Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


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262 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Geospatial hot spot analysis of lung cancer patients correlated to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and industrial wind in Eastern Thailand

Authors: Zhang, H; Tripathi, NK (2018) HERO ID: 4165060

[Less] Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer and is the major cause of death first among males and . . . [More] Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer and is the major cause of death first among males and second among females in Thailand. Lung cancer is highly related to particulate matter (PM)-especially fine particulates with a diameter of 2.5 mu m or less (PM2.5). Recent studies have indicated a strong correlation between fine particulate matter (PM25) and lung function diseases. Therefore, this study aims to investigate and explore the phenomenon of lung cancer and its spatial correlation to mortality and PM2.5 in Eastern Thailand from 2008 to 2012 using multidisciplinary techniques. The cancer registry was utilized as data inventory and geographical information system (GIS), Global Moran's I, Getis-Ord G statistics, Average Nearest Neighbor (ANN) tool, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Local Indicators of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA), and ordinary least square (OLS) methods to generate the PM2.5 maps to create hot spots in Eastern Thailand. The results visualize and analyze lung cancer hot spots and are adjusted for known factors such as sex and age of lung cancer patients. Choropleth maps of lung cancer incidence and mortality rates, generated for the first time, revealed that the number of male cancer patients is higher than that of females in Eastern Thailand. Global autocorrelation demonstrated considerable spatial clustering of lung cancer incidence and mortality. 91.56% of the lung cancer patients belonged to the age group of above 50 in both sexes. Significant relationships were found between the PM2.5 variable and the spatial patterns of lung cancer incidence and mortality. The Chonburi and Chanthaburi provinces were found to be the major hot spots for lung cancer incidence, which are close to industrial areas. These findings are useful in identifying the cancer registry information globally as well as locally. This study also provides a useful set of tools to identify and create hot spots in the developing countries where data and resources are major limitations. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Socioeconomic position, population density and site-specific cancer mortality: A multilevel analysis of Belgian adults, 2001-2011

Authors: Hagedoorn, P; Vandenheede, H; Vanthomme, K; Gadeyne, S (2018) HERO ID: 4165308

[Less] Our study explores the association between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP) . . . [More] Our study explores the association between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and all-cancer and site-specific cancer mortality. Data on all Belgian residents are retrieved from a population-based dataset constructed from the 2001 census linked to register data on emigration and mortality for 2001-2011. The study population contains all men and women aged 40 years or older during follow-up. Individual SEP is measured using education, employment status and housing conditions. Neighborhood SEP is measured by a deprivation index (in quintiles). Directly age-standardized mortality rates and multilevel Poisson models are used to estimate the association between individual SEP and neighborhood deprivation and mortality from all-cancer and cancer of the lung, colon and rectum, pancreas, prostate and female breast. The potential confounding role of population density is assessed using multilevel models as well. Our findings show an increase in mortality from all-cancer and site-specific cancer by decreasing level of individual SEP for both men and women. In addition, individuals living in highly deprived neighborhoods experience significantly higher mortality from all-cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and female colorectal cancer after controlling for individual SEP. Male colorectal and prostate cancer and female breast cancer are not associated with neighborhood deprivation. Population density acts as a confounder for female lung cancer only. Our study indicates that deprivation at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with all-cancer mortality and mortality from several cancer sites. More research into the role of life-style related and clinical factors is necessary to gain more insight into causal pathway.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lifetime exposure to ambient air pollution and methylation of tumor suppressor genes in breast tumors

Authors: Callahan, CL; Bonner, MR; Nie, J; Han, D; Wang, Y; Tao, MH; Shields, PG; Marian, C; Eng, KH; Trevisan, M; Beyea, J; Freudenheim, JL (2018) Environmental Research 161:418-424. HERO ID: 4166118

[Less] BACKGROUND: We previously reported increased risk of breast cancer associated with . . . [More] BACKGROUND: We previously reported increased risk of breast cancer associated with early life exposure to two measures of air pollution exposure, total suspended particulates (TSP) and traffic emissions (TE), possible proxies for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure to PAHs has been shown to be associated with aberrant patterns of DNA methylation in peripheral blood of healthy individuals. Exposure to PAHs and methylation in breast tumor tissue has received little attention. We examined the association of early life exposure to TSP and TE with patterns of DNA methylation in breast tumors.

METHODS: We conducted a study of women enrolled in the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) Study. Methylation of nine genes (SFN, SCGB3A1, RARB, GSTP1, CDKN2A CCND2, BRCA1, FHIT, and SYK) was assessed using bisulfite-based pyrosequencing. TSP exposure at each woman's home address at birth, menarche, and when she had her first child was estimated. TE exposure was modeled for each woman's residence at menarche, her first birth, and twenty and ten years prior to diagnosis. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate odds ratios (OR) of having methylation greater than the median value, adjusting for age, secondhand smoke exposure before age 20, current smoking status, and estrogen receptor status.

RESULTS: Exposure to higher TSP at a woman's first birth was associated with lower methylation of SCGB3A1 (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.23-0.99) and higher methylation of SYK (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.03-3.35). TE at menarche was associated with increased methylation of SYK (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.05-5.33). TE at first birth and ten years prior to diagnosis was associated with decreased methylation of CCND2 (OR ten years prior to diagnosis=0.48, 95% CI: 0.26-0.89). Although these associations were nominally significant, none were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: We observed suggestive evidence that exposure to ambient air pollution throughout life, measured as TSP and TE, may be associated with DNA methylation of some tumor suppressor genes in breast tumor tissue. Future studies with a larger sample size that assess methylation of more sites are warranted.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Identifying sensitive windows for prenatal particulate air pollution exposure and mitochondrial DNA content in cord blood

Authors: Rosa, MJ; Just, AC; Guerra, MS; Kloog, I; Hsu, HL; Brennan, KJ; García, AM; Coull, B; Wright, RJ; Téllez Rojo, MM; Baccarelli, AA; Wright, RO (2017) Environment International 98:198-203. HERO ID: 3456218

[Less] INTRODUCTION: Changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can serve as a marker of cumulative . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: Changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can serve as a marker of cumulative oxidative stress (OS) due to the mitochondria's unique genome and relative lack of repair systems. In utero particulate matter ≤2.5μm (PM2.5) exposure can enhance oxidative stress. Our objective was to identify sensitive windows to predict mtDNA damage experienced in the prenatal period due to PM2.5 exposure using mtDNA content measured in cord blood.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Women affiliated with the Mexican social security system were recruited during pregnancy in the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors (PROGRESS) study. Mothers with cord blood collected at delivery and complete covariate data were included (n=456). Mothers' prenatal daily exposure to PM2.5 was estimated using a satellite-based spatio-temporally resolved prediction model and place of residence during pregnancy. DNA was extracted from umbilical cord leukocytes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine mtDNA content. A distributive lag regression model (DLM) incorporating weekly averages of daily PM2.5 predictions was constructed to plot the association between exposure and OS over the length of pregnancy.

RESULTS: In models that included child's sex, mother's age at delivery, prenatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure, birth year, maternal education, and assay batch, we found significant associations between higher PM2.5 exposure during late pregnancy (35-40weeks) and lower mtDNA content in cord blood.

CONCLUSIONS: Increased PM2.5 during a specific prenatal window in the third trimester was associated with decreased mtDNA content suggesting heightened sensitivity to PM-induced OS during this life stage.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

MTHFR gene polymorphism-mutations and air pollution as risk factors for breast cancer: A metaprediction study

Authors: Gonzales, MC; Yu, P; Shiao, SP (2017) Nursing Research 66:152-163. HERO ID: 3604030

[Less] BACKGROUND: The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) is one of the most . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) is one of the most investigated genes associated with breast cancer for its role in epigenetic pathways.

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this metaprediction study were to examine the polymorphism-mutation risk subtypes of MTHFR and air pollution as contributing factors for breast cancer.

METHODS: For triangulation purposes in metapredictive analyses, we used a recursive partition tree, nonlinear association curve fit, and heat maps for data visualization, in addition to the conventional comparison procedure and pooled analyses.

RESULTS: We included 36,683 breast cancer cases and 40,689 controls across 82 studies for MTHFR 677 and 23,252 cases and 27,094 controls across 50 studies for MTHFR 1298. MTHFR 677 TT was a risk genotype for breast cancer (p = .0004) and in the East Asian subgroup (p = .005). On global maps, the most polymorphism-mutations on MTHFR 677 TT were found in the Middle East, Europe, Asia, and the Americas, whereas the most mutations on MTHFR 1298 CC were located in Europe and the Middle East for the control group. The geographic information system maps further revealed that MTHFR 677 TT mutations yielded a higher risk of breast cancer for Australia, East Asia, the Middle East, South Europe, Morocco, and the Americas and that MTHFR 1298 CC mutations yielded a higher risk in Asia, the Middle East, South Europe, and South America. Metapredictive analysis revealed that air pollution level was significantly associated with MTHFR 677 TT polymorphism-mutation genotype.

DISCUSSION: We present the most comprehensive analyses to date of MTHFR polymorphism-mutations and breast cancer risk. Future nursing studies are needed to investigate the health impact on breast cancer of epigenetics and air pollution across populations.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Ambient PM2.5 exposure and mortality due to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases in Polish cities

Authors: Badyda, AJ; Grellier, J; Dąbrowiecki, P (2017) In Pokorski, M (Ed.), Respiratory treatment and prevention (pp. 9-17). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. HERO ID: 3605142

[Less] Air pollution, one of ten most important causes of premature mortality worldwide, remains a major issue . . . [More] Air pollution, one of ten most important causes of premature mortality worldwide, remains a major issue also in the EU, with more than 400,000 premature deaths due to exposure to PM2.5 reported yearly. The issue is particularly significant in Poland, where there is the highest concentration of PM2.5 among the UE countries. This study focused on the proportion of mortality due to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases attributable to PM2.5 in eleven biggest Polish cities in the years 2006-2011. The findings demonstrate that the mean annual concentration of PM2.5 varied from 14.3 to 52.5 μg/m3. The average population attributable fractions varied from 0.195 to 0.413 in case of lung cancer and from 0.130 to 0.291 for cardiopulmonary diseases. Such substantial values of this ratio translate into a considerable number of deaths, which ranged between 9.6 and 22.8 cases for lung cancer and 48.6 to 136.6 cases for cardiopulmonary diseases per 100,000 inhabitants. We conclude that the impact of PM2.5 concentration on the incidence of premature deaths is unduly high in Polish cities.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2013: an analysis based on urbanization level

Authors: Chen, W; Zheng, R; Zhang, S; Zeng, H; Zuo, T; Xia, C; Yang, Z; He, J (2017) Chinese Journal of Cancer Research 29:1-10. HERO ID: 3798483

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To explore the cancer patterns in areas with different urbanization rates . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To explore the cancer patterns in areas with different urbanization rates (URR) in China with data from 255 population-based cancer registries in 2013, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR).

METHODS: There were 347 cancer registries submitted cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2013 to NCCR. All those data were checked and evaluated based on the NCCR criteria of data quality, and qualified data from 255 registries were used for this analysis. According to the proportion of non-agricultural population, we divided cities/counties into 3 levels: high level, with URR equal to 70% and higher; median level, with URR between 30% and 70%; and low level, with URR equal to 30% and less. Cancer incidences and mortalities were calculated, stratified by gender and age groups in different areas. The national population of Fifth Census in 2000 and Segi's population were applied for age-standardized rates.

RESULTS: Qualified 255 cancer registries covered 226,494,490 populations. The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 68.04% and 1.74%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.62. A total of 644,487 new cancer cases and 399,275 cancer deaths from the 255 cancer registries were submitted to NCCR in 2013. The incidence rate was 284.55/100,000 (314.06/100,000 in males, 254.19/100,000 in females), and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 190.10/100,000 and 186.24/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 21.60%. The cancer mortality was 176.28/100,000 (219.03/100,000 in males, 132.30/100,000 in females), and the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 110.91/100,000 and 109.92/100,000, and the cumulative mortality rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.43%. Low urbanization areas were high in crude cancer incidence and mortality rates, middle urbanization areas came next to it followed by high urbanization areas. After adjusted by age, there was a U-shaped association between age-standardized incidence (ASIRC and ASIRW) and the urbanized ratio with the middle urbanization areas having the lowest ASIRC and ASIRW. Unlike with the age-standardized incidence, the sort order of age-standardized mortality (ASMRC and ASMRW) among three urbanization areas was reversed completely from the crude mortality. Lung cancer was the most common cancer in all areas of 255 cancer registries, followed by stomach cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer and esophageal cancer with new cases of 130,700, 76,200, 63,800, 60,900 and 50,200 respectively. Lung cancer was also the leading cause of cancer death in all areas of 255 cancer registries for both males and females with the number of deaths of 72,200 and 34,100, respectively. Other cancer types with high mortality in males were liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer and colorectal cancer. In females, stomach cancer was the second cause of cancer death, followed by liver cancer, colorectal cancer and breast cancer.

CONCLUSIONS: Along with the development of socioeconomics associated with urbanization, as well as the aging population, the incidence and mortality keep increasing in China. Cancer burden and patterns are different in each urbanization level. Cancer control strategies should be implemented referring to local urbanization status.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Infant birth outcomes are associated with DNA damage biomarkers as measured by the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay: the DADHI study

Authors: Dass Singh, M; Thomas, P; Hor, M; Almond, T; Owens, J; Hague, W; Fenech, M (2017) Mutagenesis 32:355-370. HERO ID: 3831694

[Less] Accumulation of DNA damage in the first 1000 days may increase risk of accelerated ageing and degenerative . . . [More] Accumulation of DNA damage in the first 1000 days may increase risk of accelerated ageing and degenerative diseases in adult life such as cancers. The extent of DNA damage in infants and the correlation of maternal factors during pregnancy with neonate birth outcomes and DNA damage is not known in infants born in Australia. Therefore, we performed a prospective cohort study to collect data on DNA damage in lymphocytes of Australian infants (aged 0, 3 and 6 months), using the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. The study also explored correlation of CBMN-Cyt biomarkers with infant birth outcomes and maternal anthropometric and lifestyle variables. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from the infants at birth (cord blood) (n = 82), 3 months (n = 64) and 6 months (n = 53) after birth. DNA damage biomarkers measured ex vivo in binucleated lymphocytes (BNC) included: micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB) and nuclear buds (NBUD). Apoptotic and necrotic lymphocytes were also scored and nuclear division index (NDI) was measured using the frequency of mono-, bi- and multinucleated lymphocyte. MN and NBUD were also scored in mononucleated lymphocytes (MNC). The mean (± SD) frequency of MN, NPB and NBUD in BNCs at birth was 2.0 (± 1.2), 5.8 (± 3.7) and 11.1 (± 5.7) per 1000 BNC, respectively, and tended to decrease significantly at 3 months (P < 0.01, P < 0.0001, P < 0.001, respectively) and 6 months (P < 0.05, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively) after birth relative to cord blood when compared with the same cohort of infants (n = 48 at birth, 48 at 3 months and 39 at 6 months). None of the CBMN cytome biomarkers measured at birth was associated with maternal smoking status, alcohol and folic acid intake during pregnancy. The mean gestation age correlated positively with MN (r = 0.38, P = 0.006), NPB (r = 0.30, P = 0.03) and negatively with NDI (r = -0.29, P = 0.03). Infant birth weight associated positively with MN, NPB and NBUD in cord blood (r = 0.24, P = 0.08; r = 0.32, P = 0.02; r = 0.28, P = 0.04, respectively), birth length associated positively with NPB (r = 0.32, P = 0.02) and NBUD (r = 0.27, P = 0.04) while head circumference associated negatively with apoptotic cells (r = -0.27, P = 0.06). APGAR score at 1 and 5 min after birth associated positively with NDI at birth (r = 0.3, P = 0.05, r = 0.28, P = 0.06, respectively). Mother's weight and body mass index (BMI) recorded at the time of recruitment associated positively with NPB (r = 0.38, P = 0.006, r = 0.32, P = 0.02, respectively) and negatively with APGAR score at 5 min (r = -0.25, P = 0.07). The significant positive associations of infant birth weight and length and maternal BMI with CBMN-Cyt biomarkers suggest the possibility of a genotoxic effect of metabolic processes that promote excessive growth and high BMI.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Pollution and regional variations of lung cancer mortality in the United States

Authors: Moore, JX; Akinyemiju, T; Wang, HE (2017) Cancer Epidemiology 49:118-127. HERO ID: 3840135

[Less] INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to identify counties in the United States . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to identify counties in the United States (US) with high rates of lung cancer mortality, and to characterize the associated community-level factors while focusing on particulate-matter pollution.

METHODS: We performed a descriptive analysis of lung cancer deaths in the US from 2004 through 2014. We categorized counties as "clustered" or "non-clustered" - based on whether or not they had high lung cancer mortality rates - using novel geospatial autocorrelation methods. We contrasted community characteristics between cluster categories. We performed logistic regression for the association between cluster category and particulate-matter pollution.

RESULTS: Among 362 counties (11.6%) categorized as clustered, the age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rate was 99.70 deaths per 100,000 persons (95%CI: 99.1-100.3). Compared with non-clustered counties, clustered counties were more likely in the south (72.9% versus 42.1%, P<0.01) and in non-urban communities (73.2% versus 57.4, P<0.01). Clustered counties had greater particulate-matter pollution, lower education and income, higher rates of obesity and physical inactivity, less access to healthcare, and greater unemployment rates (P<0.01). Higher levels of particulate-matter pollution (4th quartile versus 1st quartile) were associated with two-fold greater odds of being a clustered county (adjusted OR: 2.10; 95%CI: 1.23-3.59).

CONCLUSION: We observed a belt of counties with high lung mortality ranging from eastern Oklahoma through central Appalachia; these counties were characterized by higher pollution, a more rural population, lower socioeconomic status and poorer access to healthcare. To mitigate the burden of lung cancer mortality in the US, both urban and rural areas should consider minimizing air pollution.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantitative cancer risk assessment and local mortality burden for ambient air pollution in an eastern Mediterranean City

Authors: Dhaini, HR; Salameh, T; Waked, A; Sauvage, S; Borbon, A; Formenti, P; Doussin, JF; Locoge, N; Afif, C (2017) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24:14151-14162. HERO ID: 3840174

[Less] Health risks posed by ambient air pollutants to the urban Lebanese population have not been well characterized. . . . [More] Health risks posed by ambient air pollutants to the urban Lebanese population have not been well characterized. The aim of this study is to assess cancer risk and mortality burden of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and particulates (PM) based on two field-sampling campaigns conducted during summer and winter seasons in Beirut. Seventy NMHCs were analyzed by TD-GC-FID. PM2.5 elemental carbon (EC) components were examined using a Lab OC-EC aerosol Analyzer, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed by GC-MS. The US EPA fraction-based approach was used to assess non-cancer hazard and cancer risk for the hydrocarbon mixture, and the UK Committee on Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP) guidelines were followed to determine the PM2.5 attributable mortality burden. The average cumulative cancer risk exceeded the US EPA acceptable level (10(-6)) by 40-fold in the summer and 30-fold in the winter. Benzene was found to be the highest contributor to cancer risk (39-43%), followed by 1,3-butadiene (25-29%), both originating from traffic gasoline evaporation and combustion. The EC attributable average mortality fraction was 7.8-10%, while the average attributable number of deaths (AD) and years of life lost (YLL) were found to be 257-327 and 3086-3923, respectively. Our findings provide a baseline for future air monitoring programs, and for interventions aiming at reducing cancer risk in this population.