Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)


1,107 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Use of high-throughput in vitro toxicity screening data in cancer hazard evaluations by IARC Monograph Working Groups

Authors: Chiu, WA; Guyton, KZ; Martin, MT; Reif, DM; Rusyn, I (2018) Altex 35:51-64. HERO ID: 3981309

[Less] Evidence regarding carcinogenic mechanisms serves a critical role in International Agency for Research . . . [More] Evidence regarding carcinogenic mechanisms serves a critical role in International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph evaluations. Three recent IARC Working Groups pioneered inclusion of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast program high-throughput screening (HTS) data to supplement other mechanistic evidence. In Monograph V110, HTS profiles were compared between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and prototypical activators across multiple nuclear receptors. For Monograph V112 -113, HTS assays were mapped to 10 key characteristics of carcinogens identified by an IARC expert group, and systematically considered as an additional mechanistic data stream. Both individual assay results and ToxPi-based rankings informed mechanistic evaluations. Activation of multiple nuclear receptors in HTS assays showed that PFOA targets peroxisome proliferator activated and other receptors. ToxCast assays substantially covered 5 of 10 key characteristics, corroborating literature evidence of "induces oxidative stress" and "alters cell proliferation, cell death or nutrient supply" and filling gaps for "modulates receptor-mediated effects." Thus, ToxCast HTS data were useful both in evaluating specific mechanistic hypotheses and in the overall evaluation of mechanistic evidence. However, additional HTS assays are needed to provide more comprehensive coverage of the 10 key characteristics of carcinogens that form the basis of current IARC mechanistic evaluations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

High perfluorooctanoic acid exposure induces autophagy blockage and disturbs intracellular vesicle fusion in the liver: Supplementary materials

Authors: Yan, S; Zhang, H; Guo, X; Wang, J; Dai, J (2017) Archives of Toxicology 91. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3986361

Abstract: Supplementary materials

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Correction to "β-Cyclodextrin Polymer Network Sequesters Perfluorooctanoic Acid at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations"

Authors: Xiao, L; Ling, Y; Alsbaiee, A; Li, C; Helbling, DE; Dichtel, WR (2017) Journal of the American Chemical Society 139:10585. HERO ID: 3981285


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reductive defluorination of perfluorooctanoic acid by titanium(III) citrate with vitamin B12 and copper nanoparticles

Authors: Lee, YC; Chen, YP; Chen, MJ; Kuo, J; Lo, SL (2017) Journal of Hazardous Materials 340:336-343. HERO ID: 3981286

[Less] Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is widespread in the environment, which causes serious health and safety . . . [More] Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is widespread in the environment, which causes serious health and safety concerns. A mechanistic study on reductive defluorination of PFOA by titanium(III) citrate in the presence of catalysts was conducted. Vitamin B12 was used to catalyze reduction reactions by shuttling electrons from a reducing agent (electron donor) to PFOA to produce a Co-carbon bond intermediates. In the presence of copper nanoparticles, a precursor complex, B12-C7F14COOH, adsorbed on the metal surface, followed by a hydrogenolytic reaction to form less-fluorinated products. The synergistic effect between vitamin B12 and copper nanoparticles enhances the reductive activities by electron-transfer reactions and hydrogenolysis. The efficient reduction of PFOA to less-noxious compounds was demonstrated with a copper dose of 2gL(-1), titanium(III) citrate (45mM), and vitamin B12 (0.2mM) with an initial pH of 9.0 and 70°C. In this anoxic aqueous solution, the biomimetic reductive system effectively removed 65% of PFOA. The mass balance on fluoride matched the observed degradation of PFOA, while no short-chain intermediates were detected.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Oil-Repellent Antifogging Films with Water-Enabled Functional and Structural Healing Ability

Authors: Xu, F; Li, X; Li, Y; Sun, J (2017) 9:27955-27963. HERO ID: 3981306

[Less] Healable oil-repellent antifogging films are fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly of hyaluronic acid . . . [More] Healable oil-repellent antifogging films are fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly of hyaluronic acid (HA) and branched poly(ethylenimine) (bPEI), followed by immersion in the aqueous solutions of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid potassium salt (PFOS). The loading of PFOS endows the HA/bPEI films with oil repellency while maintaining its original hydrophilicity. The resulting films have an excellent antifogging ability, and various organic liquids can easily slide down the slightly tilted films (<10°) without any residue. Through water-assisted migration of PFOS and polyelectrolytes, oil-repellent antifogging films are able to repetitively and autonomously recover their damaged oil repellency and transparency caused by plasma etching, cutting, or scratching, prolonging their life span. The as-developed healable oil-repellent antifogging films have potential application as antifingerprint coatings for touch screens, antigraffiti coatings for signs and shop windows, and antifogging coatings for lenses, mirrors, and windshields.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fluorination of Boron-Doped Diamond Film Electrodes for Minimization of Perchlorate Formation

Authors: Gayen, P; Chaplin, BP (2017) 9:27638-27648. HERO ID: 3981307

[Less] This research investigated the effects of surface fluorination on both rates of organic compound oxidation . . . [More] This research investigated the effects of surface fluorination on both rates of organic compound oxidation (phenol and terephthalic acid (TA)) and ClO4(-) formation at boron-doped diamond (BDD) film anodes at 22 °C. Different fluorination methods (i.e., electrochemical oxidation with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), radio frequency plasma, and silanization) were used to incorporate fluorinated moieties on the BDD surface, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The silanization method was found to be the most effective fluorination method using a 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane precursor to form a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the oxygenated BDD surface. The ClO4(-) formation decreased from rates of 0.45 ± 0.03 mmol m(-2) min(-1) during 1 mM NaClO3 oxidation and 0.28 ± 0.01 mmol m(-2) min(-1) during 10 mM NaCl oxidation on the BDD electrode to below detectable levels (<0.12 μmoles m(-2) min(-1)) for the BDD electrode functionalized by a 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane SAM. These decreases in rates corresponded to 99.94 and 99.85% decreases in selectivity for ClO4(-) formation during the electrolysis of 10 mM NaCl and 1 mM NaClO3 electrolytes, respectively. By contrast, the oxidation rates of phenol were reduced by only 16.3% in the NaCl electrolyte and 61% in a nonreactive 0.1 M KH2PO4 electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry with Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) and Fe(3+/2+) redox couples indicated that the long fluorinated chains created a blocking layer on the BDD surface that inhibited charge transfer via steric hindrance and hydrophobic effects. The surface coverages and thicknesses of the fluorinated films controlled the charge transfer rates, which was confirmed by estimates of film thicknesses using XPS and density functional theory simulations. The aliphatic silanized electrode also showed very high stability during OH(•) production. Perchlorate formation rates were below the detection limit (<0.12 μmoles m(-2) min(-1)) for up to 10 consecutive NaClO3 oxidation experiments.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Rapid screening and identification of chemical hazards in surface and drinking water using high resolution mass spectrometry and a case-control filter

Authors: Kaserzon, SL; Heffernan, AL; Thompson, K; Mueller, JF; Gomez Ramos, MJ (2017) Chemosphere 182:656-664. HERO ID: 3981335

[Less] Access to clean, safe drinking water poses a serious challenge to regulators, and requires analytical . . . [More] Access to clean, safe drinking water poses a serious challenge to regulators, and requires analytical strategies capable of rapid screening and identification of potentially hazardous chemicals, specifically in situations when threats to water quality or security require rapid investigations and potential response. This study describes a fast and efficient chemical hazard screening strategy for characterising trace levels of polar organic contaminants in water matrices, based on liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry with post-acquisition 'case-control' data processing. This method allowed for a rapid response time of less than 24 h for the screening of target, suspect and non-target unknown chemicals via direct injection analysis, and a second, more sensitive analysis option requiring sample pre-concentration. The method was validated by fortifying samples with a range of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (n = 46); with >90% of target compounds positively screened in samples at 1 ng mL(-1), and 46% at 0.1 ng mL(-1) when analysed via direct injection. To simulate a contamination event samples were fortified with compounds not present in the commercial library (designated 'non-target compounds'; fipronil and fenitrothion), tentatively identified at 0.2 and 1 ng mL(-1), respectively; and a compound not included in any known commercial library or public database (designated 'unknown' compounds; 8Cl(-) perfluorooctanesulfonic acid), at 0.8 ng mL(-1). The method was applied to two 'real-case' scenarios: (1) the assessment of drinking water safety during a high-profile event in Brisbane, Australia; and (2) to screen treated, re-circulated drinking water and pre-treated (raw) water. The validated workflow was effective for rapid prioritisation and screening of suspect and non-target potential hazards at trace levels, and could be applied to a wide range of matrices and investigations where comparison of organic contaminants between an affected and control site and or timeframe is warranted.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids in matched maternal, cord, and placenta samples: A study of transplacental transfer

Authors: Chen, F; Yin, S; Kelly, BC; Liu, W (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:6387-6394. HERO ID: 3981340

[Less] Currently, information regarding concentrations of chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids . . . [More] Currently, information regarding concentrations of chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs) in human placenta does not exist. The main objective of this study was to assess the occurrence and distribution of two Cl-PFESAs, 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA, in maternal serum, umbilical cord serum, and placenta to better assess the transport pathways related to human prenatal exposure. The widely studied perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was studied for comparison. This study was a hospital-based survey involving quantitative determination of Cl-PFESA and PFOS concentrations in maternal serum (n = 32), cord serum (n = 32), and placenta (n = 32) samples from women in Wuhan, China. The results indicate that Cl-PFESAs can efficiently be transported across placenta, with median exposure levels of 0.60 and 0.01 ng/mL for 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA in the cord sera, respectively. Concentrations of the target compounds in maternal sera, cord sera, and placentas decreased in the following order: PFOS > 6:2 Cl-PFESA > 8:2 Cl-PFESA. Similar patterns were observed in maternal sera, cord sera, and placentas for Cl-PFESAs, with concentrations decreasing in the following order: maternal sera > cord sera > placentas. Significant correlations were observed among 6:2 Cl-PFESA, 8:2 Cl-PFESA, and PFOS concentrations in the maternal serum, cord serum, and placenta samples (r > 0.7; p < 0.001). The median value of RCM (ratio of cord serum to maternal serum concentration) of 6:2 Cl-PFESA was 0.403, indicating a relatively high (∼40%) placental transfer efficiency. 8:2 Cl-PFESA was transported across placenta to a greater extent than 6:2 Cl-PFESA was, likely because of its higher hydrophobicity and lower plasma protein binding affinity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the occurrence and distribution of 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA in human placenta. The findings improve our understanding of the mechanisms of transplacental transfer and neonatal exposure to these important PFOS alternatives.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Detailed NMR investigation of cyclodextrin-perfluorinated surfactant interactions in aqueous media

Authors: Weiss-Errico, MJ; O'Shea, KE (2017) Journal of Hazardous Materials 329:57-65. HERO ID: 3981377

[Less] Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) are contaminants of serious concern because of their toxicological properties, . . . [More] Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) are contaminants of serious concern because of their toxicological properties, widespread presence in drinking water sources, and incredible stability in the environment. To assess the potential application of α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins for PFC remediation, we investigated their complexation with linear fluorinated carboxylic acids, sulfonates, and a sulfonamide with carbon backbones ranging from C4-C9. (19)F Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies demonstrated β-CD formed the strongest complexes with these PFCs. The polar head group had a modest influence, but for PFCs with backbones longer than six carbons, strong association constants are observed for 1:1 (K1:1∼10(5)M(-1)) and 2:1 (K2:1∼10(3)M(-1)) β-CD:PFC complexes. Excess β-CD can be used to complex 99.5% of the longer chain PFCs. Competition studies with adamantane-carboxylic acid and phenol confirmed the nature and persistence of the β-CD:PFC complex. Detailed analyses of the individual NMR chemical shifts and Job plots indicate the favored positions of the β-CD along the PFC chain. Solution pH, ionic strength, and the presence of humic acid have modest influence on the β-CD:PFC complexes. The strong encapsulation of PFCs by β-CD under a variety of water quality conditions demonstrates the tremendous potential of CD-based materials for the environmental remediation of PFCs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effects of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate in C57BL/6 mice

Authors: Rushing, BR; Hu, Q; Franklin, JN; Mcmahen, R; Dagnino, S; Higgins, CP; Strynar, MJ; Dewitt, JC (2017) Toxicological Sciences. HERO ID: 3981379

[Less] 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate was designed to replace perfluorooctanoic acid . . . [More] 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate was designed to replace perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which has been mostly phased out of U.S. production due to environmental persistence, detectable human and wildlife serum concentrations, and reports of systemic toxicity. In rodent models, PFOA exposure suppresses T cell-dependent antibody responses (TDAR) and vaccine responses in exposed humans. To determine replacement compound effects on TDAR and related parameters, male and female C57BL/6 mice were gavaged with 0, 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Mice immunized with antigen on day 24 were evaluated for TDAR and splenic lymphocyte subpopulations five days later. Serum and urine were collected for test compound concentrations and liver peroxisome proliferation was measured. Relative liver weight at 10 and 100 mg/kg and peroxisome proliferation at 100 mg/kg were increased in both sexes. TDAR was suppressed in females at 100 mg/kg. T lymphocyte numbers were increased in males at 100 mg/kg; B lymphocyte numbers were unchanged in both sexes. Females had less serum accumulation and higher clearance than males, and males had higher urine concentrations than females at all times and doses. While this PFOA-replacement compound appears less potent at suppressing TDAR relative to PFOA, it produces detectable changes in parameters affected by PFOA; further studies are necessary to determine its full immunomodulatory profile and potential synergism with other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances of environmental concern.