Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)


9 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Preconception perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and incident pregnancy loss, LIFE Study

Authors: Louis, GM; Sapra, KJ; Barr, DB; Lu, Z; Sundaram, R (2016) Reproductive Toxicology 65:11-17. HERO ID: 3858527

[Less] Equivocal findings are reported for perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and self-reported . . . [More] Equivocal findings are reported for perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and self-reported pregnancy loss. We prospectively assessed PFASs and pregnancy loss in a cohort comprising 501 couples recruited preconception and followed daily through 7 post-conception weeks. Seven PFASs were quantified: 2-N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (Et-PFOSA-AcOH); 2-N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH); perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA); perfluorononanoate (PFNA); perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA); perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Women used home pregnancy test kits. Loss denoted conversion from a positive to a negative pregnancy test, onset of menses or clinical confirmation (n=98; 28%). Chemicals were log transformed and rescaled by their standard deviations to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals. No significantly elevated HRs were observed for any PFASs suggesting no association with loss: Et-PFOSA-AcOH (1.04; 0.87, 1.23), Me-PFOSA-AcOH (0.79; 0.61, 1.00; p<0.05), PFDeA (0.83; 0.66, 1.04), PFNA (0.86; 0.70, 1.06), PFOSA (0.74; 0.50, 1.09), PFOS (0.81; 0.65, 1.00), and PFOA (0.93; 0.75, 1.16).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Isomer-specific accumulation of perfluorooctanesulfonate from (N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamido)ethanol-based phosphate diester in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

Authors: Peng, H; Zhang, S; Sun, J; Zhang, Z; Giesy, JP; Hu, J (2014) Environmental Science and Technology 48:1058-1066. HERO ID: 2850909

[Less] While (N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamido)ethanol (FOSE) -based phosphate diester (diSPAP) has been . . . [More] While (N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamido)ethanol (FOSE) -based phosphate diester (diSPAP) has been proposed as a candidate precursor of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), its potential biotransformation to PFOS has not been verified. Metabolism of diSPAP was investigated in Japanese medaka ( Oryzias latipes ) after exposure in water for 10 days, followed by 10 days of depuration. Branched isomers of diSPAP (B-diSPAP) were preferentially enriched in medaka exposed to diSPAP, with the proportion of branched isomers (BF) ranging from 0.56 to 0.80, which was significantly greater than that in the water to which the medaka were exposed (0.36) (p < 0.001). This enrichment was due primarily to preferential uptake of B-diSPAP. PFOS together with perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide (NEtFOSA), 2-(perfluorooctanesulfonamido)acetic acid (FOSAA), NEtFOSAA, FOSE, and NEtFOSE were detected in medaka exposed to diSPAP, which indicated the potential for biotransformation of diSPAP to PFOS via multiple intermediates. Due to preferential metabolism of branched isomers, FOSAA and PFOSA exhibited greater BF values (>0.5) than those of NEtFOSA, NEtFOSAA, and NEtFOSE (<0.2). Such preferential metabolism of branched isomers along the primary pathway of metabolism and preferential accumulation of B-diSPAP led to enrichment of branched PFOS (B-PFOS) in medaka. Enrichment of B-PFOS was greater for 3-, 4-, and 5-perfluoromethyl PFOS (P3MPFOS, P4MPFOS, and P5MPFOS), for which values of BF were 0.58 ± 0.07, 0.62 ± 0.06, and 0.61 ± 0.05 (day 6), respectively; these values are 5.8-, 7.8-, and 6.4-fold greater than those of technical PFOS. This work provides evidence on the isomer-specific accumulation of PFOS from diSPAP and will be helpful to track indirect sources of PFOS in the future.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in house dust

Authors: Kato, K; Calafat, AM; Needham, LL (2009) Environmental Research 109:518-523. HERO ID: 1424952

[Less] We developed a high throughput analytical method using on-line solid phase extraction coupled with isotope . . . [More] We developed a high throughput analytical method using on-line solid phase extraction coupled with isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-HPLC-MS/MS) to simultaneously determine the concentrations of 17 polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) in house dust. The sample preparation includes dispersion of the dust samples in 0.1 M formic acid:MeOH (1:1), followed by agitation and filtration, addition of the isotope-labeled internal standard solution to the filtrate, and analysis by on-line SPE-HPLC-MS/MS. The limits of quantitation were <4.0 ng/g. The method accuracies ranged between 73.2% and 100.2% for the different analytes at two spike levels. We confirmed the validity of the method by analyzing 39 household dust samples collected in 2004. Of the 17 PFCs measured, 6 of them--perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBuS), N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide, 2-(N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetic acid (Et-PFOSA-AcOH), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) ethanol (Me-PFOSA-EtOH), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)--had detection frequencies >70%. We detected PFOS, PFBuS, and PFHxS at the highest median concentration, followed by Et-PFOSA-AcOH and Me-PFOSA-EtOH.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inhibition of the adenine nucleotide translocator by N-acetyl perfluorooctane sulfonamides in vitro

Authors: O'Brien, TM; Oliveira, PJ; Wallace, KB (2008) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 227:184-195. HERO ID: 3859963

[Less] N-alkyl perfluorooctane sulfonamides have been widely used as surfactants on fabrics and papers, fire . . . [More] N-alkyl perfluorooctane sulfonamides have been widely used as surfactants on fabrics and papers, fire retardants, and anti-corrosion agents, among many other commercial applications. The global distribution and environmental persistence of these compounds has generated considerable interest regarding potential toxic effects. We have previously reported that perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (FOSAA) and N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (N-EtFOSAA) induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in vitro. In this study we tested the hypothesis that FOSAA and N-EtFOSAA interact with the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) resulting in a functional inhibition of the translocator and induction of the MPT. Respiration and membrane potential of freshly isolated liver mitochondria from Sprague-Dawley rats were measured using an oxygen electrode and a tetraphenylphosphonium-selective (TPP(+)) electrode, respectively. Mitochondrial swelling was measured spectrophotometrically. The ANT ligands bongkregkic acid (BKA) and carboxyatractyloside (cATR) inhibited uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration caused by 10 microM N-EtFOSAA, 40 microM FOSAA, and the positive control 8 microM oleic acid. ADP-stimulated respiration and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential were inhibited by cATR, FOSAA, N-EtFOSAA, and oleic acid, but not by FCCP. BKA inhibited calcium-dependent mitochondrial swelling induced by FOSAA, N-EtFOSAA, and oleic acid. Seventy-five micromolar ADP also inhibited swelling induced by the test compounds, but cATR induced swelling was not inhibited by ADP. Results of this investigation indicate that N-acetyl perfluorooctane sulfonamides interact directly with the ANT to inhibit ADP translocation and induce the MPT, one or both of which may account for the metabolic dysfunction observed in vivo.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Decline in perfluorooctanesulfonate and other polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000-2006

Authors: Olsen, GW; Mair, DC; Church, TR; Ellefson, ME; Reagen, WK; Boyd, TM; Herron, RM; Medhdizadehkashi, Z; Nobiletti, JB; Rios, JA; Butenhoff, JL; Zobel, LR (2008) Environmental Science and Technology 42:4989-4995. HERO ID: 2919386

[Less] In 2000, 3M Company, the primary global manufacturer, announced a phase-out of perfluorooctanesulfonyl . . . [More] In 2000, 3M Company, the primary global manufacturer, announced a phase-out of perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride (POSF, C8F17SO2F)-based materials after perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-) was reported in human populations and wildlife. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PFOS and other polyfluoroalkyl concentrations in plasma samples, collected in 2006 from six American Red Cross adult blood donor centers, have declined compared to nonpaired serum samples from the same locations in 2000-2001. For each location, 100 samples were obtained evenly distributed by age (20-69 years) and sex. Analytes measured, using tandem mass spectrometry, were PFOS, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), N-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH), and N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (Et-PFOSA-AcOH). The geometric mean plasma concentrations were for PFOS 14.5 ng/mL (95% CI 13.9-15.2), PFOA 3.4 ng/ mL (95% CI 3.3-3.6), and PFHxS 1.5 ng/mL (95% CI 1.4-1.6). The majority of PFBS, Me-PFOSA-AcOH, and Et-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations were less than the lower limit of quantitation. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric means were lower in 2006 (approximately 60% for PFOS, 25% for PFOA, and 30% for PFHxS) than those in 2000-2001. The declines for PFOS and PFHxS are consistent with their serum elimination half-lives and the time since the phase-out of POSF-based materials. The shorter serum elimination half-life for PFOA and its smaller percentage decline than PFOS suggests PFOA concentrations measured in the general population are unlikely to be solely attributed to POSF-based materials. Direct and indirect exposure sources of PFOA could include historic and ongoing electrochemical cell fluorination (ECF) of PFOA, telomer production of PFOA, fluorotelomer-based precursors, and other fluoropoly-mer production.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Esterification prevents induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition by N-acetyl perfluorooctane sulfonamides

Authors: O'Brien, TM; Carlson, RM; Oliveira, PJ; Wallace, KB (2006) Chemical Research in Toxicology 19:1305-1312. HERO ID: 3859964

[Less] N-Alkyl perfluorooctane sulfonamides have been widely used as surfactants on fabrics and papers, fire . . . [More] N-Alkyl perfluorooctane sulfonamides have been widely used as surfactants on fabrics and papers, fire retardants, and anticorrosion agents, among many other commercial applications. The broad use, global distribution, and environmental persistence of these compounds has generated considerable interest regarding potentially toxic effects. We have previously reported that perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (FOSAA) and N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (N-EtFOSAA) induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in vitro, resulting in cytochrome c release, inhibition of respiration, and generation of reactive oxygen species. By synthesizing the corresponding methyl esters of FOSAA and N-EtFOSAA (methyl perlfuorinated sulfonamide acetates), we tested the hypothesis that the N-acetate moiety of FOSAA and N-EtFOSAA is the functional group responsible for induction of the MPT. Swelling of freshly isolated liver mitochondria from Sprague-Dawley rats was monitored spectrophotometrically and membrane potential (DeltaPsi) was measured using a tetraphenylphosphonium-selective (TPP(+)) electrode. In the presence of calcium, 40 microM FOSAA and 7 microM N-EtFOSAA each induced mitochondrial swelling and a biphasic depolarization of membrane potential. Mitochondrial swelling and the second-phase depolarization were inhibited by cyclosporin-A or the catalyst of K(+)/H(+) exchange nigericin, whereas the first-phase depolarization was not affected by either. In contrast, the methyl esters of FOSAA and N-EtFOSAA exhibited no depolarizing or MPT inducing activity. Results of this investigation demonstrate that the carboxylic acid moiety of the N-acetates is the active functional group, which triggers the MPT by perfluorinated sulfonamides.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biotransformation of N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)perfluorooctanesulfonamide by rat liver microsomes, cytosol, and slices and by expressed rat and human cytochromes P450

Authors: Xu, L; Krenitsky, DM; Seacat, AM; Butenhoff, JL; Anders, MW (2004) Chemical Research in Toxicology 17:767-775. HERO ID: 3859965

[Less] Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and its derivatives have been used in a range of industrial and . . . [More] Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and its derivatives have been used in a range of industrial and commercial applications, including the manufacture of surfactants, adhesives, anticorrosion agents, and insecticides. PFOS is found at detectable concentrations in human and wildlife tissues and in the global environment. N-Substituted perfluorooctanesulfonamides are believed to be degraded to PFOS and, therefore, contribute to the accumulation of PFOS in the environment. N-Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)perfluorooctanesulfonamide (N-EtFOSE) is converted to PFOS in experimental animals. The objective of this study was to elucidate the pathways for the biotransformation of N-EtFOSE, which is a major precursor and component of PFOS-based compounds. N-EtFOSE and several putative metabolites were incubated with liver microsomes and cytosol and with liver slices from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Microsomal fractions fortified with NADPH catalyzed the N-deethylation of N-EtFOSE to give N-(2-hydroxyethyl)perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSE alcohol) and of FOSE alcohol to give perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA). These N-dealkylation reactions were catalyzed mainly by male rat P450 2C11 and P450 3A2 and by human P450 2C19 and 3A4/5. Rat liver microsomal fractions incubated with UDP-glucuronic acid catalyzed the O-glucuronidation of N-EtFOSE and FOSE alcohol and the N-glucuronidation of FOSA. Cytosolic fractions incubated with NAD(+) catalyzed the oxidation of FOSE alcohol to perfluooctanesulfonamidoacetate (FOSAA). The oxidation of N-EtFOSE to N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (N-EtFOSAA) was observed in liver slices but not in cytosolic fractions. FOSA was biotransformed in liver slices to PFOS, albeit at a low rate. These results show that the major pathway for the biotransformation of N-EtFOSE is N-dealkylation to give FOSA. The biotransformation of FOSA to PFOS explains the observation that PFOS is found in animals given N-EtFOSE.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Structural determinants of fluorochemical-induced mitochondrial dysfunction

Authors: Starkov, AA; Wallace, KB (2002) Toxicological Sciences 66:244-252. HERO ID: 1290853

[Less] Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are thought to induce peroxisome proliferation . . . [More] Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are thought to induce peroxisome proliferation and interfere with mitochondrial metabolic pathways. Direct measurements revealed that PFOA and the unsubstituted sulfonamide of perfluorooctane (FOSA) uncouple mitochondrial respiration by increasing proton conductance. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize structural determinants responsible for the mitochondrial uncoupling effect of several structurally related fluorochemicals. Included in the study were PFOA, PFOS, FOSA, the N-acetate of FOSA (perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate, FOSAA), N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamide (N-EtFOSA), and the N-ethyl alcohol [2-(N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamido)ethyl alcohol, N-EtFOSE] and N-acetic acid (N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate, N-EtFOSAA) of N-EtFOSA. Each test compound was dissolved in ethanol and added directly to an incubation medium containing substrate-energized rat liver mitochondria. Mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential were measured concurrently using an oxygen electrode and a TPP+ -selective electrode, respectively. All of the compounds tested, at sufficiently high concentrations, had the capacity to interfere with mitochondrial respiration, albeit via different mechanisms and with varying potencies. At sufficiently high concentrations, the free acids PFOA and PFOS caused a slight increase in the intrinsic proton leak of the mitochondrial inner membrane, which resembled a surfactant-like change in membrane fluidity. Similar effects were observed with the sulfonamide N-EtFOSE. Another fully substituted sulfonamide, N-EtFOSAA, at high concentrations caused inhibition of respiration, the release of cytochrome c, and high-amplitude swelling of mitochondria. The swelling was prevented by cyclosporin A or by EGTA, indicating that this compound induced the mitochondrial permeability transition. The unsubstituted and mono-substituted amides FOSA, N-EtFOSA, and FOSAA all exerted a strong uncoupling effect on mitochondria resembling that of protonophoric uncouplers. Among these compounds, FOSA was a very potent uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, with an IC50 of approximately 1 microM. These data suggest that the protonated nitrogen atom with a favorable pKa is essential for the uncoupling action of perfluorooctane sulfonamides in mitochondria, which may be critical to the mechanism by which these compounds interfere with mitochondrial metabolism to induce peroxisome proliferation in vivo.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Use of a fluorosurfactant in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography

Authors: de Ridder, R; Damin, F; Reijenga, J; Chiari, M (2001) Journal of Chromatography A 916:73-78. HERO ID: 3858154

[Less] A fluorosurfactant, the anionic N-ethyl-N-[(heptadecafluorooctyl)sulfonyl]glycine potassium salt, trade . . . [More] A fluorosurfactant, the anionic N-ethyl-N-[(heptadecafluorooctyl)sulfonyl]glycine potassium salt, trade name FC-129 [CAS 2991-51-7] was investigated for possible application in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC). The surfactant was characterized with conductometric titration and test sample mixtures were investigated in MEKC systems, and compared with sodium dodecylsulphate. An increased efficiency and interesting selectivity differences were observed.