Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)


229 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Australia-wide assessment of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in landfill leachates

Authors: Gallen, C; Drage, D; Eaglesham, G; Grant, S; Bowman, M; Mueller, JF (2017) Journal of Hazardous Materials 331:132-141. HERO ID: 3859705

[Less] Leachate from 27 landfills was analysed for nine perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Five PFASs were . . . [More] Leachate from 27 landfills was analysed for nine perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Five PFASs were detected ubiquitously, with perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) the predominant PFAS (mean 1700ng/L; range 73-25,000ng/L). Despite the complexity of landfill-specific factors, some general trends in PFAS concentrations were observed. Mean concentrations of eight PFASs were higher in operating landfills (or landfill cells) accepting primarily municipal waste, compared to closed municipal landfills. Landfills accepting primarily construction and demolition wastes produced leachate that had higher mean PFAS concentrations than municipal landfills. Younger landfills appeared to have a higher burden of waste containing PFASs (or their precursors), as significant relationships (p<0.05) were observed between selected PFAS concentrations and landfill age. Increasing pH and total organic carbon (TOC) in leachate were associated with increased concentrations of several PFASs. Eight landfills discharged leachate to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Estimated masses of PFASs discharged reached a maximum of 62g annually (PFHxA), with a national estimate reaching 31kg (PFHxA) annually. The practise of treating leachate at WWTPs allows redistribution of PFASs between the solid and liquid waste streams, although the contribution of leachate to the total load of PFASs entering WWTPs is minor compared to domestic waste water sources.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl acids in surface waters and tapwater in the Qiantang River watershed-Influences from paper, textile, and leather industries

Authors: Lu, GH; Gai, N; Zhang, P; Piao, HT; Chen, S; Wang, XC; Jiao, XC; Yin, XC; Tan, KY; Yang, YL (2017) Chemosphere 185:610-617. HERO ID: 3859699

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widely used as multi-purpose surfactants or water/oil repellents. In . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widely used as multi-purpose surfactants or water/oil repellents. In order to understand the contamination level and compositional profiles of PFAAs in aqueous environment in textile, leather, and paper making industrial areas, surface waters and tap waters were collected along the watershed of the Qiantang River where China's largest textile, leather, and paper making industrial bases are located. For comparison, surface water and tapwater samples were also collected in Hangzhou and its adjacent areas. 17 PFAAs were analyzed by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results show that the total concentrations of PFAAs (ΣPFAAs) in the Qiantang River waters ranged from 106.1 to 322.9 ng/L, averaging 164.2 ng/L. The contamination levels have been found to be extremely high, comparable to the levels of the most serious PFAA contamination in surface waters of China. The PFAA composition profiles were characterized by the dominant PFOA (average 58.1% of the total PFAAs), and PFHxA (average 18.8%). The ΣPFAAs in tap water ranged from 9.5 to 174.8 ng/L, showing PFAA compositional pattern similar to the surface waters. Good correlations between PFAA composition profiles in tap waters and the surface waters were observed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol aerobic biotransformation on a sediment microbial community

Authors: Zhang, S; Merino, N; Wang, N; Ruan, T; Lu, X (2017) Science of the Total Environment 575:1361-1368. HERO ID: 3857384

[Less] Sediment microbial communities are responsible for many chemical biotransformation processes in the . . . [More] Sediment microbial communities are responsible for many chemical biotransformation processes in the aquatic environment and play a critical role in various ecosystems and biogeochemical cycling. However, the impact of polyfluoroalkyl substances on sediment microbial communities remains unclear. These substances are increasingly being used in consumer and industrial products to replace environmentally persistent perfluoroalkyl substances. In this study, we investigated the effects of low (5mg/L) and high (15mg/L) doses of 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol [6:2 FTOH, F(CF2)6CH2CH2OH] on the structure of a sediment microbial community. 6:2 FTOH biotransformation was rapid in the sediment mixture with a half-life <3days, regardless of the initial doses. After 28days, major products produced in the high dose condition included 28mol% 5:2 sFTOH [F(CF2)5CH(OH)CH3], 9.6mol% 5:3 Acid [F(CF2)5CH2CH2COOH] and 11mol% PFHxA [F(CF2)5COOH], while 73mol% 5:2 sFTOH, 23mol% 5:3 Acid and 26mol% PFHxA were observed in the low dose condition. In the original (control) sediment without 6:2 FTOH dosing, Proteobacteria was the predominant microorganism (18%), followed by Chloroflexi (14%), Verrucomicrobia (13%), Firmicutes (3.4%), Bacterioidetes (2.4%), Actinobacteria (1.7%) and Planctomycetes (1.3%). The presence of 6:2 FTOH and the accumulation of transient transformation products in the sediment exerted selection pressure on the microbial taxonomic distribution and diversity. Our observations indicate that potential 6:2 FTOH degraders and tolerant strains, such as Dokdonella spp., Thauera spp., Albidovulum spp. and Caldanaerovirga spp., existed in the sediment mixture and began to dominate over time. This suggests that these genera might have higher tolerance towards elevated 6:2 FTOH and its transformation products. These findings on the characterization of sediment microbial community stability and dynamics will help predict changes in response to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and also help identify robust microbial strains to degrade polyfluoroalkyl substances in the environment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Deriving environmental quality standards for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and related short chain perfluorinated alkyl acids

Authors: Valsecchi, S; Conti, D; Crebelli, R; Polesello, S; Rusconi, M; Mazzoni, M; Preziosi, E; Carere, M; Lucentini, L; Ferretti, E; Balzamo, S; Simeone, MG; Aste, F (2017) Journal of Hazardous Materials 323:84-98. HERO ID: 3748953

[Less] The evidence that in Northern Italy significant sources of perfluoroalkylacids (PFAA) are present induced . . . [More] The evidence that in Northern Italy significant sources of perfluoroalkylacids (PFAA) are present induced the Italian government to establish a Working Group on Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for PFAA in order to include some of them in the list of national specific pollutants for surface water monitoring according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). The list of substances included perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and related short chain PFAA such as perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), which is a substitute of perfluorooctanesulfonate. For each of them a dossier collects available data on regulation, physico-chemical properties, emission and sources, occurrence, acute and chronic toxicity on aquatic species and mammals, including humans. Quality standards (QS) were derived for the different protection objectives (pelagic and benthic communities, predators by secondary poisoning, human health via consumption of fishery products and water) according to the European guideline. The lowest QS is finally chosen as the relevant EQS. For PFOA a QS for biota was derived for protection from secondary poisoning and the corresponding QS for water was back-calculated, obtaining a freshwater EQS of 0.1μgL(-1). For PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA and PFBS threshold limits proposed for drinking waters were adopted as EQS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of feed water pH and membrane material on nanofiltration of perfluorohexanoic acid in aqueous solution

Authors: Zeng, C; Tanaka, S; Suzuki, Y; Fujii, S (2017) Chemosphere 183:599-604. HERO ID: 3859700

[Less] Nanofiltration was thought to be a good option for the recovery of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) from . . . [More] Nanofiltration was thought to be a good option for the recovery of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) from industrial wastewater. In this study, two commercially available nanofiltration (NF) membranes (NF 270 and NTR-7450) were tested to concentrate the PFHxA in aqueous solution. Filtration test was conducted in crossflow filtration mode. Membrane flux and PFHxA rejection rate were monitored throughout the filtration test. The impact of initial feed water pH on membrane performance was investigated. Results demonstrated that the two NF membranes showed different response to the change of initial feed water pH, which was caused by the intrinsic properties of membrane material. The flux performance of NF 270 was stable, while its rejection rate of PFHxA was very sensitive to the change of initial feed water pH. Opposite result was obtained with NTR-7450. It had a very good stability on rejection rate, while its flux was very sensitive to the change of initial feed water pH. The mechanisms behind these phenomena were also discussed. The results obtained in this study should be very useful for the process design in practical engineering.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Tissue toxicokinetics of perfluoro compounds with single and chronic low doses in male rats

Authors: Iwabuchi, K; Senzaki, N; Mazawa, D; Sato, I; Hara, M; Ueda, F; Liu, W; Tsuda, S (2017) Journal of Toxicological Sciences 42:301-317. HERO ID: 3859701

[Less] To examine the kinetics of low doses of perfluoro compounds (PFCs), we administered perfluorohexanoic . . . [More] To examine the kinetics of low doses of perfluoro compounds (PFCs), we administered perfluorohexanoic acid (C6A), perfluorooctanoic acid (C8A), perfluorononanoic acid (C9A) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (C8S) with a single oral dose (50-100 μg/kg BW), and in drinking water at 1, 5, and 25 μg/L for one and three months to male rats; and examined the distribution in the brain, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, whole blood and serum. C6A was very rapidly absorbed, distributed and eliminated from the tissues with nearly the same tissue t1/2 of 2-3 hr. Considering serum Vd, and the tissue delivery, C6A was mainly in the serum with the lowest delivery to the brain; and no tissue accumulation was observed in the chronic studies as estimated from the single dose study. For the other PFCs, the body seemed to be an assortment of independent one-compartments with a longer elimination t1/2 for the liver than the serum. The concentration ratio of liver/serum increased gradually from C0 to a steady state. The high binding capacity of plasma protein may be the reason for the unusual kinetics, with only a very small fraction of free PFCs moving gradually to the liver. Although the tissue specific distribution was time dependent and different among the PFCs, the Vd and ke of each tissue were constant throughout the study. The possibility of extremely high C6A accumulation in the human brain and liver was suggested, by comparing the steady state tissue concentration of this study with the human data reported by Pérez et al. (2013).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in San Francisco Bay wildlife: Temporal trends, exposure pathways, and notable presence of precursor compounds

Authors: Sedlak, MD; Benskin, JP; Wong, A; Grace, R; Greig, DJ (2017) Chemosphere 185:1217-1226. HERO ID: 3859702

[Less] Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in San Francisco Bay (SF Bay) wildlife have historically . . . [More] Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in San Francisco Bay (SF Bay) wildlife have historically been among the highest reported globally. To track continuing exposures to PFASs and assess the impact of the 2002 phase-out of production of PFOS and related chemicals in the US, nine perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C4-C12), three perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA, a PFOS precursor) were measured in SF Bay cormorant eggs in 2012 and harbor seal serum sampled between 2009 and 2014. PFOS remained the dominant perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) in both cormorant eggs (36.1-466 ng/g) and seals (12.6-796 ng/g) from 2012 and 2014, respectively. Concentrations in seal and bird eggs from the South Bay have declined approximately 70% in both matrices. To elucidate potential pathways of exposure, prey fish, sediments and wastewater effluent were analyzed for PFASs, and in the case of sediment and effluent, a suite of PFAA precursors. PFOS was the dominant PFAA in prey fish and sediment. In effluent, different mixtures of PFAAs were measured, with PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA detected in the highest concentrations. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (PFCA-precursors) were observed at concentrations over an order of magnitude higher than PFCAs in sediment, highlighting their importance as a potential, on-going source of PFCAs to SF Bay wildlife. These findings suggest that the PFOS phase-out has resulted in reduced burdens to wildlife in SF Bay, but that exposure to diverse and incompletely characterized PFASs continues.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in sediments from rivers of the Pearl River Delta, southern China

Authors: Liu, B; Zhang, H; Li, J; Dong, W; Xie, L (2017) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 189:213. HERO ID: 3859703

[Less] Having been largely used in industrial and household products, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) appear in . . . [More] Having been largely used in industrial and household products, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) appear in environmental and biological systems with prevalence and persistence and have raised great concern in recent years. The present study is aimed at studying concentrations and composition profiles of 16 PFAAs in surface sediments collected from 51 sampling locations in 4 main rivers of the Pearl River Delta, one of the economy-developed areas in China. The total PFAA concentrations (∑ PFAAs) were determined in a wide range of 1.89-15.1 ng g(-1) dw (dry weight) with an average concentration to be 3.54 ng g(-1) dw. Higher ∑ PFAAs were observed in the downstream of Dongjiang River and the Pearl River, possibly due to the discharge of industrial wastewater. Perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were the dominant PFAAs, accounting for 51 to 85% of ∑ PFAAs in 27% of the samples. High PFPeA concentrations in sediments of urban river were scarcely observed in previous studies worldwide. The sources of short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were significantly different from those of other PFAAs. Preliminary hazard assessment proved negligible for PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), PFPeA, and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) concentrations in sediments from rivers of the Pearl River Delta.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mixture-specific gene expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126)

Authors: Blanc, M; Kärrman, A; Kukucka, P; Scherbak, N; Keiter, S (2017) Science of the Total Environment 590-591:249-257. HERO ID: 3859704

[Less] Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) are persistent organic . . . [More] Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) are persistent organic pollutants of high concern because of their environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic properties. Besides, the amphiphilic properties of fluorinated compounds such as PFOS and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) suggest a role in increasing cell membrane permeability and solubilizing chemicals. The present study aimed at investigating whether PFOS and PFHxA are capable of modifying the activation of PCB126 toxicity-related pathways. For this purpose, zebrafish embryos were exposed in semi-static conditions to 7.5μg/L of PCB126 alone, in the presence of 25mg/L of PFOS, 15.7mg/L of PFHxA or in the presence of both PFOS and PFHxA. Quantitative PCR was performed on embryos aged from 24h post fertilization (hpf) to 96 hpf to investigate expression changes of genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics (ahr2, cyp1a), oxidative stress (gpx1a, tp53), lipids metabolism (acaa2, osbpl1a), and epigenetic mechanisms (dnmt1, dnmt3ba). Cyp1a and ahr2 expression were significantly induced by the presence of PCB126. However, after 72 and 78h of exposure, induction of cyp1a expression was significantly lower when embryos were co-exposed to PCB126+PFOS+PFHxA when compared to PCB126-exposed embryos. Significant upregulation of gpx1a occurred after exposure to PCB126+PFHxA and to PCB126+PFOS+PFHxA at 30 and 48 hpf. Besides, embryos appeared more sensitive to PCB126+PFOS+PFHxA at 78 hpf: acaa2 and osbpl1a were significantly downregulated; dnmt1 was significantly upregulated. While presented as environmentally safe, PFHxA demonstrated that it could affect gene expression patterns in zebrafish embryos when combined to PFOS and PCB126, suggesting that such mixture may increase PCB126 toxicity. This is of particular relevance since PFHxA is persistent and still being ejected into the environment. Moreover, it provides additional information as to the importance to integrate mixture effects of chemicals in risk assessment and biomonitoring frameworks.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula, China

Authors: Wan, Y; Wang, S; Cao, X; Cao, Y; Zhang, L; Wang, H; Liu, J (2017) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 189:100. HERO ID: 3859714

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been observed in various environmental matrices globally in recent . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been observed in various environmental matrices globally in recent years. In this study, the levels, spatial distribution tendencies, and partitioning characteristics of the target 12 PFAAs were investigated in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula in China, and two sediment core samples were also collected to study the vertical and historical variation of PFAAs. The ranges (means) of total PFAA concentrations were 23.69-148.48 ng/L (76.11 ng/L) in the water and 1.30-11.17 ng/g (5.93 ng/g) in the surface sediment, respectively. Among the target 12 PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant component in water, followed by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). PFOS, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and PFOA were the dominant components in sediment. For their spatial distribution, higher levels of PFAAs were found at the locations close to much developed cities. The PFAA concentrations showed an overall decreasing tendency with depth increase in the two sediment cores, which indicates that the extent of PFAAs pollution is aggravating trend in recent years. Results of the partition coefficient (K d ) show that the compounds with longer carbon chains (C ≥ 7) generally had higher K d values, which suggest that long-chain PFAAs are prone to be adsorbed by sediment. In addition, the Log K d of PFHxA, PFOA, and PFOS were significantly and positively correlated to the salinity of the water. The results of risk assessment suggest appreciable risk of PFAAs to the local ecosystem.