Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)


257 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) contamination level in spices

Authors: Surma, M; Piskula, M; Wiczkowski, W; Zieliński, H (2017) European Food Research and Technology 243:297-307. HERO ID: 3856674

[Less] Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and . . . [More] Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety is of increasing concern. In this study, the usefulness of a modified QuEChERS method, based on the d-SPE, with micro-HPLC-MS/MS system for the determination of selected perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) in spices was addressed. The commonly used spices in Spain and Slovakia were investigated. The studies showed the presence of perfluorooctanoic acid in 19 spices of Spanish and Slovak origin, and it ranged from 0.11 ng g(-1) for garlic to 0.67 ng g(-1) for peppermint. The perfluorobutanoic acid was quantified in 10 Slovak spices (from 1.13 ng g(-1) for allspice to 37.82 ng g(-)1 for star anise), whereas perfluorobutane sulfonate was identified only in 12 Spanish spices and it ranged from 0.24 ng g(-1) for cinnamon to 1.01 ng g(-1) for coriander. In contrast, perfluoroheptanoic acid was identified only in Slovak cardamom (1.94 ng g(-1)) and coriander (0.74 ng g(-1)). The average consumption of spices in Europe is approximately 0.5 g day(-1), while in Asia and northern Africa, it is many times higher. Average content of PFASs in this evaluation has a value 4.67 ng g(-1) giving 2.33 ng day(-1) per person. This study showed that daily used spices may contribute to the overall contamination of food by perfluoroalkyl substances.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous Determination of Nine Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids in Water by Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector

Authors: Xia Jing-Fen; Yuan Kai; Yang Guo-Jing; Tang Li; Lu Chen; Wang Dong-Bo; Li Xiao-Ming; Zeng Guang-Ming (2017) HERO ID: 3859893

[Less] A method for the simultaneous determination of nine perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in water by precolumn . . . [More] A method for the simultaneous determination of nine perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in water by precolumn derivatization. gas chromatography. electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was established. PFCAs were firstly converted to amide derivative products using 2,4. difluoroaniline (2,4-DFA) as derivatizing agent and N, N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as dehydrating agent. Then the amide derivative products were determined by ECD after separation with TR-5 capillary. column chromatography. The experimental conditions in derivatization of PFCAs were optimized, including the dosage of 2,4-DFA and DCC, reaction solvent, reaction temperature and reaction time. The optimal derivatization parameters were obtained. The results showed that the linear correlation coefficients of nine derivative products of PFCAs were higher than 0.99 under the optimized experimental conditions. The limits of detection were 0.62 - 1.38. mu g/L, while the relative standard derivations RSDs were 1.3% - 7.5%. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of PFCAs in municipal sewage. It was found that the municipal sewage contained trace PFCAs which mainly existed in the form of perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfloroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) and pentadecafluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The recoveries of actual samples were between 84.4% and 120.9%. The method was stable and reliable with low cost, and it could meet the simultaneous determination of several PFCAs in water samples. This study provided technical support for the pollution assessment of perfluorinated compounds in water.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Human health tier II assessment for perfluoroheptanoic acid and its direct precursors

Author: NICNAS (2017) Australian Government, Department of Health, National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme. HERO ID: 3874972


Technical Report
Technical Report

Environment tier II assessment for perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) and its direct precursors

Author: NICNAS (2017) Sydney, NSW, Australia: Australian Government, Department of Health, National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme. HERO ID: 3874973

[Less] This Tier II assessment considers the environmental risks associated with the industrial uses of perfluoroheptanoic . . . [More] This Tier II assessment considers the environmental risks associated with the industrial uses of perfluoroheptanoic acid and its ammonium salt:

Heptanoic acid, tridecafluoro- (PFHpA)
Heptanoic acid, tridecafluoro-, ammonium salt (ammonium PFHpA)

The chemicals in this group contain chains of six perfluorinated carbons, terminated with a carboxylate group. They have been assessed in a group because both chemicals are expected to dissociate into the perfluoroheptanoate anion in the aquatic environment.

The two chemicals in this group have a perfluorinated carbon chain that is intermediate in length between the long-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (i.e. acids containing seven or more perfluorinated carbons) and the short-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (i.e. acids containing a chain of five, four or three perfluorinated carbons). The relative length of the carbon chain in perfluoroheptanoic acid is significant because the immediate long-chain homologue, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), has been identified as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) according to domestic environmental hazard criteria. Chemicals with these hazard characteristics are of high concern to the environment and PFOA (and substances which may degrade to PFOA) are subject to increasingly stringent regulatory controls in other developed countries (NICNAS, 2015f).

However, the short-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (including the immediate short-chain homologue, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA)) are not bioaccumulative and not toxic based on the available information, and they are considered to pose lower overall concerns for the environment than their long-chain homologues (NICNAS, 2015a). It is not currently clear whether the environmental hazards for the intermediate chain-length acids are comparable to the homologous long-chain or to the short-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids in this series.

Under the NICNAS action plan for assessing and managing chemicals that could degrade to perfluorinated carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and similar chemicals, hazard information for PFOA is used to estimate the hazard of perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) degradation products (with four or more perfluorinated carbons), unless sufficient toxicological data are available to demonstrate a lower toxicity profile. More information on the plan can be found in Appendix G of the NICNAS Handbook for Notifiers on the NICNAS website (NICNAS, 2015b).

This assessment will evaluate:

a) the properties of the chemicals in this group and compare them with short- and long-chain homologues; and

b) whether there are sufficient data to use in place of the default assumptions of the action plan.

The assessment of these chemicals as a group also provides additional relevant information for the risk assessment of other per- and poly-fluorinated substances containing a chain of at least six perfluorinated carbons that may degrade to PFHpA in the environment.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Safety data sheet. Version 3.8. Perfluoroheptanoic acid. Product number 342041. CAS-No. 375-85-9

Author: Sigma-Aldrich (2017) St. Louis, MO: Sigma-Aldrich. [Fact Sheet] HERO ID: 3980929


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl acids in groundwater, tile drainage, soil, and crop grain following a high application of municipal biosolids to a field

Authors: Gottschall, N; Topp, E; Edwards, M; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; Lapen, DR (2017) Science of the Total Environment 574:1345-1359. HERO ID: 3858509

[Less] Dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) were applied at a rate of 22Mgdwha(-1) to an agricultural field . . . [More] Dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) were applied at a rate of 22Mgdwha(-1) to an agricultural field in fall 2008. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -197, -207, -209), other brominated flame retardants (BFRs; HBB, PBEB, DBDPE, BTBPE) and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs; PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS, PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTA) were monitored in tile drainage, groundwater (2m, 4m and 6m depth), soil cores (0-0.3m) pre- and post-application, DMB aggregates incorporated into the soil post-application, and in wheat (Triticum spp.) planted post-application. Several compounds were detected in soil and water pre-application and on a reference field plot. PBDEs, other BFRs and PFAAs were detected in tile drainage and 2m groundwater throughout the post-application study period; a few PBDEs were also detected sporadically at lower depths in groundwater. Some of these compounds had not been detected pre-application, while some exceeded reference field plot/pre-application levels (some significantly (p<0.05) in tile drainage); both cases indicating biosolid-based water contamination. In DMB aggregates, several PBDE congeners were found to have dissipated exponentially, with reductions >90% in many of them within 1year post-application. Exponential dissipation of other BFRs and PFAAs in DMB aggregates were not significant. No PBDEs, other BFRs, or PFAAs were detected in wheat grain.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Removal efficiency of multiple poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water using granular activated carbon (GAC) and anion exchange (AE) column tests

Authors: Mccleaf, P; Englund, S; Östlund, A; Lindegren, K; Wiberg, K; Ahrens, L (2017) Water Research 120:77-87. HERO ID: 3856453

[Less] Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in drinking water at relatively high . . . [More] Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in drinking water at relatively high concentrations throughout the world which has led to implementation of regulatory guidelines for specific PFASs in drinking water in several European countries and in the U.S. The Swedish National Food Agency has determined that the drinking water of over one third of the country's municipal consumers is at risk or already affected by PFAS contamination. The present study investigated the effects of perfluorocarbon chain length, functional group and isomer structure (branched or linear) on removal of multiple PFASs using granular activated carbon (GAC, Filtrasorb(®) 400) and anion exchange (AE, Purolite(®) A600) column experiments. The removal of 14 different PFASs, i.e. the C3C11, C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTeDA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), and the C4, C6, C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS), was monitored for a 217 day period. The results indicate the selective nature of PFAS removal as the absorbents are loaded with PFASs and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A clear relationship between perfluorocarbon chain length and removal efficiency of PFASs using GAC and AE was found while PFASs with sulfonate functional groups displayed greater removal efficiency than those with carboxylate groups. Similarly, time to column breakthrough increased with increasing perfluorocarbon chain length and was greater for the PFSAs than the PFCAs for both GAC and AE. Shorter carbon chained PFASs such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA showed desorption behavior and long-chained PFASs showed increased removal towards the end of the experiment indicating agglomeration or micelle development. Linear isomers of PFOS, PFHxS, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) had greater column removal efficiencies using GAC (and also for AE at greater bed volume throughput) than the branched and this difference increased at greater bed volume throughputs. The GAC and AE columns showed a poor correlation between DOC and PFAS removal efficiency. The results indicate that designers and operators of AE and GAC treatment processes must take into consideration the selective nature of PFAS removal and associated desorption of short-chain PFCAs during co-removal of multiple PFASs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An ultra-sensitive method for the analysis of perfluorinated alkyl acids in drinking water using a column switching high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

Authors: Dasu, K; Nakayama, SF; Yoshikane, M; Mills, MA; Wright, JM; Ehrlich, S (2017) Journal of Chromatography A 1494:46-54. HERO ID: 3856458

[Less] In epidemiological research, it has become increasingly important to assess subjects' exposure to different . . . [More] In epidemiological research, it has become increasingly important to assess subjects' exposure to different classes of chemicals in multiple environmental media. It is a common practice to aliquot limited volumes of samples into smaller quantities for specific trace level chemical analyses. A novel method was developed for the determination of 14 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in small volumes (10mL) of drinking water using off-line solid phase extraction (SPE) pre-treatment followed by on-line pre-concentration on a WAX column before analysis on column-switching high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In general, large volumes (100-1000mL) have been used for the analysis of PFAAs in drinking water. The current method requires approximately 10mL of drinking water concentrated by using an SPE cartridge and eluted with methanol. A large volume injection of the extract was introduced on to a column-switching HPLC-MS/MS using a mix-mode SPE column for the trace level analysis of PFAAs in water. The recoveries for most of the analytes in the fortified laboratory blanks ranged from 73±14% to 128±5%. The lowest concentration minimum reporting levels (LCMRL) for the 14 PFAAs ranged from 0.59 to 3.4ng/L. The optimized method was applied to a pilot-scale analysis of a subset of drinking water samples from an epidemiological study. These samples were collected directly from the taps in the households of Ohio and Northern Kentucky, United States and the sources of drinking water samples are both surface water and ground water, and supplied by different water distribution facilities. Only five PFAAs, perfluoro-1-butanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro-1- -hexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluoro-n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA) and perfluoro-n-octanoic acid (PFOA) are detected above the LCMRL values. The median concentrations of these five PFAAs detected in the samples was ≤4.1ng/L with PFOS at 7.6ng/L and PFOA at 10ng/L. Concentrations of perfluoro-1-decanesulfonic acid, PFDS and other perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids were below the LCMRL values.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl substances and endometriosis-related infertility in Chinese women

Authors: Wang, B; Zhang, R; Jin, F; Lou, H; Mao, Y; Zhu, W; Zhou, W; Zhang, P; Zhang, J (2017) Environment International 102:207-212. HERO ID: 3856459

[Less] Endometriosis is one of the main causes for female infertility. Previous studies suggested that perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] Endometriosis is one of the main causes for female infertility. Previous studies suggested that perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a group of ubiquitous environmental chemicals with properties of endocrine disruption and reproductive toxicity, were risk factors for endometriosis but there lacks direct evidence on the possible role of PFASs in endometriosis-related infertility. To fill this gap, we examined the association between PFASs and endometriosis-related infertility among Chinese reproductive-age women in a case-control study, which comprised 157 surgically confirmed endometriosis cases and 178 controls seeking infertility treatment because of male reproductive dysfunction in 2014 and 2015. Blood specimens were collected at the enrollment and analyzed for ten PFASs. Logistic regression was utilized to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for individual PFAS compound. Plasma concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) were associated with an increased risk of endometriosis-related infertility (second vs. lowest tertile: OR=3.74, 95% CI: 2.04, 6.84; highest vs. lowest tertile: OR=3.04, 95% CI: 1.65, 5.57). This association remained consistent when we restricted to subjects with no previous pregnancy (second vs. lowest tertile: OR=2.91, 95% CI: 1.28, 6.61; highest vs. lowest tertile: OR=3.41, 95% CI: 1.52, 7.65) or to subjects without other gynecologic pathology (second vs. lowest tertile: OR=4.65, 95% CI: 2.21, 9.82; highest vs. lowest tertile: OR=3.36, 95% CI: 1.58, 7.15). Plasma concentrations of perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were inversely associated with endometriosis-related infertility, but the associations were attenuated in the sensitivity analyses. Our preliminary evidence suggests that exposure to PFBS may increase the risk of female infertility due to endometriosis. Future prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Serum concentrations of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances and factors associated with exposure in the general adult population in South Korea

Authors: Lee, JH; Lee, CK; Suh, CH; Kang, HS; Hong, CP; Choi, SN (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:1046-1054. HERO ID: 3858472

[Less] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous contaminants found worldwide, including in . . . [More] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous contaminants found worldwide, including in South Korea. As a result, they are frequently detected in Koreans. However, there is limited representative data and information on potential sources in Korea. Therefore, we measured the serum concentrations of ten PFASs in nationally representative samples of the Korean population (n=1874, 18-69 years) and evaluated the factors associated with their exposure. Serum PFOS, PFDA, PFOA, and PFNA were detected in nearly all participants (83.1-99.9%). However, serum PFPA, PFHxA, and PFHpA were almost undetected (<0.5% of participants). PFOS had the highest population-weighted geometric mean of 10.23ng/mL (95% CI: 9.99-10.47), which was followed by PFOA with 2.85ng/mL (95% CI: 2.73-2.97) and PFDA with 2.17ng/mL (95% CI: 2.12-2.23). PFNA, PFDA, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOS concentrations were higher in males (p<0.001) and older adults (p<0.001). PFNA was higher in those who used wax, polish, and water-resistant materials (adjusted proportional change=1.14; 95% CI: 1.08-1.22), and those who ate cooked fish (1.16; 95% CI: 1.03-1.31) compared to those who ate nearly no fish. PFDA was higher in those who used herbicides and pesticides (1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), those who drank beverages in a plastic bag on a daily basis (1.10; 95% CI: 1.03-1.19), and those who ate raw fish (1.15; 95% CI: 1.03-1.29) or cooked fish (1.13; 95% CI: 1.05-1.23) compared to those who ate nearly no fish. PFHxS was higher in those who used traditional Korean health supplement foods (1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.15). PFOA was higher in those who used plastic wrap in a microwave daily or weekly (1.08; 95% CI: 1.00-1.16), and those who used disposable paper cups (1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13). PFOS was lower in underweight participants (0.84; 95%CI: 0.75-0.93) compared to those who were obese, and higher in those who exercised regularly (1.08; 95% CI: 1.03-1.14) or irregularly (1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.12) compared to those who did not exercise. Subjects who used severely damaged Teflon appliances had lower concentrations of PFOA (0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.95), while regular use of Gore-Tex goods was related to higher PFNA (1.15, 95% CI: 1.03-1.28) and PFDA (1.11; 95% CI: 1.02-1.20) levels. These findings suggest that most Koreans are frequently exposed to PFASs, and that serum concentrations of PFASs vary with age, sex, and exposure factors.