Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)

Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)

5 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

Annex XV report: Proposal for identification of a substance of very high concern on the basis of the criteria set out in REACH Article 57. Substance name(s): Perfluorohexane-1-sulphonic acid and its salts

Author: ECHA (2017) European Chemicals Agency. HERO ID: 3874974

Data/ Software

Products: Perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid (CAS 375-92-8)

Author: LookChem (2017) HERO ID: 3981214

Technical Report
Technical Report

Draft toxicological profile for perfluoroalkyls

Author: ATSDR (2015) HERO ID: 3859918

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (, as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Acid dissociation versus molecular association of perfluoroalkyl oxoacids: Environmental implications

Authors: Cheng, Jie; Psillakis, E; Hoffmann, MR; Colussi, AJ (2009) Journal of Physical Chemistry A 113:8152-8156. [Letter] HERO ID: 2551847

[Less] Perfluorooctanoate (PFO) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) surfactant anions, once released, may rapidly . . . [More] Perfluorooctanoate (PFO) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) surfactant anions, once released, may rapidly reach remote regions. This phenomenon is puzzling because the water-bound anions of strong F-alkyl acids should be largely transported by slow oceanic currents. Herein, we investigate whether these hydrophobic F-alkyl oxoanions would behave anomalously under environmental conditions, as suggested elsewhere. Negative electrospray ionization mass spectra of micromolar aqueous PFO or PFOS solutions from pH 1.0 to 6.0 show (1) m/z = 499 (PFOS) signals that are independent of pH and (2) m/z = 413 (PFO) and 369 (PFO - CO(2)) signals, plus m/z = 213 (C(3)F(7)CO(2)(-)) and 169 (C(3)F(7)(-)) signals at higher collision energies, and, below pH similar to 4, m/z = 827 signals from a remarkably stable (PFO)(2)H(-) cluster that increase with decreasing pH. Since the SUM of the m/z = 369, 413, and 827 signal intensities is independent of pH, that is, effectively encompasses all major species, we infer that pK(a)(PFOSA) < 1.0 and pK(a)(PFOA) < 1.0. We also derive K(2) <= 4 x 10(7) M(-2) for the clustering equilibrium 2PFO + H(+) (sic) (PFO)(2)H. Thus, although (PFO)2H is held together by an exceptionally strong homonuclear covalent hydrogen bond, neither PFOS nor PFO will associate or protonate significantly at environmentally relevant subnanomolar concentrations above pH similar to 1.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Fluorine-containing polymers, perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids

Author: Savu, P (2000) In Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. HERO ID: 3980852

[Less] Perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids and their derivatives are of commercial significance because of their . . . [More] Perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids and their derivatives are of commercial significance because of their unusual acid strength, chemical stability, and the surface activity of the higher members of the series (eight carbons and larger). The best method of preparation is via the perfluorinated sulfonyl fluorides derived from electrochemical fluorination, although other methods including direct fluorination with fluorine gas are known. The first member of the series, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, is one of the strongest acids known. Alkyl esters of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid are among the best leaving groups known and are commonly used in that capacity in displacement reactions. Lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate solutions are very conductive and can find application as electrolytes in primary lithium batteries and as antistats for films.

Derivatives of the longer-chain perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids have a number of unique surface-active properties and have formed a basis for a number of commercial products. The longer-chain acids and their salts, particularly C8F17SO3H and higher, are surface-active agents in aqueous media. They reduce the surface tension of water to levels not possible with hydrocarbon surfactants. Preparation of difunctional perfluoroalkanesulfonates and their derivatives is discussed, including fluorosulfonylacetyl fluoride. Fluorosulfonyldifluoracetyl fluoride is an important industrial intermediate used in the production of Du Pont's Nafion ion-exchange membranes and in many other applications.