Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)


438 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

PFCA uptake and translocation in dominant wheat species (Triticum aestivum L.)

Authors: Zhao, H; Guan, Y; Qu, B (2017) International Journal of Phytoremediation 20:0. HERO ID: 3858249

[Less] The comparative uptake of four perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) . . . [More] The comparative uptake of four perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in nutrient solution was investigated. Wheat is the main food crop in northern China and may become a potential pathway of human exposure to these PFCAs. The uptake of four PFCAs from water at a fixed concentration (1 μg/mL) increased over time, approaching a steady state, and except for the short-chain perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), most of the total mass of each of the PFCAs taken up by wheat was found to be at the root. The root concentration factor (RCF) and shoot/root concentration factor (SRCF) were calculated, and with the increase in the carbon chain length, the RCFs increased but SRCFs decreased, which indicated that long-chain PFCAs had stronger root uptake and weaker translocation capacities than short-chain PFCAs. In addition, pH could obviously impact the uptake of four PFCAs in the roots and shoots of wheat, and the highest concentrations were found at pH = 7 when the pH increased from 4 to 10.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The use of carbon adsorbents for the removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from potable reuse systems

Authors: Inyang, M; Dickenson, ERV (2017) Chemosphere 184:168-175. HERO ID: 3858250

[Less] Bench- and pilot-scale sorption tests were used to probe the performance of several biochars at removing . . . [More] Bench- and pilot-scale sorption tests were used to probe the performance of several biochars at removing perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) from field waters, compared to granular activated carbon (GAC). Screening tests using organic matter-free water resulted in hardwood (HWC) (Kd = 41 L g(-1)) and pinewood (PWC) (Kd = 49 L g(-1)) biochars having the highest perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) removal performance that was comparable to bituminous coal GAC (Kd = 41 L g(-1)). PWC and HWC had a stronger affinity for PFOA sorbed in Lake Mead surface water (KF = 11 mg((1-n)) L(n) g(-1)) containing a lower (2 mg L(-1)) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration than in a tertiary-filtered wastewater (KF = 8 mg((1-n)) L(n) g(-1)) with DOC of 4.9 mg L(-1). A pilot-scale study was performed using three parallel adsorbers (GAC, anthracite, and HWC biochar) treating the same tertiary-filtered wastewater. Compared to HWC, and anthracite, GAC was the most effective in mitigating perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPnA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PHxA), PFOA, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), and DOC (45-67% removed at 4354 bed volumes) followed by HWC, and then anthracite. Based on bench- and pilot-scale results, shorter-chain PFAA [perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), PFPnA, or PFHxA] were more difficult to remove with both biochar and GAC than the longer-chain, PFOS and PFOA.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Deriving environmental quality standards for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and related short chain perfluorinated alkyl acids

Authors: Valsecchi, S; Conti, D; Crebelli, R; Polesello, S; Rusconi, M; Mazzoni, M; Preziosi, E; Carere, M; Lucentini, L; Ferretti, E; Balzamo, S; Simeone, MG; Aste, F (2017) Journal of Hazardous Materials 323:84-98. HERO ID: 3748953

[Less] The evidence that in Northern Italy significant sources of perfluoroalkylacids (PFAA) are present induced . . . [More] The evidence that in Northern Italy significant sources of perfluoroalkylacids (PFAA) are present induced the Italian government to establish a Working Group on Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for PFAA in order to include some of them in the list of national specific pollutants for surface water monitoring according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). The list of substances included perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and related short chain PFAA such as perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), which is a substitute of perfluorooctanesulfonate. For each of them a dossier collects available data on regulation, physico-chemical properties, emission and sources, occurrence, acute and chronic toxicity on aquatic species and mammals, including humans. Quality standards (QS) were derived for the different protection objectives (pelagic and benthic communities, predators by secondary poisoning, human health via consumption of fishery products and water) according to the European guideline. The lowest QS is finally chosen as the relevant EQS. For PFOA a QS for biota was derived for protection from secondary poisoning and the corresponding QS for water was back-calculated, obtaining a freshwater EQS of 0.1μgL(-1). For PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA and PFBS threshold limits proposed for drinking waters were adopted as EQS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in northern Spain municipal solid waste landfill leachates

Authors: Fuertes, I; Gómez-Lavín, S; Elizalde, MP; Urtiaga, A (2017) Chemosphere 168:399-407. HERO ID: 3856464

[Less] Landfill leachates have been recognized as significant secondary sources of poly- and perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] Landfill leachates have been recognized as significant secondary sources of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). This study presents data on the occurrence and concentration of 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and 5 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) in leachates from 4 municipal solid waste landfill sites located across northern Spain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of PFASs in Spanish landfill leachates. Two of the landfill sites applied on-site treatment using membrane bioreactors (MBR), and its effect on PFASs occurrence is also reported. Total PFASs (∑PFASs) in raw leachates reached 1378.9 ng/L, while in treated samples ∑PFASs was approximately two-fold (3162.3 ng/L). PFCAs accounted for the majority of the detected PFASs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant compound in raw leachates (42.6%), followed by shorter chain PFHxA (30.1%), PFPeA and PFBA. The age of the sites might explain the PFASs pattern found in raw leachates as all of them were stabilized leachates. However, PFASs profile was different in treated samples where the most abundant compound was PFHxA (26.5%), followed by linear perfluorobutane sulfonate (L-PFBS) (18.7%) and PFOA (17.7%). The overall increase of the PFASs content as well as the change in the PFASs profile after the MBR treatment, could be explained by the possible degradation of PFASs precursors such as fluorotelomer alcohols or fluorotelomer sulfonates. Using the volume of leachates generated in the landfill sites, that served 1.8 million people, the discharge of 16 ∑PFASs contained in the landfill leachates was estimated as 1209 g/year.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Acute mixture toxicity of halogenated chemicals and their next generation counterparts on zebrafish embryos

Authors: Godfrey, A; Abdel-Moneim, A; Sepúlveda, MS (2017) Chemosphere 181:710-712. HERO ID: 3858252

[Less] Perfluorinated chemicals and flame retardants are halogenated compounds commonly used in food packaging . . . [More] Perfluorinated chemicals and flame retardants are halogenated compounds commonly used in food packaging and in clothing and electronics, respectively. Due to the hazardous effects of many of these chemicals, manufacturers are developing next generation potential less toxic alternatives. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of potentially "safer" alternatives, singly and in mixtures, in relation to their first generation counterparts. We used zebrafish embryos as our model organism due to its high structural and functional homology to other vertebrates and its suitability for early developmental studies. We tested three well studied halogens, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and tetrabromobisphenal A (TBBPA), and two less-studied next generation chemicals, 9,10-Dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene 10-oxide (DOPO) and perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA). First, we identified their lethal concentration (LC50) under 96 h exposures using zebrafish embryos; chemical LC50 values ranged from 1.3 to 13,795 ppm. Next, we tested the toxicity of tertiary mixtures containing the estimated LC50 values for each chemical which ranged from 126 to 5,094 ppm. We found that chemicals within these mixtures displayed concentration addition suggesting a similar mode of toxic action. Importantly, next generation chemicals were less acutely toxic singly and in mixtures than their first generation counterpart.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Home produced eggs: An important pathway of human exposure to perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) around a fluorochemical industrial park in China

Authors: Su, H; Shi, Y; Lu, Y; Wang, P; Zhang, M; Sweetman, A; Jones, K; Johnson, A (2017) Environment International 101:1-6. HERO ID: 3858256

[Less] Dietary intake is considered to be a major pathway of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). . . . [More] Dietary intake is considered to be a major pathway of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Chicken egg is an important contributor to the Chinese diet. In the present study, PFAAs in home produced eggs (HPEs) and commercially produced eggs (CPEs) surrounding a fluorochemical industrial park (FIP) in China were investigated. PFAAs in HPEs decreased with increasing distance from the FIP. HPEs were much more contaminated than CPEs, with PFAAs in CPEs comparable to or lower than those in HPEs from 20km away from the FIP. PFOA concentrations in HPEs were higher than the levels of PFOA in eggs from other studies reported so far. For the first time, PFBA was reported in eggs and detected in all egg samples. PFOA and PFBA were the predominant forms in HPEs, while PFOA, PFBA and PFOS dominated in CPEs. For PFOA, estimated daily intakes (EDI) were 233ng/kg·bw/day for adults and 657ng/kg·bw/day for children who consume HPEs at households about 2km away from the FIP. The EDI of PFOA for children via HPEs exceeded the reference dose value (333ng/kg·bw/day) proposed by the Environmental Working Group.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Emerging investigator series: a 14-year depositional ice record of perfluoroalkyl substances in the High Arctic

Authors: Macinnis, JJ; French, K; Muir, DC; Spencer, C; Criscitiello, A; De Silva, AO; Young, CJ (2017) Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 19:22-30. HERO ID: 3604215

[Less] To improve understanding of long-range transport of perfluoroalkyl substances to the High Arctic, samples . . . [More] To improve understanding of long-range transport of perfluoroalkyl substances to the High Arctic, samples were collected from a snow pit on the Devon Ice Cap in spring 2008. Snow was analyzed for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs), as well as perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). PFAAs were detected in all samples dated from 1993 to 2007. PFAA fluxes ranged from <1 to hundreds of ng per m(2) per year. Flux ratios of even-odd PFCA homologues were mostly between 0.5 and 2, corresponding to molar ratios expected from atmospheric oxidation of fluorotelomer compounds. Concentrations of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) were much higher than other PFCAs, suggesting PFBA loading on the Devon Ice Cap is influenced by additional sources, such as the oxidation of heat transfer fluids. All PFCA fluxes increased with time, while PFSA fluxes generally decreased with time. No correlations were observed between PFAAs and the marine aerosol tracer, sodium. Perfluoro-4-ethylcyclohexanesulfonate (PFECHS) was detected for the first time in an atmospherically - derived sample, and its presence may be attributed to aircraft hydraulic system leakage. Observations of PFAAs from these samples provide further evidence that atmospheric oxidation of volatile precursors is an important source of PFAAs to the Arctic environment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Screening for Polar Chemicals in Water by Trifunctional Mixed-Mode Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Montes, R; Aguirre, J; Vidal, X; Rodil, R; Cela, R; Quintana, JB (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:6250-6259. HERO ID: 3858253

[Less] The presence of persistent and mobile organic contaminants (PMOC) in aquatic environments is a matter . . . [More] The presence of persistent and mobile organic contaminants (PMOC) in aquatic environments is a matter of high concern due to their capability of crossing through natural and anthropogenic barriers, even reaching drinking water. Most analytical methods rely on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), which is quite limited for the detection of very polar chemicals. Thus, many of these PMOCs may have not been recognized as water pollutants yet, due to the lack of analytical methods capable to detect them. Mixed-mode LC (MMLC), providing the combination of RP and ion-exchange functionalities is explored in this work with a trifunctional column, combining RPLC, anion and cation exchange, which allows the simultaneous determination of analytes with extremely different properties. A nondiscriminant sample concentration step followed by a MMLC-high resolution mass spectrometry method was developed for a group of 37 very polar model chemicals with different acid/base functionalities. The overall method performance was satisfactory with a mean limit of detection of 50 ng/L, relative standard deviation lower than 20% and overall recoveries (including matrix effects) higher than 60% for 54% of model compounds. Then, the method was applied to 15 real water samples, by a suspect screening approach. For those detected PMOC with standard available, a preliminary estimation of concentrations was also performed. Thus, 22 compounds were unequivocally identified in a range of expected concentrations from 6 ng/L to 540 μg/L. Some of them are well-known PMOC, such as acesulfame, perfluorobutanoic acid or metformin, but other novel pollutants were also identified, as for example di-o-tolylguanidine or trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, which had not or were scarcely studied in water so far.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparative in vitro toxicity assessment of perfluorinated carboxylic acids

Authors: Mahapatra, CT; Damayanti, NP; Guffey, SC; Serafin, JS; Irudayaraj, J; Sepúlveda, MS (2017) Journal of Applied Toxicology 37:699-708. HERO ID: 3858264

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic fluorinated compounds that are highly . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic fluorinated compounds that are highly bioaccumulative and persistent organic pollutants. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an eight-carbon chain perfluorinated carboxylic acid, was used heavily for the production of fluoropolymers, but concerns have led to its replacement by shorter carbon chain homologues such as perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA). However, limited toxicity data exist for these substitutes. We evaluated the toxicity of PFOA, PFHxA and PFBA on a zebrafish liver cell line and investigated the effects of exposure on cell metabolism. Gross toxicity after 96 h of exposure was highest for PFOA and PFO(-) , while PFHxA and PFBA exhibited lower toxicity. Although the structural similarity of these compounds to fatty acids suggests the possibility of interference with the transport and metabolism of lipids, we could not detect any differential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (ppar-α, -β and -γ), fabp3 and crot genes after 96 h exposure to up to 10 ppm of the test compounds. However, we observed localized lipid droplet accumulation only in PFBA-exposed cells. To study the effects of these compounds on cell metabolism, we conducted fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy using naturally fluorescent biomarkers, NADH and FAD. The fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and FAD and the bound/free ratio of each of these coenzymes decreased in a dose- and carbon length-dependent manner, suggesting disruption of cell metabolism. In sum, our study revealed that PFASs with shorter carbon chains are less toxic than PFOA, and that exposure to sublethal dosage of PFOA, PFHxA or PFBA affects cell metabolism. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Highly efficient and stable Zr-doped nanocrystalline PbO2 electrode for mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid in a sequential treatment system

Authors: Xu, Z; Yu, Y; Liu, H; Niu, J (2017) Science of the Total Environment 579:1600-1607. HERO ID: 3858263

[Less] Zr-doped nanocrystalline PbO2 (Zr-PbO2) film electrodes were prepared at different bath temperatures. . . . [More] Zr-doped nanocrystalline PbO2 (Zr-PbO2) film electrodes were prepared at different bath temperatures. The Zr-PbO2 electrode doped at 75°C (75-Zr-PbO2) featured high oxygen evolution overpotential, large effective area and good electrocatalytic performance. The oxygen evolution potential and the effective area of 75-Zr-PbO2 achieved 1.91V (vs. SCE) and 9.1cm(2), respectively. The removal efficiency and the defluorination ratio of PFOA reached 97.0% and 88.1% after 90min electrolysis. The primary mineralization products (i.e., F(-) and intermediates) and their change trends were determined. The 75-Zr-PbO2 electrode was introduced to sequentially treat the PFOA wastewater. In an 116h of 75-Zr-PbO2 electrocatalysis sequential process, the PFOA, PFHpA, PFHxA, PFPeA, PFBA, PFPrA, TFA, and TOC concentrations were reduced to below 30, 2.5, 1.3, 1.0, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1, and 9mgL(-1), respectively, demonstrating the promising application of the sequential treatment system for the treatment of PFOA wastewater.