Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA-PM (current)


2,640 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

Integrated science assessment for oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur and particulate matter—ecological criteria (2nd external review draft)

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) (EPA/600/R-18/097). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment. HERO ID: 4591704

[Less] This draft Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the . . . [More] This draft Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and PM10 since the prior release of the final assessment. The draft ISA was prepared as part of the review of the secondary (welfare-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur, and particulate matter. The ISA, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments, provides the scientific basis for EPA’s decisions on the adequacy of the current NAAQS and the appropriateness of possible alternative standards.

Oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur, and particulate matter are three of six criteria pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS. Periodically, EPA reviews the scientific basis for these standards by preparing an ISA (formerly called an Air Quality Criteria Document). The ISA, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments, provides the scientific basis for EPA’s decisions on the adequacy of the current NAAQS and the appropriateness of possible alternative standards. The intent of the ISA, as described in the Clean Air Act, is to 'accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air.' It includes scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure and deposition, biogeochemistry, hydrology, soil science, marine science, plant physiology, animal physiology, and ecology conducted at multiple scales (e.g., population, community, ecosystem, landscape levels).

Key information and judgments formerly found in the AQCDs for oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter for ecological effects are included; appendices provide additional details supporting the ISA. Together, the ISA and appendices serve to update and revise the last oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur ISA which was published in 2008 and the ecological portion of the last particulate matter ISA, which was published in 2009.

Additionally, the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) is an independent science advisory committee whose review and advisory functions are mandated by Section 109(d)(2) of the Clean Air Act, and charged (among other things) with performing an independent scientific review of all the EPA’s air quality criteria.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine aerosol particles

Authors: Fan, J; Rosenfeld, D; Zhang, Y; Giangrande, SE; Li, Z; Machado, LAT; Martin, ST; Yang, Y; Wang, J; Artaxo, P; Barbosa, HMJ; Braga, RC; Comstock, JM; Feng, Z; Gao, W; Gomes, HB; Mei, F; Pöhlker, C; Pöhlker, ML; Pöschl, U; de Souza, RAF (2018) HERO ID: 4240980

[Less] Aerosol-cloud interactions remain the largest uncertainty in climate projections. Ultrafine aerosol . . . [More] Aerosol-cloud interactions remain the largest uncertainty in climate projections. Ultrafine aerosol particles smaller than 50 nanometers (UAP<50) can be abundant in the troposphere but are conventionally considered too small to affect cloud formation. Observational evidence and numerical simulations of deep convective clouds (DCCs) over the Amazon show that DCCs forming in a low-aerosol environment can develop very large vapor supersaturation because fast droplet coalescence reduces integrated droplet surface area and subsequent condensation. UAP<50from pollution plumes that are ingested into such clouds can be activated to form additional cloud droplets on which excess supersaturation condenses and forms additional cloud water and latent heating, thus intensifying convective strength. This mechanism suggests a strong anthropogenic invigoration of DCCs in previously pristine regions of the world.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Variation in rising limb of Colorado River snowmelt runoff hydrograph controlled by dust radiative forcing in snow

Authors: Painter, TH; Skiles, SM; Deems, JS; Brandt, WT; Dozier, J (2018) Geophysical Research Letters 45:797-808. HERO ID: 4240981

[Less] Common practice and conventional wisdom hold that fluctuations in air temperature control interannual . . . [More] Common practice and conventional wisdom hold that fluctuations in air temperature control interannual variability in snowmelt and subsequent river runoff. However, recent observations in the Upper Colorado River Basin confirm that net solar radiation and by extension radiative forcing by dust deposited on snow cover exerts the primary forcing on snowmelt. We show that the variation in the shape of the rising limb of the annual hydrograph is controlled by variability in dust radiative forcing and surprisingly is independent of variations in winter and spring air temperatures. These observations suggest that hydroclimatic modeling must be improved to account for aerosol forcings of the water cycle. Anthropogenic climate change will likely reduce total snow accumulations and cause snowmelt runoff to occur earlier. However, dust radiative forcing of snowmelt is likely consuming important adaptive capacity that would allow human and natural systems to be more resilient to changing hydroclimatic conditions.



Plain Language Summary We address the question, do air temperatures or absorbed solar radiation explain the year-to-year variability of the rate of snowmelt and therefore the shape of the way the streamflow rises in the melt season? Our analysis shows that absorbed solar radiation, which varies with the amount of wind blown dust deposited into the snowpack, causes the streams to rise more quickly in years with more dust, whereas the rate at which the streams rise does not depend on air temperature. Forecasts of snowmelt runoff must account for the variability in dust deposition.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Disparities in distribution of particulate matter emission sources by race and poverty status

Authors: Mikati, I; Benson, AF; Luben, TJ; Sacks, JD; Richmond-Bryant, J (2018) American Journal of Public Health e1-e6. HERO ID: 4241015

[Less] OBJECTIVES: To quantify nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: To quantify nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter (PM)-emitting facilities by the characteristics of the surrounding residential population and to illustrate various spatial scales at which to consider such disparities.

METHODS: We assigned facilities emitting PM in the 2011 National Emissions Inventory to nearby block groups across the 2009 to 2013 American Community Survey population. We calculated the burden from these emissions for racial/ethnic groups and by poverty status. We quantified disparities nationally and for each state and county in the country.

RESULTS: For PM of 2.5 micrometers in diameter or less, those in poverty had 1.35 times higher burden than did the overall population, and non-Whites had 1.28 times higher burden. Blacks, specifically, had 1.54 times higher burden than did the overall population. These patterns were relatively unaffected by sensitivity analyses, and disparities held not only nationally but within most states and counties as well.

CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in burden from PM-emitting facilities exist at multiple geographic scales. Disparities for Blacks are more pronounced than are disparities on the basis of poverty status. Strictly socioeconomic considerations may be insufficient to reduce PM burdens equitably across populations. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print February 22, 2018: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304297).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of air pollution exposure on glucose metabolism in Los Angeles minority children

Authors: Toledo-Corral, CM; Alderete, TL; Habre, R; Berhane, K; Lurmann, FW; Weigensberg, MJ; Goran, MI; Gilliland, FD (2018) Pediatric Obesity. HERO ID: 3455482

[Less] OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence indicates that ambient (AAP: NO2 , PM2.5 and O3 ) and . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence indicates that ambient (AAP: NO2 , PM2.5 and O3 ) and traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) contribute to metabolic disease risk in adults; however, few studies have examined these relationships in children.

METHODS: Metabolic profiling was performed in 429 overweight and obese African-American and Latino youth living in urban Los Angeles, California. This cross-sectional study estimated individual residential air pollution exposure and used linear regression to examine relationships between air pollution and metabolic outcomes.

RESULTS: AAP and TRAP exposure were associated with adverse effects on glucose metabolism independent of body fat percent. PM2.5 was associated with 25.0% higher fasting insulin (p < 0.001), 8.3% lower insulin sensitivity (p < 0.001), 14.7% higher acute insulin response to glucose (p = 0.001) and 1.7% higher fasting glucose (p < 0.001). Similar associations were observed for increased NO2 exposure. TRAP from non-freeway roads was associated with 12.1% higher insulin (p < 0.001), 6.9% lower insulin sensitivity (p = 0.02), 10.8% higher acute insulin response to glucose (p = 0.003) and 0.7% higher fasting glucose (p = 0.047).

CONCLUSIONS: Elevated air pollution exposure was associated with a metabolic profile that is characteristic of increased risk for type 2 diabetes. These results indicate that increased prior year exposure to air pollution may adversely affect type 2 diabetes-related pathophysiology in overweight and obese minority children.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Modeling individual exposures to ambient PM2.5 in the diabetes and the environment panel study (DEPS)

Authors: Breen, M; Xu, Y; Schneider, A; Williams, R; Devlin, R (2018) Science of the Total Environment 626:807-816. HERO ID: 4442324

[Less] Air pollution epidemiology studies of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations . . . [More] Air pollution epidemiology studies of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates, which can induce exposure error. The goal of this study was to improve ambient PM2.5 exposure assessments for a repeated measurements study with 22 diabetic individuals in central North Carolina called the Diabetes and Environment Panel Study (DEPS) by applying the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI), which predicts five tiers of individual-level exposure metrics for ambient PM2.5 using outdoor concentrations, questionnaires, weather, and time-location information. Using EMI, we linked a mechanistic air exchange rate (AER) model to a mass-balance PM2.5 infiltration model to predict residential AER (Tier 1), infiltration factors (Finf_home, Tier 2), indoor concentrations (Cin, Tier 3), personal exposure factors (Fpex, Tier 4), and personal exposures (E, Tier 5) for ambient PM2.5. We applied EMI to predict daily PM2.5 exposure metrics (Tiers 1-5) for 174 participant-days across the 13 months of DEPS. Individual model predictions were compared to a subset of daily measurements of Fpex and E (Tiers 4-5) from the DEPS participants. Model-predicted Fpex and E corresponded well to daily measurements with a median difference of 14% and 23%; respectively. Daily model predictions for all 174 days showed considerable temporal and house-to-house variability of AER, Finf_home, and Cin (Tiers 1-3), and person-to-person variability of Fpex and E (Tiers 4-5). Our study demonstrates the capability of predicting individual-level ambient PM2.5 exposure metrics for an epidemiological study, in support of improving risk estimation.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Supplemental material: Chapter 6 (Cardiovascular Effects) Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) HERO ID: 4442361


Technical Report
Technical Report

Supplemental material: Chapter 9 (Reproductive and Developmental Effects) Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) HERO ID: 4442365


Technical Report
Technical Report

Supplemental material: Chapter 11 (Mortality) Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) HERO ID: 4442366


Technical Report
Technical Report

Supplemental material: Chapter 12 (Populations At-Risk) Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) HERO ID: 4442367