Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)


1,557 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Use of high-throughput in vitro toxicity screening data in cancer hazard evaluations by IARC Monograph Working Groups

Authors: Chiu, WA; Guyton, KZ; Martin, MT; Reif, DM; Rusyn, I (2018) Altex 35:51-64. HERO ID: 3981309

[Less] Evidence regarding carcinogenic mechanisms serves a critical role in International Agency for Research . . . [More] Evidence regarding carcinogenic mechanisms serves a critical role in International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph evaluations. Three recent IARC Working Groups pioneered inclusion of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast program high-throughput screening (HTS) data to supplement other mechanistic evidence. In Monograph V110, HTS profiles were compared between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and prototypical activators across multiple nuclear receptors. For Monograph V112 -113, HTS assays were mapped to 10 key characteristics of carcinogens identified by an IARC expert group, and systematically considered as an additional mechanistic data stream. Both individual assay results and ToxPi-based rankings informed mechanistic evaluations. Activation of multiple nuclear receptors in HTS assays showed that PFOA targets peroxisome proliferator activated and other receptors. ToxCast assays substantially covered 5 of 10 key characteristics, corroborating literature evidence of "induces oxidative stress" and "alters cell proliferation, cell death or nutrient supply" and filling gaps for "modulates receptor-mediated effects." Thus, ToxCast HTS data were useful both in evaluating specific mechanistic hypotheses and in the overall evaluation of mechanistic evidence. However, additional HTS assays are needed to provide more comprehensive coverage of the 10 key characteristics of carcinogens that form the basis of current IARC mechanistic evaluations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An overview of advanced reduction processes for bromate removal from drinking water: Reducing agents, activation methods, applications and mechanisms

Authors: Xiao, Q; Yu, S; Li, L; Wang, T; Liao, X; Ye, Y (2017) HERO ID: 3981937

[Less] Bromate (BrO3(-)) is a possible human carcinogen regulated at a strict standard of 10μg/L in drinking . . . [More] Bromate (BrO3(-)) is a possible human carcinogen regulated at a strict standard of 10μg/L in drinking water. Various techniques to eliminate BrO3(-) usually fall into three main categories: reducing bromide (Br(-)) prior to formation of BrO3(-), minimizing BrO3(-) formation during the ozonation process, and removing BrO3(-) from post-ozonation waters. However, the first two approaches exhibit low degradation efficiency and high treatment cost. The third workaround has obvious advantages, such as high reduction efficiency, more stable performance and easier combination with UV disinfection, and has therefore been widely implemented in water treatment. Recently, advanced reduction processes (ARPs), the photocatalysis of BrO3(-), have attracted much attention due to improved performance. To increase the feasibility of photocatalytic systems, the focus of this work concerns new technological developments, followed by a summary of reducing agents, activation methods, operational parameters, and applications. The reaction mechanisms of two typical processes involving UV/sulfite homogeneous photocatalysis and UV/titanium dioxide heterogeneous photocatalysis are further summarized. The future research needs for ARPs to reach full-scale potential in drinking water treatment are suggested accordingly.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

High perfluorooctanoic acid exposure induces autophagy blockage and disturbs intracellular vesicle fusion in the liver: Supplementary materials

Authors: Yan, S; Zhang, H; Guo, X; Wang, J; Dai, J (2017) Archives of Toxicology 91. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3986361

Abstract: Supplementary materials

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A Robust Method for Routine Analysis of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorohexane Sulfonate (PFHxS) in Various Edible Crop Matrices

Authors: Xiang, Lei; Sun, TFei; Chen, Lei; Xiao, Tao; Cai, QY; Li, Hui; He, DeC; Wong, MH; Li, YanWen; Mo, CeHui (2017) HERO ID: 3859955

[Less] A reliable, sensitive, and efficient method was developed for routine analysis of perfluorooctane sulfonate . . . [More] A reliable, sensitive, and efficient method was developed for routine analysis of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) in various edible crop matrices including cereal (grain), root vegetable (carrot), leafy vegetable (lettuce), and melon vegetable (pumpkin). The target analytes were extracted by ion-pair approach followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up and HPLC-MS/MS. The type of extraction solvent, clean-up cartridge, and the usage of Supelclean graphitized carbon were evaluated to reach an optimized pretreatment procedure. The matrix-matched standard calibrations relative to the isotope-labeled internal standard were used in the developed method to obtain more reliable quantitative results. The average recoveries at four spiked levels (0.5, 10, 25, 50 ng/g) in the diverse matrices ranged from 70.9 to 114.6% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 11.5%. The matrix-dependent method detection limits using the common equipment (HPLC-MS/MS) were between 0.020 and 0.140 ng/g (dw), equivalent to the 3-130 pg/g (fw), corresponding to the sensitivity of superior equipment (e.g., UPLC-MS/MS and HPLC-QTOF-HRMS). Furthermore, the developed method was conferred with the practicality through determination of the analytes in actual crops sampled from several farms in China's Pearl River Delta.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Rapid determination of small molecule pollutants using metal-organic frameworks as adsorbent and matrix of MALDI-TOF-MS

Authors: Wang, S; Niu, H; Zeng, Tao; Zhang, X; Cao, D; Cai, Y (2017) HERO ID: 3981934

[Less] Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been . . . [More] Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been commonly used for the determination of macromolecules owing to the high sensitivity and convenience. However, the direct analysis of small molecule with MALDI-TOF-MS remains a challenge due to the matrix interference in the low mass region. In this paper, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs: MOF-5, MOF-235, Cu-btc MOFs and Uio-66(Zr)-2OH) were successfully used as both adsorbent and significant matrix of MALDI-TOF-MS method for the analysis of small molecule pollutants. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were chosen as model analytes to investigate the matrix function of MOFs with LDI measurement in positive and negative reflection mode, respectively. As a result, MOFs exhibit high laser desorption/ionization efficiency and function well in both positive-ion and negative ion modes. Compared to the MS spectra with conventional matrices, MS spectra obtained on MOFs matrix are only featured by deprotonated molecule ion peaks without background interference. Furthermore, MOFs, with large surface area and pi-pi stacking structure, can also enrich trace amounts of small molecule pollutants from solution efficiently and quickly. According to these, we developed a simple method in which MOFs-solid-phase extraction (SPE) enrichment was combined with MALDI-TOF-MS to realize the direct analysis of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in real water samples. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Gas chromatographic determination of perfluorocarboxylic acids in aqueous samples - A tutorial review

Authors: Shafique, U; Schulze, S; Slawik, C; Kunz, S; Paschke, A; Schüürmann, G (2017) Analytica Chimica Acta 949:8-22. [Review] HERO ID: 3981401

[Less] Determination of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) by gas chromatography (GC) has been undertaken since . . . [More] Determination of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) by gas chromatography (GC) has been undertaken since 1980. However, only small number of studies can be found in the literature due to the major drawbacks associated with the GC determination of PFCAs such as high detection limits, a small range of analytes, long analysis time, and laborious derivatization prior to chromatographic separation. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(2)) can overcome these limitations of GC, and therefore has become the method of choice for the determination of PFCAs since 2001. Nevertheless, GC as a low-cost and commonly available analytical technique should not be ignored because of its inherent advantage over LC to identify PFCA isomers in environmental and biological matrices owing to its high-resolution power. In addition, GC provides an opportunity to crosscheck LC-MS(2) results that are often suspicious due to background contamination. This tutorial provides an overview of GC methods that have been used for the determination of PFCAs after derivatization. Moreover, performance characteristics of GC-MS are compared with that of LC-MS(2). PFCAs in aqueous samples were determined by both analytical techniques, and two sets of measurements were compared using the Bland-Altman plot. For both methods, reasons for false-positive and false-negative results (overestimation and underestimation of the PFCA concentration, respectively) are discussed, and accordingly some advice is offered on how to avoid erroneous results. Finally, major applications of GC and its future perspectives for the determination of PFCAs are discussed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of ISCO Treatment on PFAA Co-Contaminants at a Former Fire Training Area

Authors: Eberle, D; Ball, R; Boving, TB (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:5127-5136. HERO ID: 3981838

[Less] The effects of an in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment aimed predominantly at remediation of . . . [More] The effects of an in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment aimed predominantly at remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) co-contaminants were investigated. Soil and groundwater samples were collected before and after an ISCO pilot-scale field test of a peroxone activated persulfate (OxyZone) technology. Statistically significant decreases in PFAA groundwater concentrations were observed in post-treatment samples. Reductions in PFAA aqueous phase concentrations were also supported by decreases in soil concentrations. Importantly, there was no evidence for increased aqueous PFAA concentrations due to mobilization from soil or conversion of precursors into PFAAs. As indicated by chloride data from inside and outside the treatment zone, displacement and/or dilution could not explain the observed decrease in PFAA concentration. Also, relatively constant pH values, due to using a buffered oxidant solution, did not support increased PFAA removal via soil sorption. Overall, the use of peroxone activated persulfate to treat cVOCs had no discernible negative impacts on PFAA co-contaminants at the Site. Rather, the data suggest that PFAA concentrations decreased due to ISCO treatment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Adsorption of perfluorocarboxylic acids at the silica surface

Authors: Shafique, U; Dorn, V; Paschke, A; Schüürmann, G (2017) Chemical Communications 53:589-592. HERO ID: 3981901

[Less] Water molecules may force the hydrophobic perfluoroalkyl chain of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) . . . [More] Water molecules may force the hydrophobic perfluoroalkyl chain of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) to aggregate at hydrophobic siloxane patches ([triple bond, length as m-dash]Si-O-Si[triple bond, length as m-dash]) of the silica surface despite electrostatic repulsion between surface silanol ([triple bond, length as m-dash]SiO(-)) and the carboxylate (-COO(-)) headgroup of PFCA. Acidic pH and background cations promote the adsorption further by reducing the anion-anion Coulomb repulsion.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Boron doped diamond electrooxidation of 6:2 fluorotelomers and perfluorocarboxylic acids. Application to industrial wastewaters treatment

Authors: Gomez-Ruiz, B; Gomez-Lavin, S; Diban, N; Boiteux, V; Colin, A; Dauchy, X; Urtiaga, Ane (2017) Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry 798:51-57. HERO ID: 3859876

[Less] The aim of this study was to determine the viability of electrochemical oxidation to degrade and mineralize . . . [More] The aim of this study was to determine the viability of electrochemical oxidation to degrade and mineralize poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in wastewaters from an industrial facility dedicated to the production of side-chain-fluorinated polymers and fluorotelomer-based products for fire-fighting foams. 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide allcylbetaine (6:2 FTAB, 1111 mu g/L), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA, 242.5 mu g/L) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide propyl N,N dimethylamine (M4, 34.4 mu g/L) were the most abundant PFASs in the industrial wastewater, that also contained perfluorocarboxylic acids (Sigma PFCAs, 12.2 mu g/L), high TOC and chloride as main anion. 2 L samples were treated in bench scale experiments performed at a current density of 50 mA/cm(2), in a commercial cell equipped with a boron doped diamond (BDD) anode (70 cm(2)). 97.1% of the initial PFASs content was removed after 8 h of electrochemical treatment. Furthermore, the TOC removal (82.5%) and the fluoride release confirmed the PFASs mineralization. Based on the evolution of the different PFASs, electrochemical degradation pathways were proposed. Fluorotelomers sulfonamides 6:2 FTAB and M4 would be degraded into 6:2 FTSA, which conversely would give rise to PFHpA and preferentially PFHxA. The latter PFCAs were transformed into shorter-chain PFCAs, and eventually into CO2 and fluoride. The reported results support the technical viability of BDD electrooxidation for the treatment of PFASs in industrial wastewater.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Aromatic Esters, Carbinols, and Derivatives Thereof with Perfluorohexyl Residues as Alternatives to Perfluoroalkanecarboxylic and -sulfonic Acids

Authors: Alpers, T; Muesmann, TWT; Temme, O; Christoffers, J (2017) HERO ID: 3981907

[Less] Four perfluorohexyl carbinols have been prepared from the corresponding Grignard reagent and benzaldehyde, . . . [More] Four perfluorohexyl carbinols have been prepared from the corresponding Grignard reagent and benzaldehyde, terephthalaldehyde, isophthalaldehyde, and trimesaldehyde. The corresponding secondary alcohols were then transformed by alkylation and acylation reactions to form a total of 14 ethers (methyl, ethyl, propyl, and n-hexyl ethers) and esters (acetyl and 2-ethylhexanoyl), respectively. Furthermore, 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates were prepared from aromatic, heteroaromatic, and aliphatic mono-, di-, tri-, and tetracarboxylic acids and trideca-fluorooctanol. The wettability of all 29 materials was investigated by the water contact angle measurements of thin films on glass surfaces. In up to six cases, contact angles greater than 130 degrees were observed, which indicates that the products might be suitable candidates for the impregnation of surfaces. With their relatively short perfluoroalkyl side-chains and therefore low bioaccumulativity, the target compounds might be beneficial alternatives to established products.