Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)


437 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Rotational spectroscopic and theoretical study of the perfluorobutyric acid center dot center dot center dot formic acid complex

Authors: Thomas, J; Carrillo, MJ; Serrato, A III; Lin, Wei; Jaeger, W; Xu, Y (2017) Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 335:88-92. HERO ID: 3858433

[Less] Perfluorinated carboxylic acids are a special class of compounds with considerable industrial applications. . . . [More] Perfluorinated carboxylic acids are a special class of compounds with considerable industrial applications. In this study, we applied chirped pulse and cavity-based Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy to investigate the structural and possible tunneling properties of the perfluorobutyric acid center dot center dot center dot formic acid complex, together with high level ab initio calculations. Only one clearly dominant conformer, featuring an eight-membered double hydrogen-bonded ring, was predicted for the hetero acid dimer and detected experimentally. The rotational constants calculated at the B3LYP-D3BJ/6-311++G(2d, p) level are in excellent agreement with the experimental ones, better than those from MP2 calculations. No tunneling splittings were detected in the experimental spectra. Detailed analyses of the non-covalent intermolecular interactions in the hetero acid dimer provide an explanation for the absence of double proton transfer, and also identify the presence of F center dot center dot center dot F attractive interactions. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Deriving environmental quality standards for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and related short chain perfluorinated alkyl acids

Authors: Valsecchi, S; Conti, D; Crebelli, R; Polesello, S; Rusconi, M; Mazzoni, M; Preziosi, E; Carere, M; Lucentini, L; Ferretti, E; Balzamo, S; Simeone, MG; Aste, F (2017) Journal of Hazardous Materials 323:84-98. HERO ID: 3748953

[Less] The evidence that in Northern Italy significant sources of perfluoroalkylacids (PFAA) are present induced . . . [More] The evidence that in Northern Italy significant sources of perfluoroalkylacids (PFAA) are present induced the Italian government to establish a Working Group on Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for PFAA in order to include some of them in the list of national specific pollutants for surface water monitoring according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). The list of substances included perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and related short chain PFAA such as perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), which is a substitute of perfluorooctanesulfonate. For each of them a dossier collects available data on regulation, physico-chemical properties, emission and sources, occurrence, acute and chronic toxicity on aquatic species and mammals, including humans. Quality standards (QS) were derived for the different protection objectives (pelagic and benthic communities, predators by secondary poisoning, human health via consumption of fishery products and water) according to the European guideline. The lowest QS is finally chosen as the relevant EQS. For PFOA a QS for biota was derived for protection from secondary poisoning and the corresponding QS for water was back-calculated, obtaining a freshwater EQS of 0.1μgL(-1). For PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA and PFBS threshold limits proposed for drinking waters were adopted as EQS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in northern Spain municipal solid waste landfill leachates

Authors: Fuertes, I; Gómez-Lavín, S; Elizalde, MP; Urtiaga, A (2017) Chemosphere 168:399-407. HERO ID: 3856464

[Less] Landfill leachates have been recognized as significant secondary sources of poly- and perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] Landfill leachates have been recognized as significant secondary sources of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). This study presents data on the occurrence and concentration of 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and 5 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) in leachates from 4 municipal solid waste landfill sites located across northern Spain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of PFASs in Spanish landfill leachates. Two of the landfill sites applied on-site treatment using membrane bioreactors (MBR), and its effect on PFASs occurrence is also reported. Total PFASs (∑PFASs) in raw leachates reached 1378.9 ng/L, while in treated samples ∑PFASs was approximately two-fold (3162.3 ng/L). PFCAs accounted for the majority of the detected PFASs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant compound in raw leachates (42.6%), followed by shorter chain PFHxA (30.1%), PFPeA and PFBA. The age of the sites might explain the PFASs pattern found in raw leachates as all of them were stabilized leachates. However, PFASs profile was different in treated samples where the most abundant compound was PFHxA (26.5%), followed by linear perfluorobutane sulfonate (L-PFBS) (18.7%) and PFOA (17.7%). The overall increase of the PFASs content as well as the change in the PFASs profile after the MBR treatment, could be explained by the possible degradation of PFASs precursors such as fluorotelomer alcohols or fluorotelomer sulfonates. Using the volume of leachates generated in the landfill sites, that served 1.8 million people, the discharge of 16 ∑PFASs contained in the landfill leachates was estimated as 1209 g/year.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Acute mixture toxicity of halogenated chemicals and their next generation counterparts on zebrafish embryos

Authors: Godfrey, A; Abdel-Moneim, A; Sepúlveda, MS (2017) Chemosphere 181:710-712. HERO ID: 3858252

[Less] Perfluorinated chemicals and flame retardants are halogenated compounds commonly used in food packaging . . . [More] Perfluorinated chemicals and flame retardants are halogenated compounds commonly used in food packaging and in clothing and electronics, respectively. Due to the hazardous effects of many of these chemicals, manufacturers are developing next generation potential less toxic alternatives. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of potentially "safer" alternatives, singly and in mixtures, in relation to their first generation counterparts. We used zebrafish embryos as our model organism due to its high structural and functional homology to other vertebrates and its suitability for early developmental studies. We tested three well studied halogens, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and tetrabromobisphenal A (TBBPA), and two less-studied next generation chemicals, 9,10-Dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene 10-oxide (DOPO) and perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA). First, we identified their lethal concentration (LC50) under 96 h exposures using zebrafish embryos; chemical LC50 values ranged from 1.3 to 13,795 ppm. Next, we tested the toxicity of tertiary mixtures containing the estimated LC50 values for each chemical which ranged from 126 to 5,094 ppm. We found that chemicals within these mixtures displayed concentration addition suggesting a similar mode of toxic action. Importantly, next generation chemicals were less acutely toxic singly and in mixtures than their first generation counterpart.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Home produced eggs: An important pathway of human exposure to perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) around a fluorochemical industrial park in China

Authors: Su, H; Shi, Y; Lu, Y; Wang, P; Zhang, M; Sweetman, A; Jones, K; Johnson, A (2017) Environment International 101:1-6. HERO ID: 3858256

[Less] Dietary intake is considered to be a major pathway of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). . . . [More] Dietary intake is considered to be a major pathway of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Chicken egg is an important contributor to the Chinese diet. In the present study, PFAAs in home produced eggs (HPEs) and commercially produced eggs (CPEs) surrounding a fluorochemical industrial park (FIP) in China were investigated. PFAAs in HPEs decreased with increasing distance from the FIP. HPEs were much more contaminated than CPEs, with PFAAs in CPEs comparable to or lower than those in HPEs from 20km away from the FIP. PFOA concentrations in HPEs were higher than the levels of PFOA in eggs from other studies reported so far. For the first time, PFBA was reported in eggs and detected in all egg samples. PFOA and PFBA were the predominant forms in HPEs, while PFOA, PFBA and PFOS dominated in CPEs. For PFOA, estimated daily intakes (EDI) were 233ng/kg·bw/day for adults and 657ng/kg·bw/day for children who consume HPEs at households about 2km away from the FIP. The EDI of PFOA for children via HPEs exceeded the reference dose value (333ng/kg·bw/day) proposed by the Environmental Working Group.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Emerging investigator series: a 14-year depositional ice record of perfluoroalkyl substances in the High Arctic

Authors: Macinnis, JJ; French, K; Muir, DC; Spencer, C; Criscitiello, A; De Silva, AO; Young, CJ (2017) Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 19:22-30. HERO ID: 3604215

[Less] To improve understanding of long-range transport of perfluoroalkyl substances to the High Arctic, samples . . . [More] To improve understanding of long-range transport of perfluoroalkyl substances to the High Arctic, samples were collected from a snow pit on the Devon Ice Cap in spring 2008. Snow was analyzed for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs), as well as perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). PFAAs were detected in all samples dated from 1993 to 2007. PFAA fluxes ranged from <1 to hundreds of ng per m(2) per year. Flux ratios of even-odd PFCA homologues were mostly between 0.5 and 2, corresponding to molar ratios expected from atmospheric oxidation of fluorotelomer compounds. Concentrations of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) were much higher than other PFCAs, suggesting PFBA loading on the Devon Ice Cap is influenced by additional sources, such as the oxidation of heat transfer fluids. All PFCA fluxes increased with time, while PFSA fluxes generally decreased with time. No correlations were observed between PFAAs and the marine aerosol tracer, sodium. Perfluoro-4-ethylcyclohexanesulfonate (PFECHS) was detected for the first time in an atmospherically - derived sample, and its presence may be attributed to aircraft hydraulic system leakage. Observations of PFAAs from these samples provide further evidence that atmospheric oxidation of volatile precursors is an important source of PFAAs to the Arctic environment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparative in vitro toxicity assessment of perfluorinated carboxylic acids

Authors: Mahapatra, CT; Damayanti, NP; Guffey, SC; Serafin, JS; Irudayaraj, J; Sepúlveda, MS (2017) Journal of Applied Toxicology 37:699-708. HERO ID: 3858264

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic fluorinated compounds that are highly . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic fluorinated compounds that are highly bioaccumulative and persistent organic pollutants. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an eight-carbon chain perfluorinated carboxylic acid, was used heavily for the production of fluoropolymers, but concerns have led to its replacement by shorter carbon chain homologues such as perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA). However, limited toxicity data exist for these substitutes. We evaluated the toxicity of PFOA, PFHxA and PFBA on a zebrafish liver cell line and investigated the effects of exposure on cell metabolism. Gross toxicity after 96 h of exposure was highest for PFOA and PFO(-) , while PFHxA and PFBA exhibited lower toxicity. Although the structural similarity of these compounds to fatty acids suggests the possibility of interference with the transport and metabolism of lipids, we could not detect any differential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (ppar-α, -β and -γ), fabp3 and crot genes after 96 h exposure to up to 10 ppm of the test compounds. However, we observed localized lipid droplet accumulation only in PFBA-exposed cells. To study the effects of these compounds on cell metabolism, we conducted fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy using naturally fluorescent biomarkers, NADH and FAD. The fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and FAD and the bound/free ratio of each of these coenzymes decreased in a dose- and carbon length-dependent manner, suggesting disruption of cell metabolism. In sum, our study revealed that PFASs with shorter carbon chains are less toxic than PFOA, and that exposure to sublethal dosage of PFOA, PFHxA or PFBA affects cell metabolism. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Highly efficient and stable Zr-doped nanocrystalline PbO2 electrode for mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid in a sequential treatment system

Authors: Xu, Z; Yu, Y; Liu, H; Niu, J (2017) Science of the Total Environment 579:1600-1607. HERO ID: 3858263

[Less] Zr-doped nanocrystalline PbO2 (Zr-PbO2) film electrodes were prepared at different bath temperatures. . . . [More] Zr-doped nanocrystalline PbO2 (Zr-PbO2) film electrodes were prepared at different bath temperatures. The Zr-PbO2 electrode doped at 75°C (75-Zr-PbO2) featured high oxygen evolution overpotential, large effective area and good electrocatalytic performance. The oxygen evolution potential and the effective area of 75-Zr-PbO2 achieved 1.91V (vs. SCE) and 9.1cm(2), respectively. The removal efficiency and the defluorination ratio of PFOA reached 97.0% and 88.1% after 90min electrolysis. The primary mineralization products (i.e., F(-) and intermediates) and their change trends were determined. The 75-Zr-PbO2 electrode was introduced to sequentially treat the PFOA wastewater. In an 116h of 75-Zr-PbO2 electrocatalysis sequential process, the PFOA, PFHpA, PFHxA, PFPeA, PFBA, PFPrA, TFA, and TOC concentrations were reduced to below 30, 2.5, 1.3, 1.0, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1, and 9mgL(-1), respectively, demonstrating the promising application of the sequential treatment system for the treatment of PFOA wastewater.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Radiosynthesis and biological distribution of F-18-labeled perfluorinated alkyl substances

Authors: Burkemper, JL; Aweda, TA; Rosenberg, AJ; Lunderberg, DM; Peaslee, GF; Lapi, SE (2017) Environmental Science & Technology Letters 4:211-215. HERO ID: 3858622

[Less] A novel method for radiolabeling perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) with fluorine 18 has been developed, . . . [More] A novel method for radiolabeling perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) with fluorine 18 has been developed, and after purification, the stability and biological distribution in healthy mice were evaluated. Three PFAS, [F-18]PFOA (C8), [F-18]PFHxA (C6), and [F-18]PFBA (C4), were readily labeled and isolated in average yields between 12 and 31%. The stability of each compound was monitored in 0.1% ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) in methanol, in saline, and in human, mouse, and rat sera. The amount of intact, radiolabeled PFAS was determined by radiometric instant thin layer chromatography and was calculated by the amount of free fluorine 18 observed over time. All compounds were highly stable in 0.1% NH4OH in methanol and saline, with <10% defluorination observed after 4 h. Interestingly, each compound had differing affinities for the serum proteins. In vivo biodistribution studies in mice showed uptake in all organs examined, with the highest uptake being exhibited in the liver for both [F-18]PFOA and [F-18]PFHxA and the stomach for [F-18]PFBA. The results of this initial study suggest that this method could be valuable in helping to determine the biological uptake of any PFAS in mammals.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Efficient photochemical decomposition of trifluoroacetic acid and its analogues with electrolyzed sulfuric acid

Authors: Hori, H; Manita, Ryo; Yamamoto, K; Kutsuna, S; Kato, M (2017) Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 332:167-173. HERO ID: 3468926

[Less] Electrolyzed sulfuric acid is a new chemical reagent prepared by electrolysis of aqueous sulfuric acid. . . . [More] Electrolyzed sulfuric acid is a new chemical reagent prepared by electrolysis of aqueous sulfuric acid. In the present work, the concentrations of the oxidizing species (S2O82-, HSO5-, and H2O2) present in electrolyzed sulfuric acid were quantified, and photochemical decomposition of trifluoroacetic acid (CF3COOH, TFA), pentafluoropropionic acid (C2F5COOH, PFPA), and heptafluorobutyric acid (C3F7COOH, HFBA) in water with electrolyzed sulfuric acid was investigated. TFA was efficiently decomposed to F- and CO2 with electrolyzed sulfuric acid under irradiation with UV-visible light (220-460 nm), and the quantum yield for TFA decomposition under irradiation with 254-nm monochromatic light was measured to be 0.20. Among the oxidizing species present in the electrolyzed sulfuric acid, S2O82- played the dominant role in the photochemical reactions, and the combination of S2O82- and highly acidic conditions (pH similar to 1.0) resulting from the coexistence of H2SO4 was the main reason for the high reactivity. PFPA and HFBA were also efficiently decomposed with electrolyzed sulfuric acid. The pseudo-first-order rate constants for the decrease in the amounts of these substrates were 1.6-1.9 times as high as those for conventional decomposition reactions with the potassium salt of S2O82-. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.