Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)


330 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Uptake and elimination kinetics of perfluoroalkyl substances in submerged and free-floating aquatic macrophytes: Results of mesocosm experiments with Echinodorus horemanii and Eichhornia crassipes

Authors: Pi, N; Ng, JZ; Kelly, BC (2017) Water Research 117:167-174. HERO ID: 3856456

[Less] Studies investigating the bioaccumulation behavior of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aquatic macrophytes . . . [More] Studies investigating the bioaccumulation behavior of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aquatic macrophytes are limited. The present study involved controlled mesocosm experiments to assess uptake and elimination rate constants (ku,ke), bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in two aquatic plant species, including one submerged species (Echinodorus horemanii) and one free-floating species (Eichhornia crassipes). The results indicated all PFASs were readily accumulated in these aquatic macrophytes. ku and BCFs increased with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length. For PFCAs and PFSAs with identical perfluoroalkyl chain length, the corresponding PFSA exhibited higher bioaccumulation potential. On a whole-plant basis, the bioaccumulation potential of PFASs in submerged and free-floating macrophytes were comparable, indicating sorption to plant biomass is similar in the different species. Conversely, when considering accumulation in foliage, BCFs in the free-floating macrophyte were substantially lower compared to submerged species, especially for longer-chain PFASs. Compounds with shorter perfluoroalkyl chain length (PFBS, PFPeA and PFHxA) exhibited preferential translocation to leaf tissue (TFs >1). BCFs exhibited a sigmoidal relationship with pefluoroalkyl chain length, membrane-water distribution coefficients (Dmw), protein-water distribution coefficients (Dpw) and organic-water partition coefficients (Koc). For these trends, maximum BCF values were exhibited by long-chain PFCAs, with a log Dmw, log Dpw and log Koc of 6.47, 5.72 and 5.04, respectively. These findings are useful for future design and implementation of phytoremediation systems, as well for future develop of mechanistic models for predicting the environmental fate and distribution of these contaminants of concern.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and inputs of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from rivers and drain outlets to the Bohai Sea, China

Authors: Chen, H; Wang, X; Zhang, C; Sun, R; Han, J; Han, G; Yang, W; He, X (2017) Environmental Pollution 221:234-243. HERO ID: 3856462

[Less] Concentrations of 19 PFASs in riverwater, coastal wastewater and effluents from WWTPs which were directly . . . [More] Concentrations of 19 PFASs in riverwater, coastal wastewater and effluents from WWTPs which were directly discharged into the Bohai Sea of China were measured and their inputs to this sea area were calculated accordingly. For riverwater samples, the total PFAS concentrations ranged from 13.1 to 69 238 ng/L. PFAS levels in riverwater collected from Liaoning Province were comparable to those from Shandong Province, while they were two orders of magnitude greater than those from Hebei Province and the city of Tianjin. The dominant PFAS patterns were spatially different. PFBS and PFOA were the predominant PFASs in riverwater samples at sites where fluorochemical industry parks are located in Liaoning Province and Shandong Province, respectively. For other sites, PFOA and PFOS were the most abundant PFASs. In contrast, the total PFAS concentrations in coastal wastewater and effluent samples ranged from 16.7 to 7 522 ng/L and from 13.1 to 319 ng/L, respectively. PFOA was dominant in these samples. Inputs of PFASs to the Bohai Sea via riverine flow, discharge of coastal wastewater and effluents were estimated to be 87.3 tons per year. As compared with coastal wastewater and effluent discharge, riverine input was a major source for the PFAS pollution in the Bohai Sea except for PFBS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Atmospheric chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate and ionic perfluoroalkyl acids in 2006 to 2014 in Dalian, China

Authors: Liu, W; Qin, H; Li, J; Zhang, Q; Zhang, H; Wang, Z; He, X (2017) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36:2581-2586. HERO ID: 3856455

[Less] Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (Cl-PFESA; trade name F-53B) is an alternative product for . . . [More] Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (Cl-PFESA; trade name F-53B) is an alternative product for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) used in metal plating; little is known about its levels in the environment and its risks. To our knowledge, the present study constitutes the first report of Cl-PFESA in the atmosphere. In 2006 to 2014, C8 Cl-PFESA, along with ionic perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), was detected in atmospheric particulate matter in Dalian, China. Concentrations of C8 Cl-PFESA increased from 140 pg/m(3) in 2007 to 722 pg/m(3) in 2014. Levels of 11 (total) ionic PFAAs increased in 2006 to 2008 and decreased afterward, with a range of 35.7 to 860 pg/m(3) . The PFAAs in the particulate matter were dominated by perfluorocarboxylates, with perfluorooctanoate detected at the highest concentration at a mean level of 71.7 pg/m(3) , followed by perfluoroheptanoate and perfluorohexanoate. Perfluorosulfonates were detected at lower levels, with mean concentrations of PFOS, perfluorobutanesulfonate, and perfluorohexane sulfonate of 5.73, 1.64, and 1.24 pg/m(3) , respectively. Back-trajectory analysis suggested that the air mass approaching Dalian during the sampling originated from the northwest, where fluorochemical industry parks and metal plating industries are densely located. No significant correlation was observed between Cl-PFESA and the ionic PFAAs. The relatively high Cl-PFESA concentrations suggested that it possibly contributed largely to the previously reported exposure to undefined organic fluorine compounds, for which further research on emission and environmental risks is needed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-6. © 2017 SETAC.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Organic anion transporting polypeptides contribute to the disposition of perfluoroalkyl acids in humans and rats

Authors: Zhao, W; Zitzow, JD; Weaver, Y; Ehresman, DJ; Chang, SC; Butenhoff, JL; Hagenbuch, B (2017) Toxicological Sciences 156:84-95. HERO ID: 3856461

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) such as perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) such as perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have very long serum elimination half-lives in humans, and preferentially distribute to serum and liver. The enterohepatic circulation of PFHxS and PFOS likely contributes to their extended elimination half-lives. We previously demonstrated that perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), PFHxS, and PFOS are transported into hepatocytes both in a sodium-dependent and a sodium-independent manner. We identified Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) as the responsible sodium-dependent transporter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the human apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter (ASBT) contributes to the intestinal reabsorption of PFOS. However, so far no sodium-independent uptake transporters for PFSAs have been identified in human hepatocytes or enterocytes. In addition, perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with 8 and 9 carbons were shown to preferentially distribute to the liver of rodents; however, no rat or human liver uptake transporters are known to transport these PFCAs. Therefore, we tested whether PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, and PFCAs with 7-10 carbons are substrates of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). We used CHO and HEK293 cells to demonstrate that human OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 can transport PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, and the 2 PFCAs (C8 and C9). In addition, we show that rat OATP1A1, OATP1A5, OATP1B2, and OATP2B1 transport all 3 PFSAs. In conclusion, our results suggest that besides NTCP and ASBT, OATPs also are capable of contributing to the enterohepatic circulation and extended human serum elimination half-lives of the tested perfluoroalkyl acids.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ecological effect and risk towards aquatic plants induced by perfluoroalkyl substances: Bridging natural to culturing flora

Authors: Zhou, Y; Wang, T; Jiang, Z; Kong, X; Li, Q; Sun, Y; Wang, P; Liu, Z (2017) Chemosphere 167:98-106. HERO ID: 3856468

[Less] In the present study, the concentrations and proportions of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water . . . [More] In the present study, the concentrations and proportions of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water and sediments (in different seasons) from the Qing River were investigated. The highest concentration of PFASs in water (207.59 ng L(-1)) was found in summer. The composition of PFASs in water changed with time, perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) was the predominant compound in spring and summer, while long-chain PFASs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), started to increase in autumn and winter. The PFASs concentration in sediments ranged from 0.96 to 4.05 ng g(-1) dw. The proportion of long-chain PFASs was higher than that of short-chain PFASs in sediments, the dominant component in sediments was PFOA with a contribution of 24.6-75.4% to total PFASs in sediments, followed by PFOS. The concentrations of PFASs in roots of emergent plants were relatively higher than those in submerged plants. However, the translocation effect of PFASs was not remarkable. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the aquatic plants indicated the absorption of PFASs were effective. BAFs in submerged plants basically increased with increasing chain length accordingly. In general, aquatic plants had the absorption preference for long-chain PFASs, especially PFOS, which was the predominant compounds in both submerged and emergent plants. Based on the results above, hornworts were selected to be cultivated indoor in the nutrient solution spiked gradient concentrations of PFOS to assess the general ecological risk. The results revealed that hornworts were resistant to PFOS and might be used as remediation flora to eliminate PFOS contamination.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Plasma perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances concentration and menstrual cycle characteristics in preconception women: Supplemental materials

Authors: Zhou, W; Zhang, L; Tong, C; Fang, F; Zhao, S; Tian, Y; Tao, Y; Zhang, J (2017) Environmental Health Perspectives 125. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3860309

Abstract: Supplementary materials

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Deriving environmental quality standards for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and related short chain perfluorinated alkyl acids

Authors: Valsecchi, S; Conti, D; Crebelli, R; Polesello, S; Rusconi, M; Mazzoni, M; Preziosi, E; Carere, M; Lucentini, L; Ferretti, E; Balzamo, S; Simeone, MG; Aste, F (2017) Journal of Hazardous Materials 323:84-98. HERO ID: 3748953

[Less] The evidence that in Northern Italy significant sources of perfluoroalkylacids (PFAA) are present induced . . . [More] The evidence that in Northern Italy significant sources of perfluoroalkylacids (PFAA) are present induced the Italian government to establish a Working Group on Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for PFAA in order to include some of them in the list of national specific pollutants for surface water monitoring according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). The list of substances included perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and related short chain PFAA such as perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), which is a substitute of perfluorooctanesulfonate. For each of them a dossier collects available data on regulation, physico-chemical properties, emission and sources, occurrence, acute and chronic toxicity on aquatic species and mammals, including humans. Quality standards (QS) were derived for the different protection objectives (pelagic and benthic communities, predators by secondary poisoning, human health via consumption of fishery products and water) according to the European guideline. The lowest QS is finally chosen as the relevant EQS. For PFOA a QS for biota was derived for protection from secondary poisoning and the corresponding QS for water was back-calculated, obtaining a freshwater EQS of 0.1μgL(-1). For PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA and PFBS threshold limits proposed for drinking waters were adopted as EQS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in northern Spain municipal solid waste landfill leachates

Authors: Fuertes, I; Gómez-Lavín, S; Elizalde, MP; Urtiaga, A (2017) Chemosphere 168:399-407. HERO ID: 3856464

[Less] Landfill leachates have been recognized as significant secondary sources of poly- and perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] Landfill leachates have been recognized as significant secondary sources of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). This study presents data on the occurrence and concentration of 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and 5 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) in leachates from 4 municipal solid waste landfill sites located across northern Spain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of PFASs in Spanish landfill leachates. Two of the landfill sites applied on-site treatment using membrane bioreactors (MBR), and its effect on PFASs occurrence is also reported. Total PFASs (∑PFASs) in raw leachates reached 1378.9 ng/L, while in treated samples ∑PFASs was approximately two-fold (3162.3 ng/L). PFCAs accounted for the majority of the detected PFASs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant compound in raw leachates (42.6%), followed by shorter chain PFHxA (30.1%), PFPeA and PFBA. The age of the sites might explain the PFASs pattern found in raw leachates as all of them were stabilized leachates. However, PFASs profile was different in treated samples where the most abundant compound was PFHxA (26.5%), followed by linear perfluorobutane sulfonate (L-PFBS) (18.7%) and PFOA (17.7%). The overall increase of the PFASs content as well as the change in the PFASs profile after the MBR treatment, could be explained by the possible degradation of PFASs precursors such as fluorotelomer alcohols or fluorotelomer sulfonates. Using the volume of leachates generated in the landfill sites, that served 1.8 million people, the discharge of 16 ∑PFASs contained in the landfill leachates was estimated as 1209 g/year.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Novel Polyfluorinated Compounds Identified Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Downstream of Manufacturing Facilities near Decatur, Alabama

Authors: Newton, S; Mcmahen, R; Stoeckel, JA; Chislock, M; Lindstrom, A; Strynar, M (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:1544-1552. HERO ID: 3850314

[Less] Concern over persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity has led to international regulation and phase-outs . . . [More] Concern over persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity has led to international regulation and phase-outs of certain perfluorinated compounds and little is known about their replacement products. High resolution mass spectrometry was used to investigate the occurrence and identity of replacement fluorinated compounds in surface water and sediment of the Tennessee River near Decatur, Alabama. Analysis of legacy Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) revealed a marked increase in concentrations downstream of manufacturing facilities, with the most abundant compounds being perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as high as 220 ng L(-1), 160 ng L(-1), and 120 ng L(-1), respectively. A series of nine polyfluorinated carboxylic acids was discovered, each differing by CF2CH2. These acids are likely products or byproducts of a manufacturing process that uses 1,1-difluoroethene, which is registered to a manufacturing facility in the area. Two other predominant compounds discovered have structures consistent with perfluorobutanesulfonate and perfluoroheptanoic acid but have a single hydrogen substituted for a fluorine someplace in their structure. A polyfluoroalkyl sulfate with differing mixes of hydrogen and fluorine substitution was also observed. N-methyl perfluorobutane sulfonamidoacetic acid (MeFBSAA) was observed at high concentrations and several other perfluorobutane sulfonamido substances were present as well.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of perfluoroalkyl substances on neurosteroid synthetic enzymes in the rat

Authors: Xu, R; Shen, Q; Li, S; Li, X; Li, H; Lü, Y; Lian, QQ; Ge, RS (2017) Chemico-Biological Interactions 272:182-187. HERO ID: 3856450

[Less] Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctyl sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane . . . [More] Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctyl sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane acid (PFOA), have been classified as persistent organic pollutants and are known to cause endocrine-disrupting effects in humans. The objective of the present study was to compare the potencies of four different PFASs, PFOS, PFOA, perfluorohexyl sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorobutyl sulfonate (PFBS), to inhibit neurosteroidogenic 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1), 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C9), and retinol dehydrogenase 2 (RoDH2) in rats. The potencies of PFASs to inhibit SRD5A1 are PFOS > PFOA > PFHxS = PFBS, with IC50 values of PFOS and PFOA of 1.92 ± 0.07 and 14.24 ± 0.07 μM and no effects for PFHxS and PFBS at 100 μM, respectively. The potencies of PFASs to inhibit AKR1C9 and RoDH2 are PFOS > PFOA > PFHxS = PFBS, with IC50 values of PFOS and PFOA on these two enzymes about 100 μM and no effects for PFHxS and PFBS at 100 μM, respectively. PFOS and PFOA competitively inhibited rat SRD5A1. In conclusion, PFOS and PFOA are potent inhibitors of rat SRD5A1, thereby controlling the biosynthesis of neurosteroids.