Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)


451 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Removal efficiency of multiple poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water using granular activated carbon (GAC) and anion exchange (AE) column tests

Authors: Mccleaf, P; Englund, S; Östlund, A; Lindegren, K; Wiberg, K; Ahrens, L (2017) Water Research 120:77-87. HERO ID: 3856453

[Less] Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in drinking water at relatively high . . . [More] Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in drinking water at relatively high concentrations throughout the world which has led to implementation of regulatory guidelines for specific PFASs in drinking water in several European countries and in the U.S. The Swedish National Food Agency has determined that the drinking water of over one third of the country's municipal consumers is at risk or already affected by PFAS contamination. The present study investigated the effects of perfluorocarbon chain length, functional group and isomer structure (branched or linear) on removal of multiple PFASs using granular activated carbon (GAC, Filtrasorb(®) 400) and anion exchange (AE, Purolite(®) A600) column experiments. The removal of 14 different PFASs, i.e. the C3C11, C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTeDA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), and the C4, C6, C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS), was monitored for a 217 day period. The results indicate the selective nature of PFAS removal as the absorbents are loaded with PFASs and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A clear relationship between perfluorocarbon chain length and removal efficiency of PFASs using GAC and AE was found while PFASs with sulfonate functional groups displayed greater removal efficiency than those with carboxylate groups. Similarly, time to column breakthrough increased with increasing perfluorocarbon chain length and was greater for the PFSAs than the PFCAs for both GAC and AE. Shorter carbon chained PFASs such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA showed desorption behavior and long-chained PFASs showed increased removal towards the end of the experiment indicating agglomeration or micelle development. Linear isomers of PFOS, PFHxS, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) had greater column removal efficiencies using GAC (and also for AE at greater bed volume throughput) than the branched and this difference increased at greater bed volume throughputs. The GAC and AE columns showed a poor correlation between DOC and PFAS removal efficiency. The results indicate that designers and operators of AE and GAC treatment processes must take into consideration the selective nature of PFAS removal and associated desorption of short-chain PFCAs during co-removal of multiple PFASs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Isomer-specific transplacental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acids: Results from a survey of paired maternal, cord sera, and placentas

Authors: Chen, F; Yin, S; Kelly, BC; Liu, W (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:5756-5763. HERO ID: 3859806

[Less] Currently, information regarding isomer-specific concentrations of PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA in human placenta, . . . [More] Currently, information regarding isomer-specific concentrations of PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA in human placenta, and corresponding placental-maternal ratios (RPM) of these compounds does not exist. The objective of the present study was to assess the occurrence, and distribution of different PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA isomers in maternal serum, umbilical cord serum, and placenta to gain a better understanding of transplacental transport efficiency and prenatal exposure risks. The study involved quantitative determination of isomer-specific concentrations of PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA in samples of maternal serum (n = 32), cord serum (n = 32), and placenta (n = 32) from pregnant women in Wuhan, China. The results indicate that both linear and branched PFHxS, PFOS and PFOA can be efficiently transported across the placenta, with exposure levels ordered maternal serum > cord serum > placenta. For PFOS isomers, the concentration ratios between cord serum and maternal serum (RCM) were ordered n < iso < 4m < (3 + 5)m < 1m < ∑m2. The RPM values exhibited a similar trend for branched PFOS isomers: iso < 4m ≈ (3 + 5)m < 1m ≈ ∑m2. Conversely, PFOA isomers did not exhibit an obvious structure-activity relationship for RCM and RPM. n-PFHxS transported across the placenta to a greater extent than br-PFHxS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the occurrence of PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA isomers in human placenta. Further, RPM values of these compounds are reported here for the first time. The findings help to better understand the mechanisms of the placental transfer and neonatal exposure to these important contaminants of concern.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Organic anion transporting polypeptides contribute to the disposition of perfluoroalkyl acids in humans and rats

Authors: Zhao, W; Zitzow, JD; Weaver, Y; Ehresman, DJ; Chang, SC; Butenhoff, JL; Hagenbuch, B (2017) Toxicological Sciences 156:84-95. HERO ID: 3856461

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) such as perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) such as perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have very long serum elimination half-lives in humans, and preferentially distribute to serum and liver. The enterohepatic circulation of PFHxS and PFOS likely contributes to their extended elimination half-lives. We previously demonstrated that perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), PFHxS, and PFOS are transported into hepatocytes both in a sodium-dependent and a sodium-independent manner. We identified Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) as the responsible sodium-dependent transporter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the human apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter (ASBT) contributes to the intestinal reabsorption of PFOS. However, so far no sodium-independent uptake transporters for PFSAs have been identified in human hepatocytes or enterocytes. In addition, perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with 8 and 9 carbons were shown to preferentially distribute to the liver of rodents; however, no rat or human liver uptake transporters are known to transport these PFCAs. Therefore, we tested whether PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, and PFCAs with 7-10 carbons are substrates of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). We used CHO and HEK293 cells to demonstrate that human OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 can transport PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, and the 2 PFCAs (C8 and C9). In addition, we show that rat OATP1A1, OATP1A5, OATP1B2, and OATP2B1 transport all 3 PFSAs. In conclusion, our results suggest that besides NTCP and ASBT, OATPs also are capable of contributing to the enterohepatic circulation and extended human serum elimination half-lives of the tested perfluoroalkyl acids.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Geographical Differences in Dietary Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids between Manufacturing and Application Regions in China

Authors: Zhang, H; Vestergren, R; Wang, T; Yu, J; Jiang, G; Herzke, D (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:5747-5755. HERO ID: 3859810

[Less] Emissions of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have increased in China over the past decade, but human exposure . . . [More] Emissions of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have increased in China over the past decade, but human exposure pathways are poorly understood. Here we analyzed 15 PFAAs in commonly consumed food items and calculated body weight normalized dietary intake rates (estimated dietary intake, EDIs) in an area with ongoing PFAA production (Hubei province; n = 121) and an urbanized coastal area (Zhejiang province; n = 106). Geographical differences in concentrations were primarily observed for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) in animal food items and short-chain PFAAs in vegetable food items. The average EDI of ∑PFAAs for adults in Hubei (998 ng kg(-1) day(-1)) was more than 2 orders of magnitude higher than that in Zhejiang (9.03 ng kg(-1) day(-1)). In Hubei province, the average EDI of PFOS for adults (87 ng kg(-1) day(-1)) was close to or exceeded advisory guidelines used in other countries indicating health risks for the population from long-term exposure. Yet, PFOS could only account for about 10% of the EDI of ∑PFAAs in the Hubei province, which was dominated by short-chain PFAAs through consumption of vegetables. The large contribution of short-chain PFAAs to the total EDIs in manufacturing areas emphasize the need for improved exposure and hazard assessment tools of these substances.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dietary predictors and plasma concentrations of perfluorinated alkyl acids in a Singapore population

Authors: Liu, Y; Su, J; van Dam, RM; Prem, K; Hoong, JY; Zou, L; Lu, Y; Ong, CN (2017) Chemosphere 171:617-624. HERO ID: 3859816

[Less] Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), a family of man-made organofluorinated compounds, have drawn much . . . [More] Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), a family of man-made organofluorinated compounds, have drawn much attention due to their ubiquitous existence in the environment and their bioaccumulation potential. Here, we examined the plasma concentrations of thirteen PFAAs in a healthy population (N = 270) in Singapore, and investigated the association between major food groups and plasma PFAA concentrations. We detected eight types of PFAAs in more than 75% of all samples (N = 270), and their median concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 8.34 ng mL(-1). Age- and gender-related differences were observed for the three dominant PFAAs, i.e., perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanoate acid (PFOA), with concentrations being higher in men and older adults. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that fish, shellfish, red meat and poultry were associated with increased PFAAs concentrations in plasma, whereas grains and soy products showed inverse associations with PFAAs. Further, significant correlations were observed between various long-chain PFAAs and plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, suggesting seafood was a significant source of these PFAAs, within this population. Future studies on diet exposure to PFAAs are encouraged to focus more on the effects on diet pattern.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Plasma perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances concentration and menstrual cycle characteristics in preconception women: Supplemental materials

Authors: Zhou, W; Zhang, L; Tong, C; Fang, F; Zhao, S; Tian, Y; Tao, Y; Zhang, J (2017) Environmental Health Perspectives 125. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3860309

Abstract: Supplementary materials

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Predictors of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) plasma concentrations in 6-10 year old American children

Authors: Harris, MH; Rifas-Shiman, SL; Calafat, AM; Ye, X; Mora, AM; Webster, TF; Oken, E; Sagiv, SK (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:5193-5204. HERO ID: 3859811

[Less] Certain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are suspected developmental toxicants, but data . . . [More] Certain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are suspected developmental toxicants, but data on PFAS concentrations and exposure routes in children are limited. We measured plasma PFASs in children aged 6-10 years from the Boston-area Project Viva prebirth cohort, and used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations with sociodemographic, behavioral, and health-related factors, and maternal PFASs measured during pregnancy. PFAS concentrations in Project Viva children (sampled 2007-2010) were similar to concentrations among youth participants (aged 12-19 years) in the 2007-8 and 2009-10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); mean concentrations of most PFASs declined from 2007 to 2010 in Project Viva and NHANES. In mutually adjusted models, predictors of higher PFAS concentrations included older child age, lower adiposity, carpeting or a rug in the child's bedroom, higher maternal education, and higher neighborhood income. Concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH) were 26-36% lower in children of black mothers compared to children of white mothers and increased 12-21% per interquartile range increase in maternal pregnancy PFASs. Breastfeeding duration did not predict childhood PFAS concentrations in adjusted multivariable models. Together, the studied predictors explained the observed variability in PFAS concentrations to only a modest degree.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Early-life exposures to persistent organic pollutants in relation to overweight in preschool children: Supplementary materials

Authors: Karlsen, M; Grandjean, P; Weihe, P; Steuerwald, U; Oulhote, Y; Valvi, D (2017) Reproductive Toxicology 68. HERO ID: 3982041

Abstract: Supplementary materials

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids and prevalence of infectious diseases up to 4years of age

Authors: Goudarzi, H; Miyashita, C; Okada, E; Kashino, I; Chen, CJ; Ito, S; Araki, A; Kobayashi, S; Matsuura, H; Kishi, R (2017) Environment International 104:132-138. HERO ID: 3859808

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are synthetic chemicals with ability to repel oils and water, and have . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are synthetic chemicals with ability to repel oils and water, and have been widely used in many industrial and household applications such as adhesives and water- and stain-repellent surfaces to nonstick coatings. Animal studies have shown that PFAAs have immunotoxic effects. However, few epidemiological studies have investigated the effects of PFAAs on infectious diseases occurrence. We examined the relationship between prenatal exposure to PFAAs and prevalence of infectious diseases up to 4years of life. A total of 1558 mother-child pairs, who were enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health, were included in this data analysis. Eleven PFAAs were measured in maternal plasma taken at 28-32weeks of gestation using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Participant characteristics were obtained from medical birth records and self-administered questionnaires during pregnancy and after delivery. Physicians' diagnosis of common infectious diseases including otitis media, pneumonia, respiratory syncytial virus infection, and varicella up to 4years were extracted from the mother-reported questionnaires. The number of children who developed infectious diseases up to 4years of age was as follows: otitis media, 649 (41.4%); pneumonia, 287 (18.4%); respiratory syncytial virus infection, 197 (12.6%); varicella 589 (37.8%). A total of 1046 (67.1%) children had at least one of the diseases defined as total infectious diseases. After adjusting for appropriate confounders, PFOS levels in the highest quartile were associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) of total infectious diseases (Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.21; p for trend=0.008) in all children. In addition, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) was associated with a higher risk of total infectious diseases only among girls (Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 0.976, 2.45; p for trend=0.045). We found no association between infectious diseases and other examined PFAAs. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to PFOS and PFHxS may associated with infectious diseases occurrence in early life. Therefore, prenatal exposure to PFAAs may be immunotoxic for the immune system in offspring.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Depuration of perfluoroalkyl substances from the edible tissues of wild-caught invertebrate species

Authors: Taylor, MD; Bowles, KC; Johnson, DD; Moltschaniwskyj, NA (2017) Science of the Total Environment 581-582:258-267. HERO ID: 3859815

[Less] Detection and quantification of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aquatic organisms is . . . [More] Detection and quantification of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aquatic organisms is increasing, particularly for saltwater species. Depuration can remove PFASs from the tissues of some species once they are removed from the contaminant source, but it is not known if this process occurs for saltwater crustaceans. Such information is important for managing human health risks for exploited migratory species following exposure. We present the results of a depuration trial for School Prawn (Metapenaeus macleayi) and Mud Crab (Scylla serrata), two commercially important crustaceans in Australia. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were present in samples of both species collected following exposure under natural conditions in contaminated estuaries. Depuration was tested in uncontaminated water for 33days. PFOA was present at levels close to LOR in both species, and was not detected after 4.5h and 72h in School Prawn and Mud Crab respectively. PFHxS was rapidly depurated by School Prawn, and had a depuration half-life of 5.7h. PFOS was also depurated by School Prawn, with a depuration half-life of 158.5h. PFHxS and PFOS concentrations were highly variable in Mud Crab both at the start, and during the depuration experiment, and a depuration model could not be fitted to the data. For School Prawn, depuration of total PFASs to the relevant screening value for protection of human health (9.1μgkg(-1)) occurred within 7.1h. Rapid depuration of PFASs in School Prawn indicates that human health risks associated with consumption may decrease as this species migrates away from the contamination source. Further research is required to better understand the relationships between contaminant load and life-history characteristics (such as growth, reproduction, and moult cycle) in Mud Crab, and future work should target broader time frames for depuration in this species.