development of the OHAT Approach through consultation with technical experts in systematic review and human health assessments, as well as scientific advisory groups and the public. The method was refined by considering expert and public comments and through application to case studies.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Here we present a seven-step framework for systematic review and evidence integration for reaching hazard identification conclusions: 1) problem formulation and protocol development, 2) search for and select studies for inclusion, 3) extract data from studies, 4) assess the quality or risk of bias of individual studies, 5) rate the confidence in the body of evidence, 6) translate the confidence ratings into levels of evidence, and 7) integrate the information from different evidence streams (human, animal, and "other relevant data" including mechanistic or in vitro studies) to develop hazard identification conclusions.

CONCLUSION: The principles of systematic review can be successfully applied to environmental health questions to provide greater objectivity and transparency to the process of developing conclusions.