Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)


86 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (6:2 FTCA) exposure induces developmental toxicity and inhibits the formation of erythrocytes during zebrafish embryogenesis

Authors: Shi, G; Cui, Q; Pan, Y; Sheng, N; Guo, Y; Dai, J (2017) Aquatic Toxicology 190:53-61. HERO ID: 3859274

[Less] Saturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCAs) are intermediates in the degradation of fluorotelomer . . . [More] Saturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCAs) are intermediates in the degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) to perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Recent studies have detected FTCAs in precipitation, surface waters, and wildlife, but few studies have focused on their toxicity. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to different concentrations of 6:2 FTCA (0, 4, 8, and 12mg/L) from 6 to 120h post-fertilization (hpf) to investigate its developmental toxicity. Results showed that 6:2 FTCA exposure decreased the hatching and survival percentages, reduced the heart rate, and increased the malformation of zebrafish embryos. The median lethal concentration of 6:2 FTCA was 7.33mg/L at 120 hpf, which was lower than that of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), thus indicating higher toxicity for zebrafish. The most common developmental malformation was pericardial edema, which appeared in the 8 and 12mg/L 6:2 FTCA-exposed embryos from 60 hpf. Using o-dianisidine staining, we found that the hemoglobin content in embryos was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner after 6:2 FTCA exposure at 72 hpf. Based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR) and whole-mount in situ hybridization, the transcriptional levels of hemoglobin markers (hbae1, hbbe1, and hbae3) were down-regulated at 48 and 72 hpf, even though no observed malformation appeared in zebrafish at 48 hpf. Moreover, 6:2 FTCA exposure decreased the protein level of gata1, a principal early erythrocytic marker, in Tg (gata1:DsRed) transgenic zebrafish at 72 hpf. We analyzed the transcriptional level of other erythrocyte-related genes using q-RT-PCR assay. For heme formation, the transcription of alas2, which encodes the key enzyme for heme biosynthesis, was down-regulated after 6:2 FTCA exposure, whereas the transcription of ho-1, which is related to heme degradation, was up-regulated at 48 and 72 hpf. The transcriptional patterns of gata1 and gata2, which are related to erythroid differentiation, differed. At 48 hpf, the mRNA level of gata2 was significantly increased, whereas that of gata1 exhibited no significant changes in any treatment group. At 72 hpf, the expressions of both were down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, 6:2 FTCA exposure decreased the erythrocyte number and disrupted erythroid differentiation during zebrafish embryonic development. Our results suggest that 6:2 FTCA can cause developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos, and that FTCAs exhibit greater toxicity than that of PFCAs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol aerobic biotransformation on a sediment microbial community

Authors: Zhang, S; Merino, N; Wang, N; Ruan, T; Lu, X (2017) Science of the Total Environment 575:1361-1368. HERO ID: 3857384

[Less] Sediment microbial communities are responsible for many chemical biotransformation processes in the . . . [More] Sediment microbial communities are responsible for many chemical biotransformation processes in the aquatic environment and play a critical role in various ecosystems and biogeochemical cycling. However, the impact of polyfluoroalkyl substances on sediment microbial communities remains unclear. These substances are increasingly being used in consumer and industrial products to replace environmentally persistent perfluoroalkyl substances. In this study, we investigated the effects of low (5mg/L) and high (15mg/L) doses of 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol [6:2 FTOH, F(CF2)6CH2CH2OH] on the structure of a sediment microbial community. 6:2 FTOH biotransformation was rapid in the sediment mixture with a half-life <3days, regardless of the initial doses. After 28days, major products produced in the high dose condition included 28mol% 5:2 sFTOH [F(CF2)5CH(OH)CH3], 9.6mol% 5:3 Acid [F(CF2)5CH2CH2COOH] and 11mol% PFHxA [F(CF2)5COOH], while 73mol% 5:2 sFTOH, 23mol% 5:3 Acid and 26mol% PFHxA were observed in the low dose condition. In the original (control) sediment without 6:2 FTOH dosing, Proteobacteria was the predominant microorganism (18%), followed by Chloroflexi (14%), Verrucomicrobia (13%), Firmicutes (3.4%), Bacterioidetes (2.4%), Actinobacteria (1.7%) and Planctomycetes (1.3%). The presence of 6:2 FTOH and the accumulation of transient transformation products in the sediment exerted selection pressure on the microbial taxonomic distribution and diversity. Our observations indicate that potential 6:2 FTOH degraders and tolerant strains, such as Dokdonella spp., Thauera spp., Albidovulum spp. and Caldanaerovirga spp., existed in the sediment mixture and began to dominate over time. This suggests that these genera might have higher tolerance towards elevated 6:2 FTOH and its transformation products. These findings on the characterization of sediment microbial community stability and dynamics will help predict changes in response to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and also help identify robust microbial strains to degrade polyfluoroalkyl substances in the environment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

HPLC-MS/MS methods for the determination of 52 perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in aqueous samples

Authors: Gremmel, C; Frömel, T; Knepper, TP (2017) Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 409:1643-1655. HERO ID: 3859232

[Less] Two quantitative methods using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with triple quadrupole . . . [More] Two quantitative methods using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were developed to determine perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aqueous samples. The first HPLC-MS/MS method was applied to 47 PFASs of 12 different substance classes with acidic characteristics such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), as well as precursor substances and biotransformation intermediates (e.g., unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids). In addition, 25 (13)C-, (18)O-, and (2)H-labeled PFASs were used as internal standards in this method. The second HPLC-MS/MS method was applied to fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols as these compounds have physicochemical properties different from those of the previous ones. Accuracy between 82% and 110% and a standard deviation in the range from 2% to 22% depending on the substances were determined during the evaluation of repeatability and precision. The method quantification limit after solid-phase extraction ranged from 0.3 to 199 ng/L depending on the analyte and matrix. The HPLC-MS/MS methods developed were suitable for the determination of PFASs in aqueous samples (e.g., wastewater treatment plant effluents or influents after solid-phase extraction). These methods will be helpful in monitoring campaigns to evaluate the relevance of precursor substances as indirect sources of perfluorinated substances in the environment. In one exemplary application in an industrial wastewater treatment plant, FTOHs were found to be the major substance class in the influent; in particular, 6:2-FTOH was the predominant compound in the industrial samples and accounted for 74% of the total PFAS concentration. The increase in the concentration of the transformation products of FTOHs in the corresponding effluent, such as fluorotelomer carboxylic acids, unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids, n:3 polyfluorinated saturated carboxylic acids (n indicates the number of nonfluorinated carbon atoms), and PFCAs, indicated biotransformation of FTOHs or their derivatives during wastewater treatment. However, only 33 mol% of the total amount of PFASs present in the influent was quantified in the corresponding effluent. Graphical abstract Method development of an HPLC-MS/MS multi-method for the determination of PFASs in aqueos samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Aerobic biodegradation of 2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide-based aqueous film-forming foam components produces perfluoroalkyl carboxylates

Authors: D'Agostino, LA; Mabury, SA (2017) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36:2012-2021. HERO ID: 3859275

[Less] The biodegradation of 2 common fluorotelomer surfactants used in aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs), . . . [More] The biodegradation of 2 common fluorotelomer surfactants used in aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylamine (FTAA) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaine (FTAB), was investigated over 109 d with aerobic wastewater-treatment plant (WWTP) sludge. Results show that biodegradation of 6:2 FTAA and 6:2 FTAB produces 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH), 6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (FTCA), 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (FTUCA), 5:3 FTCA, and short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs). Additional degradation products included 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide (FTSAm), which was a major degradation product in the presence of either active or sterilized sludge, whereas 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FTSA) production was measured with sterilized sludge only. Six additional degradation products were tentatively identified by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) and attributed to N-dealkylation and oxidation of 6:2 FTAA. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-10. © 2017 SETAC.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in indoor air sampled in children's bedrooms

Authors: Winkens, K; Koponen, J; Schuster, J; Shoeib, M; Vestergren, R; Berger, U; Karvonen, AM; Pekkanen, J; Kiviranta, H; Cousins, IT (2017) Environmental Pollution 222:423-432. HERO ID: 3857420

[Less] The contamination levels and patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors in indoor . . . [More] The contamination levels and patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors in indoor air of children's bedrooms in Finland, Northern Europe, were investigated. Our study is among the most comprehensive indoor air monitoring studies (n = 57) and to our knowledge the first one to analyse air in children's bedrooms for PFASs (17 PFAAs and 9 precursors, including two acrylates, 6:2 FTAC and 6:2 FTMAC). The most frequently detected compound was 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) with the highest median concentration (3570 pg/m(3)). FTOH concentrations were generally similar to previous studies, indicating that in 2014/2015 the impact of the industrial transition had been minor on FTOH levels in indoor air. However, in contrast to earlier studies (with one exception), median concentrations of 6:2 FTOH were higher than 10:2 FTOH. The C8 PFAAs are still the most abundant acids, even though they have now been phased out by major manufacturers. The mean concentrations of FOSE/As, especially MeFOSE (89.9 pg/m(3)), were at least an order of magnitude lower compared to previous studies. Collectively the comparison of FTOHs, PFAAs and FOSE/FOSAs with previous studies indicates that indoor air levels of PFASs display a time lag to changes in production of several years. This is the first indoor air study investigating 6:2 FTMAC, which was frequently detected (58%) and displayed some of the highest maximum concentrations (13 000 pg/m(3)). There were several statistically significant correlations between particular house and room characteristics and PFAS concentrations, most interestingly higher EtFOSE air concentrations in rooms with plastic floors compared to wood or laminate.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Engineering artificial communities for enhanced FTOH degradation

Authors: Lewis, M; Kim, MH; Wang, N; Chu, KH (2016) Science of the Total Environment 572:935-942. HERO ID: 3859228

[Less] Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs, [F(CF2)nCH2CH2OH]) are concerned environmental pollutants with perfluorinated . . . [More] Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs, [F(CF2)nCH2CH2OH]) are concerned environmental pollutants with perfluorinated carbon chains. FTOHs can be biotransformed; however, the extent, the pace of the defluorination, and types of metabolites produced vary depending on degradative microorganisms under different environment. In this study, we examined ways to increase the effectiveness of the FTOH defluorination process to less persistent major metabolites. Defined mixed cultures and bioaugmented microbial cultures were engineered to study their ability to biotransform 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol [F(CF2)6CH2CH2OH]. The effects of carbon sources and the concentration of carbon sources were also examined. All experiments resulted in 5:2 sFTOH [F(CF2)5CH(OH)CH3] as the primary metabolite at the end point. The carbon sources resulted in different amounts of pathway utilization as well as overall changes in effectiveness. The best overall effectiveness was observed when cosubstrate carbon was kept at low concentrations. Pathway II was best utilized by the P. butanovora+P. fluorescens mixed culture, with lactate having a slight negative impact on pathway II utilization. Additional carbon to augmented activated sludge resulted in decreased 6:2 FTOH biotransformation by 60%. Enrichment cultures showed that shorter chain FTOHs are easier to degrade, with the n-octane enriched culture transforming 20% of 8:2 FTOH, 60% of 6:2 FTOH and 70% of 4:2 FTOH. The microbial communities of the enrichment cultures and the alkane hydroxylase gene were also examined to help understand FTOH biotransformation mechanisms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biotransformation of 6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (6:2 PAPs): Effects of degradative bacteria and co-substrates

Authors: Lewis, M; Kim, MH; Liu, EJ; Wang, N; Chu, KH (2016) Journal of Hazardous Materials 320:479-486. HERO ID: 3859276

[Less] Polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (PAPs), a group of fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH)-based surfactants commonly . . . [More] Polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (PAPs), a group of fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH)-based surfactants commonly used in water- and grease-proof food contact paper, have been suggested as a direct source of human exposure to health-concerned perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). This study investigated factors affecting biotranformation of 6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (6:2 PAPs) by three known FTOH-degrading Pseudomonas strains (Pseudomonas butanovora, P. oleovorans, and P. fluorescens DSM 8341) under different co-substrate conditions and compared to that by activated sludge samples. The three pure strains transformed 6:2 PAPs into eight different per- and poly-fluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and/or PFCA precursors. P. fluorescens DSM 8341 produced 5:2 sFTOH [CF3(CF2)4CH(OH)CH3] and P. oleovorans produced 5:2 ketone [CF3(CF2)4C(O)CH3] as the primary transformation product, respectively, with citrate having a minimal impact on the transformation. P. butanovora with lactate produced more diverse transformation products than those by any two strains. Activated sludge was more efficient at transforming 6:2 PAPs and produced more transformation products including PFHpA [CF3(CF2)5COOH] and PFPeA [CF3(CF2)3COOH], with 5:2 sFTOH as the most abundant product on day 30. The abundance of the alkane hydroxylase (alkB) gene related to alkane oxidation, the changes of total microbial population as well as their community structure in activated sludge during 6:2 PAPs biotransformation were also investigated.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil

Authors: Liu, C; Liu, J (2016) Environmental Pollution 212:230-237. HERO ID: 3856871

[Less] Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) . . . [More] Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT50 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biotransformation potential of 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTSA) in aerobic and anaerobic sediment

Authors: Zhang, S; Lu, X; Wang, N; Buck, RC (2016) Chemosphere 154:224-230. HERO ID: 3857383

[Less] Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) products are used in industrial and military firefighting around the . . . [More] Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) products are used in industrial and military firefighting around the globe. These products contain fluoroalkylthioamido sulfonates, fluoroalkylthiobetaine, and other related substances as the major ingredients, which can be biotransformed in the environment to form 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTSA, F(CF2)6CH2CH2SO3-) as one of the major initial biotransformation products. Limited information is available on 6:2 FTSA aerobic biotransformation in activated sludge and pure microbial culture. This is the first study to report 6:2 FTSA biotransformation in aerobic and anaerobic sediment. 6:2 FTSA was rapidly biotransformed in aerobic river sediment with a half-life less than 5 d. Major stable transformation products observed after 90 d included 5:3 Acid [F(CF2)5CH2CH2COOH), 16 mol%), PFPeA [F(CF2)4COOH, 21 mol%] and PFHxA (F(CF2)5COOH, 20 mol%). 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol [6:2 FTOH, F(CF2)6CH2CH2OH] was readily biotransfomed whereas 6:2 FTSA biotransformation did not occur in anaerobic sediment over 100 d, indicating that the enzymatic desulfonation step limited 6:2 FTSA biotransformation in anaerobic sediment. These results suggest that 6:2 FTSA related products, after release to the aerobic environment, is likely to biodegrade forming 5:3 Acid, PFPeA and PFHxA. This study also indicates that 6:2 FTSA formed from its aforementioned precursors may be persistent in the anaerobic environment after their potential release. This work provides insight to understanding the fate and environmental loading of AFFF-related products and their major transformation products in the environment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Multianalyte profiling of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in liquid commercial products

Authors: Favreau, P; Poncioni-Rothlisberger, C; Place, BJ; Bouchex-Bellomie, H; Weber, A; Tremp, J; Field, JA; Kohler, M (2016) Chemosphere 171:491-501. HERO ID: 3456986

[Less] The chemical properties of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) make them widespread for use . . . [More] The chemical properties of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) make them widespread for use in a number of industrial and commercial products to confer water and oil-repellency characteristics and to reduce surface tension e.g. in aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs). Some PFASs, especially perfluoroctane sulfonate, and several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, are known to cause significant human and environmental negative impact. Our knowledge on the content of PFASs in products remains scarce due to limited information available, thus impeding any precise assessment of human exposure and environmental release upon use. This study aimed at analyzing a wide variety of liquid products (n = 194) likely to contain PFASs, including impregnating agents, lubricants, cleansers, polishes, AFFFs and other industrial products. By means of LC- and GC-MS/MS analytical techniques, 24 PFASs (from 41 targeted PFASs) were detected and quantified in 55% of samples. PFAS quantification and profiling was found to be consumer product specific. PFASs were mostly detected in AFFF (90%) and impregnating agents (60%) with mainly ionic and neutral species, respectively. In particular, the fluorotelomer alcohols 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 FTOHs were detected in 40-50% of impregnating agents. Further investigation by Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry (FAB-MS) on a set of AFFF samples allowed the characterization of 8 different PFAS classes as major components in these formulations. Results demonstrated that numerous and diversified PFAS are currently used in specific commercial products, implying significant human exposure and environmental release that necessitate further research concerning their toxicological impact.