Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)


1,107 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Use of high-throughput in vitro toxicity screening data in cancer hazard evaluations by IARC Monograph Working Groups

Authors: Chiu, WA; Guyton, KZ; Martin, MT; Reif, DM; Rusyn, I (2018) Altex 35:51-64. HERO ID: 3981309

[Less] Evidence regarding carcinogenic mechanisms serves a critical role in International Agency for Research . . . [More] Evidence regarding carcinogenic mechanisms serves a critical role in International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph evaluations. Three recent IARC Working Groups pioneered inclusion of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast program high-throughput screening (HTS) data to supplement other mechanistic evidence. In Monograph V110, HTS profiles were compared between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and prototypical activators across multiple nuclear receptors. For Monograph V112 -113, HTS assays were mapped to 10 key characteristics of carcinogens identified by an IARC expert group, and systematically considered as an additional mechanistic data stream. Both individual assay results and ToxPi-based rankings informed mechanistic evaluations. Activation of multiple nuclear receptors in HTS assays showed that PFOA targets peroxisome proliferator activated and other receptors. ToxCast assays substantially covered 5 of 10 key characteristics, corroborating literature evidence of "induces oxidative stress" and "alters cell proliferation, cell death or nutrient supply" and filling gaps for "modulates receptor-mediated effects." Thus, ToxCast HTS data were useful both in evaluating specific mechanistic hypotheses and in the overall evaluation of mechanistic evidence. However, additional HTS assays are needed to provide more comprehensive coverage of the 10 key characteristics of carcinogens that form the basis of current IARC mechanistic evaluations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Riverine inputs and source tracing of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Taihu Lake, China

Authors: Ma, X; Shan, G; Chen, M; Zhao, J; Zhu, L (2018) Science of the Total Environment 612:18-25. HERO ID: 3981684

[Less] The occurrence, riverine inputs and sources of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Taihu Lake, one . . . [More] The occurrence, riverine inputs and sources of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Taihu Lake, one of the largest lakes in China, were investigated by measuring PFASs including the isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in the Lake and its main flow-in rivers. It was found that PFHxS, instead of PFOS or PFOA, was predominant both in the Lake and rivers (45.9-351ng/L), reflecting increasing demand of PFHxS in recent years. The riverine flux of PFASs into the Lake was estimated to be 1255kg/year. The percentage of linear (n-) PFOS and the ratio of 3+5m-/1m-PFOS were combined to indicate indirect source due to biodegradation of PFOS-precursors. The percentage order of n-PFOS was: the Lake (48.7%)the rivers (8.99)>ECF (electrochemical fluorination) product (6.76). These suggested that degradation of PFOS-precursors made distinct contribution to PFOS load in the waters, particularly in the Lake. The Lake and river waters had a consistent proportion of n-PFHxS (89.0%), which was slightly lower than the ECF product (96.0%), indicating it was mainly due to the release from production and application of PFHxS as an active ingredient.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

High perfluorooctanoic acid exposure induces autophagy blockage and disturbs intracellular vesicle fusion in the liver: Supplementary materials

Authors: Yan, S; Zhang, H; Guo, X; Wang, J; Dai, J (2017) Archives of Toxicology 91. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3986361

Abstract: Supplementary materials

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Depuration of perfluoroalkyl substances from the edible tissues of wild-caught invertebrate species

Authors: Taylor, MD; Bowles, KC; Johnson, DD; Moltschaniwskyj, NA (2017) Science of the Total Environment 581-582:258-267. HERO ID: 3859815

[Less] Detection and quantification of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aquatic organisms is . . . [More] Detection and quantification of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aquatic organisms is increasing, particularly for saltwater species. Depuration can remove PFASs from the tissues of some species once they are removed from the contaminant source, but it is not known if this process occurs for saltwater crustaceans. Such information is important for managing human health risks for exploited migratory species following exposure. We present the results of a depuration trial for School Prawn (Metapenaeus macleayi) and Mud Crab (Scylla serrata), two commercially important crustaceans in Australia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were present in samples of both species collected following exposure under natural conditions in contaminated estuaries. Depuration was tested in uncontaminated water for 33days. PFOA was present at levels close to LOR in both species, and was not detected after 4.5h and 72h in School Prawn and Mud Crab respectively. PFHxS was rapidly depurated by School Prawn, and had a depuration half-life of 5.7h. PFOS was also depurated by School Prawn, with a depuration half-life of 158.5h. PFHxS and PFOS concentrations were highly variable in Mud Crab both at the start, and during the depuration experiment, and a depuration model could not be fitted to the data. For School Prawn, depuration of total PFASs to the relevant screening value for protection of human health (9.1μgkg(-1)) occurred within 7.1h. Rapid depuration of PFASs in School Prawn indicates that human health risks associated with consumption may decrease as this species migrates away from the contamination source. Further research is required to better understand the relationships between contaminant load and life-history characteristics (such as growth, reproduction, and moult cycle) in Mud Crab, and future work should target broader time frames for depuration in this species.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The impact of prenatal perfluoroalkyl substances exposure on neonatal and child growth

Authors: Chen, MH; Ng, S; Hsieh, CJ; Lin, CC; Hsieh, WS; Chen, PC (2017) Science of the Total Environment 607-608:669-675. HERO ID: 3981292

[Less] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are wildly distributed environmental . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are wildly distributed environmental pollutants. Laboratory mice exposed prenatally to PFASs develop smaller birth weight but are more likely to become obese in adulthood. The evidences in human studies are still inconclusive.

METHODS: The participants were 429 mother-infant pairs from Taiwan Birth Panel Study. These children were followed serially and growth data were collected through face to face interviews and records in Child Healthcare Handbooks until 108months of age. The age-specific z-scores for weight (WAZ), length/height (LAZ/HAZ) and BMI (BMIAZ) were calculated. PFASs in umbilical cord blood were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: At birth, perfluorooctyl sulfonate (PFOS) levels were negatively associated with weight and height [per ln unit: adjusted β (95% confidence interval, CI)=-0.14 (-0.26, -0.01) for WAZ and -0.16 (-0.31, -0.02) for LAZ]. However, these adverse impacts diminished as children grow up. When stratified the analysis by gender, the effects of prenatal PFOS exposure were more obvious for girls especially during the time span of 6 to 12 and 12 to 24months of age [per ln unit: adjusted β (95% CI)=-0.25 (-0.47, -0.04) and -0.24 (-0.41, -0.04) for WAZ, respectively; per ln unit: adjusted β (95% CI)=-0.33 (-0.59, -0.08) and -0.25 (-0.45, -0.05) for BMIAZ, respectively]. Later in the period of 60 to 108months of age, positive association between prenatal PFOS exposure and girls' BMI was observed [per ln unit: adjusted β (95% CI)=0.34 (0.007, 0.68) for BMIAZ]. There was little evidence in these data for a consistent association of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with any of the indicators.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study had shown that higher prenatal PFOS exposure was associated with decreased fetal growth, but the effects were diminished as children grow up. Modest effect of gender specific manner was observed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate on acute toxicity, superoxide dismutase, and cellulase activity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

Authors: Yuan, Z; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Li, J; Liu, H (2017) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24:18188-18194. HERO ID: 3981316

[Less] Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are the two best-known perfluorinated . . . [More] Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are the two best-known perfluorinated chemicals and have received much attention due to their ubiquity in the environment. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of PFOS and PFOA on acute toxicity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and cellulase activities in Eisenia fetida. The results of acute toxicity testing using a filter paper contact test and a natural field soil test showed that PFOA and PFOS exhibited acute toxicity in earthworms, and the toxic effect of PFOS was greater than that of PFOA. The results also showed that avoidance behavior is a more sensitive and easy operation biomarker than acute toxicity and will give us information for early diagnosis of soil pollution, well before the lethal effect becomes apparent. Subchronic exposure to PFOA or PFOS resulted in changes in SOD and cellulase activities in E. fetida, and SOD activity was more sensitive than cellulase activity during early exposure. Based on these findings, we suggest that avoidance behavior and SOD activity in earthworms are suitable biomarkers for evaluating the toxicity of PFOA- and PFOS-contaminated soils. These results indicate that exposure to PFOA and PFOS has a potential impact on soil animals and their environment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Apoptotic gene expression profiles and DNA damage levels in rat liver treated with perfluorooctane sulfonate and protective role of curcumin

Authors: Eke, D; Çelik, A; Yilmaz, MB; Aras, N; Kocatürk Sel, S; Alptekin, D (2017) International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 104:515-520. HERO ID: 3981318

[Less] Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as PFOS and PFOA, are xenobiotics that can be detected worldwide . . . [More] Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as PFOS and PFOA, are xenobiotics that can be detected worldwide in the environment and humans. PFOS (C8F17SO3(-)) is a fluorinated organic compound has been used for decades in industrial and commercial products. We investigated the genotoxic and apoptotic impact of PFOS in rat liver using comet assay, micronucleus test and apoptotic gene expression methods for caspase 3, caspase 8 and the protective role of curcumin on the PFOS- induced damage under chronic exposure. In this study, rats were treated either with three different PFOS doses only (0.6, 1.25 and 2.5mg/kg) or one dose of curcumin (80mg/kg) or three different doses of PFOS combined with 80mg/kg dose of curcumin by gavage for 30days at 48h intervals. We evaluated the DNA damage via comet assay and micronucleus test. Doses of PFOS increased micronucleus frequency (p<0.05) and strongly induced DNA damage in liver in two different parameters; i: the damaged cell percentage and ii: genetic damage index. Curcumin prevented the formation of DNA damage induced by PFOS and curcumin substance applied with PFOS caused a decrease in the micronucleus frequency. PFOS increased apoptotic gene expression but curcumin decreased the expression levels of caspase 3 and 8.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chronic perfluorooctanesulfonic acid exposure disrupts lipid metabolism in zebrafish

Authors: Cui, Y; Lv, S; Liu, J; Nie, S; Chen, J; Dong, Q; Huang, C; Yang, D (2017) Human & Experimental Toxicology 36:207-217. HERO ID: 3981467

[Less] Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), a ubiquitous contaminant, has been used in various industrial applications. . . . [More] Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), a ubiquitous contaminant, has been used in various industrial applications. Currently few studies have documented the effects of chronic PFOS exposure on lipid metabolism, especially in aquatic organisms. The present study defined the effects of chronic exposure to low level of PFOS on lipid metabolism in F0 adult zebrafish and F1 offspring. Our findings revealed a severe fatty degeneration in the liver of F0 males treated with 0.5 μM PFOS and significant ultrastructure changes associated with substance transport or metabolism in liver and intestines (abnormal mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, disordered arrangement of inner microvilli within intracellular canaliculus). To address the potential trans-generational effects of PFOS exposure, the early gene expression related to lipid metabolism was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in F1 derived from chronically exposed parental fish. The results indicated that lepa (leptin α), kiss1 (kisspeptins), xdh (xanthine dehydrogenases), and insr (insulin receptor) were significantly upregulated in F1 while dgat1b (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase), hb9 (motor neuron/pancreas homeobox), and Apoa1 (apolipoprotein A-I) were downregulated. These findings provided evidence that PFOS chronic exposure adversely impacts lipid metabolism in both F0 and F1 and demonstrated the validity of using zebrafish as an alternative model for PFOS chronic toxicity screening.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl substances in waters along the Grand Canal, China

Authors: Piao, HT; Jiao, XC; Gai, N; Chen, S; Lu, GH; Yin, XC; Yamazaki, E; Yamashita, N; Tan, KY; Yang, YL; Pan, J (2017) Chemosphere 179:387-394. HERO ID: 3981690

[Less] The Grand Canal, also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and . . . [More] The Grand Canal, also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the longest canal in the world. It is an important trunk line of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China. The contamination status and spatial distributions of perfluoroalky substances (PFASs) in waters of the Grand Canal were investigated. The total concentrations of PFASs (∑PFASs) range from 7.8 ng/L to 218.0 ng/L, with high ∑PFASs occurring in the southern part of the Grand Canal which is located in a highly urbanized and economically developed region. The dominance of PFOA showed a decreasing trend toward north while shorter chain homologue proportions increased in the northern part of the Canal which mainly traverses underdeveloped and rural areas in Eastern China. Positive correlations were observed between ∑PFASs and the population density as well as GDP per capita. Intersection with large rivers may affect the contamination levels and composition of PFASs in the water of the Grand Canal near the intersection sites.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Preparation of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for the rapid and selective separation and enrichment of perfluorooctane sulfonate

Authors: Du, L; Wu, Y; Zhang, X; Zhang, F; Chen, X; Cheng, Z; Wu, F; Tan, K (2017) Journal of Separation Science 40:2819-2826. HERO ID: 3981329

[Less] As a persistent organic pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonate has drawn a great worldwide attention. . . . [More] As a persistent organic pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonate has drawn a great worldwide attention. In this contribution, a novel material of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers, based on perfluorooctane sulfonate, as a template, molecule was prepared. The magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The adsorption isotherm was measured, and adsorption kinetic tests were conducted. The adsorbents possess high recognition ability (2.460 mg/g) and short adsorption equilibration time (60 min). Besides, they show good specificity and good reusability with the adsorption capacities of adsorbent toward perfluorooctane sulfonate decreasing less than 3% after five adsorption-desorption cycles. The magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were used successfully in the separation and enrichment of perfluorooctane sulfonate in real water sample and exhibited good prospects in environmental treatment and monitoring.