Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)


171 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Hyperporphyrin effect on oxygen sensitivity of free meso-tetraphenylporphyrins

Authors: Topal, SZ; Ongun, MZ; Onal, E; Ertekin, K; Hirel, C (2017) HERO ID: 3859537

[Less] A series of dyes; three symmetric free meso-tetraphenylporphyrins, bearing phenylacetylide (H2-TPA), . . . [More] A series of dyes; three symmetric free meso-tetraphenylporphyrins, bearing phenylacetylide (H2-TPA), hexyloxy (H2-OHex) or without peripheral substituent (H2-TPP) were chosen as luminophore to explore the effect of meso-substitution on the oxygen sensing ability. These dyes were incorporated into poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) [poly(TMSP)], polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and silicone matrices along with additives such as perfluorododecanoic acid (PFC) to improve the oxygen sensitivity as well as ionic liquid to favor the microfiber preparation by electrospinning. The pH of the medium is affected by the composition of the cocktail, a non-trivial effect which induce protonation of the free meso-tetraphenylporphyrin derivatives bearing electron donor (H2-OHex) and withdrawing substituents (H2-TPA), which results in absorbance and emission spectroscopic modifications called elsewhere hyperporphyrin effect. Spectrophotometric titrations were carried out by using HClO4 in THE solution and PFC in [poly(TMSP)]-based thin film to study the hyperporphyrin effect of H2-TPA, H2-OHex and H2-TPP showing the influence of the substituent bn the pKa of the inner nitrogen's. The ratio of PFC/dyes optimization was prospected and the influence of the pH/protonation on the steady-state oxygen sensitivity was studied. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkylated acids in the eggs of great tits (Parus major) near a fluorochemical plant in Flanders, Belgium

Authors: Groffen, T; Lopez-Antia, A; D'Hollander, W; Prinsen, E; Eens, M; Bervoets, L (2017) Environmental Pollution 228:140-148. HERO ID: 3859504

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly persistent substances which have been detected in wildlife around . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly persistent substances which have been detected in wildlife around the world, including birds. Although bird eggs have often been used to determine and monitor PFAAs levels in the marine environment, this has rarely been done in the terrestrial environment. In the present study we examined the concentrations and composition profile of 12 PFAAs (4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and 8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in the eggs of great tits (Parus major) collected at a fluorochemical plant and in three other areas, representing a gradient in distance from the pollution source (from 1 to 70 km), in Antwerp, Belgium. The PFSA concentrations measured at the site of the fluorochemical plant were among the highest ever reported in eggs with median concentrations of 10380 ng/g (extrapolated), 99.3 ng/g and 47.7 ng/g for PFOS, PFHxS and PFDS respectively. Furthermore, the median concentration of 19.8 ng/g for PFOA was also among the highest ever reported in bird eggs. Although these concentrations decreased sharply with distance from the fluorochemical plant, levels found in the adjacent sites were still high compared to what has been reported in literature. Moreover, based on what is known in literature, it is likely that these concentrations may cause toxicological effects. PFOS was the dominant contributor to the PFSA and PFAAs (63.4-97.6%) profile at each site, whereas for PFCAs this was PFOA at the plant site and the nearest locations (41.0-52.8%) but PFDoA (37.7%) at the farthest location. Although there is some evidence that PFAAs concentrations close to the plant site are decreasing in comparison with earlier measurements, which may be due to the phase out of PFOS, more research is necessary to understand the extent of the toxicological effects in the vicinity of this PFAAs hotspot.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of occurrence, sources and sinks of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a tropical urban catchment

Authors: Chen, H; Reinhard, M; Nguyen, TV; You, L; He, Y; Gin, KY (2017) Environmental Pollution 227:397-405. HERO ID: 3856452

[Less] Understanding the sources, occurrence and sinks of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) . . . [More] Understanding the sources, occurrence and sinks of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the urban water cycle is important to protect and utilize local water resources. Concentrations of 22 target PFASs and general water quality parameters were determined monthly for a year in filtered water samples from five tributaries and three sampling stations of an urban water body. Of the 22 target PFASs, 17 PFASs were detected with a frequency >93% including PFCAs: C4-C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, C4, C6, C8, and C10 perfluoroalkane sulfonates, perfluorooctane sulfonamides and perfluorooctane sulfonamide substances (FOSAMs), C10 perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acid (C10 PFPA), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) and C8/C8 perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acid (C8/C8-PFPIA). The most abundant PFASs in water were PFBS (1.4-55 ng/L), PFBA (1.0-23 ng/L), PFOS (1.5-24 ng/L) and PFOA (2.0-21 ng/L). In the tributaries, PFNA concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 87.1 ng/L except in the May 2013 samples of two tributaries, which reached 520 and 260 ng/L. Total PFAS concentrations in the sediment samples ranged from 1.6 to 15 ng/g d.w. with EtFOSAA, PFDoA, PFOS and PFDA being the dominant species. Based on water and sediment data, two types of sources were inferred: one-time or intermittent point sources and continuous non-point sources. FOSAMs and PFOS released continually from non-point sources, C8/C8 PFPIA, PFDoA and PFUnA was released from point sources. The highly water soluble short-chain PFASs including PFBA, PFPeA and PFBS remained predominantly in the water column. The factors governing solution phase concentrations appear to be compound hydrophobicity and sorption to suspended particles. Correlation of the dissolved phase concentrations with precipitation data suggested stormwater was a significant source of PFBA, PFBS, PFUnA and PFDoA. Negative correlations with precipitation indicated sources feeding FOSAA and FOSA directly into the tributaries.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Removal efficiency of multiple poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water using granular activated carbon (GAC) and anion exchange (AE) column tests

Authors: Mccleaf, P; Englund, S; Östlund, A; Lindegren, K; Wiberg, K; Ahrens, L (2017) Water Research 120:77-87. HERO ID: 3856453

[Less] Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in drinking water at relatively high . . . [More] Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in drinking water at relatively high concentrations throughout the world which has led to implementation of regulatory guidelines for specific PFASs in drinking water in several European countries and in the U.S. The Swedish National Food Agency has determined that the drinking water of over one third of the country's municipal consumers is at risk or already affected by PFAS contamination. The present study investigated the effects of perfluorocarbon chain length, functional group and isomer structure (branched or linear) on removal of multiple PFASs using granular activated carbon (GAC, Filtrasorb(®) 400) and anion exchange (AE, Purolite(®) A600) column experiments. The removal of 14 different PFASs, i.e. the C3C11, C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTeDA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), and the C4, C6, C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS), was monitored for a 217 day period. The results indicate the selective nature of PFAS removal as the absorbents are loaded with PFASs and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A clear relationship between perfluorocarbon chain length and removal efficiency of PFASs using GAC and AE was found while PFASs with sulfonate functional groups displayed greater removal efficiency than those with carboxylate groups. Similarly, time to column breakthrough increased with increasing perfluorocarbon chain length and was greater for the PFSAs than the PFCAs for both GAC and AE. Shorter carbon chained PFASs such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA showed desorption behavior and long-chained PFASs showed increased removal towards the end of the experiment indicating agglomeration or micelle development. Linear isomers of PFOS, PFHxS, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) had greater column removal efficiencies using GAC (and also for AE at greater bed volume throughput) than the branched and this difference increased at greater bed volume throughputs. The GAC and AE columns showed a poor correlation between DOC and PFAS removal efficiency. The results indicate that designers and operators of AE and GAC treatment processes must take into consideration the selective nature of PFAS removal and associated desorption of short-chain PFCAs during co-removal of multiple PFASs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

First report of perfluoroalkyl substances in South African Odonata

Authors: Lesch, V; Bouwman, H; Kinoshita, A; Shibata, Y (2017) Chemosphere 175:153-160. HERO ID: 3858492

[Less] Perfluorinated substances are global and ubiquitous pollutants. However, very little is known about . . . [More] Perfluorinated substances are global and ubiquitous pollutants. However, very little is known about these substances in invertebrates, and even less in terrestrial invertebrates in particular. We analysed adult male dragonflies from six sites in South Africa for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluro-n-undecanoic acid (PFUnA), perfluoro-n-dodecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). PFOS was detected in all individuals, with less quantifiable occurrences of the other substances. The dragonflies from the three northern sites located in farming areas had significantly lower ΣPFASs concentrations than the southern sites located closer to industrial areas (median ΣPFASs of 0.32 ng/g wm (wet mass) for North, and 9.3 ng/g wm for South). All substances except PFOS occurred at similar concentrations at all six sites when quantifiable, but PFOS dominated in the Southern sites. The highest median concentration was from Bloemhof Dam (ΣPFASs = 21 ng/g wm), which is known to be polluted by PFOS. Perfluorinated substances are not known to be manufactured in South Africa, therefore the residues detected are likely to have been derived from imported products. Odonata play a significant role in freshwater ecology. Any impacts on these aquatic and aerial predators are likely to have effects on aquatic and associated ecosystems. Further studies are required over a much larger geographic region and to investigate sources.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Temporal trends of PFSAs, PFCAs and selected precursors in Australian serum from 2002 to 2013

Authors: Eriksson, U; Mueller, JF; Toms, LL; Hobson, P; Kärrman, A (2017) Environmental Pollution 220:168-177. HERO ID: 3858507

[Less] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a family of compounds that includes numerous compound . . . [More] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a family of compounds that includes numerous compound classes. To date, only a subset of these PFASs have been studied thoroughly in the general population. In this study, pooled serum samples from Australia collected in 2002-2013 were analyzed for PFASs according to gender and age (age categories of 0-4 years, 5-15 years, 16-30 years, 31-45 years, 46-60 years, and >60 years), in total 54 pooled samples and 4920 individuals. Compound classes included were perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs), and two groups of PFCA precursor compounds; polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs), and fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs). Several PFASs that were not reported in previous studies of Australian serum samples were found in this sample set including; diPAPs, FTSAs, perfluoropentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluoroheptane carboxylic acid (PFHpA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA). Various temporal trends were observed with a significant reduction (p < 0.05) between 2002 and 2013 for 8:2 FTSA, perflurohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), PFHpS, PFOS, and perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA). Levels of longer-chained PFDA and PFUnDA started to decrease more recently, between 2006 and 2013, while PFDoDA increased during the same time period. Higher levels in younger age groups (0-4 and 5-15 years) compared to adults (>15 years) were found for 8:2 FTSA and PFHpA, while levels of PFHpS, PFOS, PFUnDA, PFDoDA and PFTrDA were higher in adult age groups compared to younger age groups. Gender-specific patterns were seen for PFOA, PFHxS, PFHpS and PFOS, where levels were lower in women. Changes in manufacturing processes were reflected in the temporal time trends, and differences in bioaccumulation potential between homologues could be associated with age trends. Our results emphasize the importance of including emerging classes of PFASs in biomonitoring studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Variation in perfluoroalkyl acids in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

Authors: Bangma, JT; Reiner, JL; Jones, M; Lowers, RH; Nilsen, F; Rainwater, TR; Somerville, S; Guillette, LJ; Bowden, JA (2017) Chemosphere 166:72-79. HERO ID: 3858508

[Less] This study aimed to quantify concentrations of fifteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the plasma of . . . [More] This study aimed to quantify concentrations of fifteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the plasma of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting wetlands surrounding the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, USA located at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR). Approximately 10 male and 10 female alligators (ntotal = 229) were sampled each month during 2008 and 2009 to determine if seasonal or spatial trends existed with PFAA burden. PFOS represented the highest plasma burden (median 185 ng/g) and PFHxS the second highest (median 7.96 ng/g). While no significant seasonal trends were observed, unique spatial trends emerged. Many of the measured PFAAs co-varied strongly together and similar trends were observed for PFOS, PFDA, PFUnA, and PFDoA, as well as for PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFTriA, and PFTA, suggesting more than one source of PFAAs at MINWR. Higher concentrations of PFOS and the PFAAs that co-varied with PFOS were collected from animals around sites that included the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) fire house and the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout (O&C) retention pond, while higher concentrations of PFOA and the PFAA that co-varied with PFOA were sampled from animals near the gun range and the old fire training facility. Sex-based differences and snout-vent length (SVL) correlations with PFAA burden were also investigated.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl acids in groundwater, tile drainage, soil, and crop grain following a high application of municipal biosolids to a field

Authors: Gottschall, N; Topp, E; Edwards, M; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; Lapen, DR (2017) Science of the Total Environment 574:1345-1359. HERO ID: 3858509

[Less] Dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) were applied at a rate of 22Mgdwha(-1) to an agricultural field . . . [More] Dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) were applied at a rate of 22Mgdwha(-1) to an agricultural field in fall 2008. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -197, -207, -209), other brominated flame retardants (BFRs; HBB, PBEB, DBDPE, BTBPE) and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs; PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS, PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTA) were monitored in tile drainage, groundwater (2m, 4m and 6m depth), soil cores (0-0.3m) pre- and post-application, DMB aggregates incorporated into the soil post-application, and in wheat (Triticum spp.) planted post-application. Several compounds were detected in soil and water pre-application and on a reference field plot. PBDEs, other BFRs and PFAAs were detected in tile drainage and 2m groundwater throughout the post-application study period; a few PBDEs were also detected sporadically at lower depths in groundwater. Some of these compounds had not been detected pre-application, while some exceeded reference field plot/pre-application levels (some significantly (p<0.05) in tile drainage); both cases indicating biosolid-based water contamination. In DMB aggregates, several PBDE congeners were found to have dissipated exponentially, with reductions >90% in many of them within 1year post-application. Exponential dissipation of other BFRs and PFAAs in DMB aggregates were not significant. No PBDEs, other BFRs, or PFAAs were detected in wheat grain.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorinated alkyl acids in plasma of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Florida and South Carolina

Authors: Bangma, JT; Bowden, JA; Brunell, AM; Christie, I; Finnell, B; Guillette, MP; Jones, M; Lowers, RH; Rainwater, TR; Reiner, JL; Wilkinson, PM; Guillette, LJ (2017) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36:917-925. HERO ID: 3858514

[Less] The present study aimed to quantitate 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in 125 adult American alligators . . . [More] The present study aimed to quantitate 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in 125 adult American alligators at 12 sites across the southeastern United States. Of those 15 PFAAs, 9 were detected in 65% to 100% of samples: perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), perfluorododecanoic acid, perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTriA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid, perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Males (across all sites) showed significantly higher concentrations of 4 PFAAs: PFOS (p = 0.01), PFDA (p = 0.0003), PFUnA (p = 0.021), and PFTriA (p = 0.021). Concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFDA in plasma were significantly different among the sites in each sex. Alligators at both Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (FL, USA) and Kiawah Nature Conservancy (SC, USA) exhibited some of the highest PFOS concentrations (medians of 99.5 ng/g and 55.8 ng/g, respectively) in plasma measured to date in a crocodilian species. A number of positive correlations between PFAAs and snout-vent length were observed in both sexes, suggesting that PFAA body burdens increase with increasing size. In addition, several significant correlations among PFAAs in alligator plasma may suggest conserved sources of PFAAs at each site throughout the greater study area. The present study is the first to report PFAAs in American alligators, to reveal potential PFAA hot spots in Florida and South Carolina, and to provide a contaminant of concern when assessing anthropogenic impacts on ecosystem health. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:917-925. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Temporal trends of PFSAs, PFCAs and selected precursors in Australian serum from 2002 to 2013 : Supplementary materials

Authors: Eriksson, U; Mueller, JF; Toms, LL; Hobson, P; Kärrman, A (2017) Environmental Pollution 220. HERO ID: 3981676

Abstract: Supplemental materials