Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)


3,455 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Adverse maternal, fetal, and postnatal effects of hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (GenX) from oral gestational exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats

Authors: Conley, JM; Lambright, CS; Evans, N; Strynar, MJ; Mccord, J; Mcintyre, BS; Travlos, GS; Cardon, MC; Medlock-Kakaley, E; Hartig, PC; Wilson, VS; Gray, , Jr (2019) Environmental Health Perspectives. HERO ID: 5024654

[Less] Hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid ((HFPO-DA), GenX) is a member of the per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances . . . [More] Hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid ((HFPO-DA), GenX) is a member of the per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) chemical class and elevated levels have been detected in surface water, air, and treated drinking water in the United States and Europe.

Objectives: Characterize the potential maternal and postnatal toxicities of oral HFPODA in rats during sexual differentiation. Given that some PFAS activate peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), assess if HFPO-DA affects androgendependent development or interferes with estrogen, androgen, or glucocorticoid receptor activity.

Methods: Steroid receptor activity was assessed with a suite of in vitro transactivation assays and Sprague-Dawley rats were used to assess maternal, fetal, and postnatal effects of HFPO-DA exposure. Dams were dosed daily via oral gavage during male reproductive development (gestation day 14-18). We evaluated fetal testes, maternal and fetal livers, maternal serum clinical chemistry, and reproductive development of F1 animals.

Results: HFPO-DA displayed negligible in vitro receptor activity and did not impact testosterone production or expression of genes key to male reproductive development in the fetal testis; however, in vivo exposure during gestation produced higher maternal liver weights (≥62.5 mg/kg), lower maternal serum thyroid hormone and lipid profiles (≥30 mg/kg), and upregulated gene expression related to PPAR signaling pathways in maternal and fetal livers (≥1 mg/kg). Further, the pilot postnatal study indicated lower female body weight and lower weights of male reproductive tissues in F1 animals.

Conclusions: HFPO-DA exposure produced multiple effects similar to prior toxicity evaluations on PFAS, such as PFOS and PFOA, but at higher oral doses. The mean dam serum concentration from the lowest dose group was 4-fold greater than the maximum serum concentration detected in a worker in a HFPO-DA manufacturing facility. Research is needed examining the mechanisms and downstream events linked to the adverse effects of PFAS, and mixture-based studies evaluating multiple PFAS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Do conventional cooking methods alter concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in seafood?

Authors: Taylor, MD; Nilsson, S; Bräunig, J; Bowles, KC; Cole, V; Moltschaniwskyj, NA; Mueller, JF (2019) HERO ID: 5079808

[Less] Per-and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are bioaccumulative chemicals of emerging concern. Some . . . [More] Per-and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are bioaccumulative chemicals of emerging concern. Some PFASs accumulate in seafood, and can contribute to dietary exposure. Previous work has suggested cooking seafood decreases concentrations of neutral organic contaminants, however, previous studies dealing with PFASs have shown conflicting results. In this study, the potential changes of PFAS concentrations as a result of boiling, frying and baking are systematically examined. Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus armatus), Dusky Flathead (Platycephalus fuscus) and School Prawn (Metapenaeus macleayi) were obtained from near a known PFAS point source and a reference location (affected by diffuse sources). Raw and cooked samples were analysed for commonly found PFASs. Of 23 target analytes, PFOS was the most frequently detected compound. PFOS, PFHxS and PFOA concentrations in School Prawn effectively doubled after boiling, and PFOS increased when Dusky Flathead was baked. There was no significant difference in PFOS concentration when Dusky Flathead was fried, or when the Blue Swimmer Crab was boiled. PFHxS and PFOA concentrations in Blue Swimmer Crab effectively halved after boiling. Increase in PFAS concentrations possibly arise from mass loss during the cooking process. Our data show that cooking does not consistently reduce PFAS concentrations, and cannot mitigate dietary exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl substances are inversely associated with coronary heart disease in adults with diabetes

Authors: Honda-Kohmo, K; Hutcheson, R; Innes, KE; Conway, BN (2019) HERO ID: 5080551

[Less] AIMS: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are environmentally and biologically persistent . . . [More] AIMS: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are environmentally and biologically persistent synthetic environmental contaminants linked to adverse health outcomes. Though null to modest inverse relationships between PFAS and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been reported, studies regarding relationships in high risk populations such as those with diabetes are sparse. We investigated the relationship of PFAS with CHD in persons with diabetes.

METHODS: Data on 5270 adults, aged ≥20 years, with diabetes were obtained from the C8 Health Project. Four PFAS were investigated separately: perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA).

RESULTS: In logistic regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, diabetes duration, BMI, smoking, lipids, WBC, CRP, eGFR, uric acid, hemoglobin and iron, all PFAS were inversely associated with CHD, ORs (95% CIs): PFHxS; 0.72 (0.65-0.79), PFOA; 0.90 (0.81-0.96), PFOS; 0.90 (0.81-0.99), PFNA; 0.88 (0.76-1.02). Stratification by chronic kidney disease status revealed similar inverse relationships for those with and without chronic kidney disease.

CONCLUSIONS: In this cross-sectional study of over 5000 adults with diabetes, PFAS showed inverse associations with CHD. These findings may, if confirmed in future studies, provide new physiologic understanding of CHD prevention strategies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Enhanced Perfluorooctanoic Acid Degradation by Electrochemical Activation of Sulfate Solution on B/N Codoped Diamond

Authors: Liu, Y; Fan, X; Quan, X; Fan, Y; Chen, S; Zhao, X (2019) HERO ID: 5080552

[Less] Electrochemical oxidation based on SO4•- and •OH generated from sulfate electrolyte is a cost-effective . . . [More] Electrochemical oxidation based on SO4•- and •OH generated from sulfate electrolyte is a cost-effective method for degradation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, sulfate activation remains a great challenge due to lack of active and robust electrodes. Herein, a B/N codoped diamond (BND) electrode is designed for electrochemical degradation of POPs via sulfate activation. It is efficient and stable for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) oxidation with first-order kinetic constants of 2.4 h-1 and total organic carbon removal efficiency of 77.4% (3 h) at relatively low current density of 4 mA cm-2. The good activity of BND mainly originates from a B and N codoping effect. The PFOA oxidation rate at sulfate electrolyte is significantly enhanced (2.3-3.4 times) compared with those at nitrate and perchlorate electrolytes. At sulfate, PFOA oxidation rate decreases slightly in the presence of •OH quencher while it declines significantly with SO4•- and •OH quenchers, indicate both SO4•- and •OH contribute to PFOA oxidation but SO4•- contribution is more significant. On the basis of intermediates analysis, a proposed mechanism for PFOA degradation is that PFOA is oxidized to shorter chain perfluorocarboxylic acids gradually by SO4•- and •OH until it is mineralized.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

PFOA and PFOS levels in microwave paper packaging between 2005 and 2018

Authors: Monge Brenes, AL; Curtzwiler, G; Dixon, P; Harrata, K; Talbert, J; Vorst, K (2019) HERO ID: 5080553

[Less] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances are synthetic environmental pollutants previously used for packaging . . . [More] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances are synthetic environmental pollutants previously used for packaging applications as a grease, oil, and water-resistant coating. Exposure reported in previous studies highlighting potential concerns with public health. This study evaluated performance of coated paper packaging used for microwave popcorn, snacks, and sandwich bags for presence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Current paper packaging materials: seven popcorn bags and three snack and sandwich bags were analysed for PFOA and PFOS and compared to concentrations in microwave popcorn bags between 2005 and 2018. Only two microwave popcorn bags had average PFOA content above the limit of quantitation of 5.11 ng g-1 paper. All other sample types had PFOA and PFOS values below the limit of detection (LOD) of 1.53 and 0.63 ng g-1 paper, respectively. Results of this study follow trends from 2005 to 2018 suggesting a reduction in PFOS and PFOA concentrations in microwave packaging.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of pops contaminated sites and the need for stringent soil standards for food safety for the protection of human health

Authors: Weber, R; Bell, L; Watson, A; Petrlik, J; Paun, MC; Vijgen, J (2019) HERO ID: 5080555

[Less] Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including PCDD/Fs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are . . . [More] Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including PCDD/Fs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are among the most important and hazardous pollutants of soil. Food producing animals such as chicken, beef, sheep and goats can take up soil while grazing or living outdoors (free-range) and this can result in contamination. In recent decades, large quantities of brominated flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and per- and polyfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been produced and released into the environment and this has resulted in widespread contamination of soils and other environmental matrices. These POPs also bioaccumulate and can contaminate food of animal origin resulting in indirect exposure of humans. Recent assessments of chicken and beef have shown that surprisingly low concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in soil can result in exceedances of regulatory limits in food. Soil contamination limits have been established in a number of countries for PCDD/Fs but it has been shown that the contamination levels which result in regulatory limits in food (the maximum levels in the European Union) being exceeded, are below all the existing soil regulatory limits. 'Safe' soil levels are exceeded in many areas around emission sources of PCDD/Fs and PCBs. On the other hand, PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB levels in soil in rural areas, without a contamination source, are normally safe for food producing animals housed outdoors resulting in healthy food (e.g. meat, eggs, milk). For the majority of POPs (e.g. PBDEs, PFOS, PFOA, SCCP) no regulatory limits in soils exist. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop appropriate and protective soil standards minimising human exposure from food producing animals housed outdoors. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to eliminate POPs pollution sources for soils and to control, secure and remediate contaminated sites and reservoirs, in order to reduce exposure and guarantee food safety.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Field-scale evaluation of the uptake of Perfluoroalkyl substances from soil by rice in paddy fields in South Korea

Authors: Kim, H; Ekpe, OD; Lee, JH; Kim, DH; Oh, JE (2019) HERO ID: 5080559

[Less] The concentrations of 17 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in paddy soil, void water, . . . [More] The concentrations of 17 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in paddy soil, void water, and brown rice collected from 30 paddy fields to examine the uptake of PFASs from soil by rice. The total concentrations of PFASs ranged from 7.76 to 3020 ng/L (average = 166 ng/L) in void water, 0.120 to 13.9 ng/g dry-weight (dw) (1.92 ng/g dw) in paddy soils, and from not-detected to 1.85 ng/g (0.403 ng/g) in brown rice samples. The highest PFAS concentrations were observed in brown rice cultivated in a paddy field where high levels of PFASs were observed in void water and paddy soil. Among target PFAS compounds, perfluorocarboxylic acids were dominant and detected in all matrices, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the most predominant compound in brown rice and void water. Significant positive correlations were examined for some detected PFASs between each matrix. PFOA in brown rice was positively correlated with PFOA in void water as well as perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in paddy soil (p < 0.01). PFOA in void water also had correlated with PFDA in paddy soil. However, there was no correlation of other compounds between each matrix, except for correlations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and PFDA in paddy soil with those in void water, respectively (p < 0.05). Moreover, PFOA concentration in brown rice (0.093 ng/g) was much higher than one in white rice detected with a non-detectable level.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of non-radiolabeled Thyroxine (T4) uptake in cryopreserved rat hepatocyte suspensions: Pharmacokinetic implications for PFOA and PFOS chemical exposure

Authors: Selano, J; Richardson, V; Washington, J; Mazur, C (2019) HERO ID: 5080564

[Less] The alteration of thyroxine (T4) cellular uptake by an environmental chemical can serve as a contributing . . . [More] The alteration of thyroxine (T4) cellular uptake by an environmental chemical can serve as a contributing factor in thyroid hormone (TH) disruption. Herein, we describe a non-radiolabeled (LC-MS/MS) oil-filtration technique designed to characterize the mechanism(s) responsible for T4 cellular uptake in cryopreserved rat hepatocyte suspensions. The environmental chemicals perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were evaluated for their effect on T4 hepatic uptake. At 37 °C, hepatic assays demonstrated saturable kinetics with increasing T4 concentrations, while a linear uptake rate consistent with passive diffusion was detected at 4 °C. Carrier-mediated (37-4 °C) transport of T4 was the predominant hepatic uptake process versus passive diffusion. Cyclosporin A (CsA) chemically inhibited T4 hepatic uptake, whereas PFOA/PFOS displayed no inhibition of T4 translocation. Increasing PFOA/PFOS concentration levels with the T4 serum carrier-protein transthyretin (TTR) present resulted in a dose-response increase in T4 hepatic uptake rates, correlating with increased T4 free fraction values. Hepatic assays conducted in the presence of PFOA/PFOS and TTR displayed an enhanced first-order T4 hepatic uptake rate consistent with carrier-mediated transport. These in vitro findings characterizing increased T4 hepatic uptake provides mechanistic insight regarding decreased T4 serum levels (hypothyroxinemia) previously observed within in vivo rodent studies following perfluorinated chemical exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of soil organic carbon (SOC) content and accessibility in subsoils on the sorption processes of the model pollutants nonylphenol (4-n-NP) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)

Authors: Martz, M; Heil, J; Marschner, B; Stumpe, B (2019) HERO ID: 5080566

[Less] Subsoils control the release of hydrophobic pollutants to groundwater systems, but the role of subsoil . . . [More] Subsoils control the release of hydrophobic pollutants to groundwater systems, but the role of subsoil soil organic carbon (SOC) in sorption processes of hydrophobic organic pollutants remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to understand the role of subsoil SOC in sorption processes of 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as model pollutants. To characterize the sorption behavior of NP and PFOA, 42 sub- and 54 topsoil samples were used for batch experiments. Differences in NP and PFOA sorption between sub- and topsoil samples and its mechanisms were identified using multiple regression analysis. Generally, the sorption of NP and PFOA was linear in all samples. The sorption of NP to soil samples (logKD = 1.78-3.68) was significantly higher and less variable than that of PFOA (logKD = -0.97-1.44). In topsoils, SOC content had the highest influence on NP and PFOA sorption. For NP, hydrophobic interactions between NP and SOC were identified as the most important sorption mechanism. For PFOA, hydrophobic as well as electrostatic interactions were determined depending on soil pH. In subsoils, the relevance of SOC content for pollutant sorption decreased drastically. For NP, not SOC content but rather SOC quality was relevant in SOC poor subsoils. For PFOA, clay and iron oxide content were found to be relevant for pollutant interactions with the solid phase. Thus, especially in SOC depleted subsoils, the sorption potential for PFOA remained unpredictable.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of perfluorodecanoic acid on pig oocyte viability, intracellular calcium levels and gap junction intercellular communication during oocyte maturation in vitro

Authors: Domínguez, A; Salazar, Z; Betancourt, M; Ducolomb, Y; Casas, E; Fernández, F; Bahena, I; Salomón, A; Teteltitla, M; Martínez, R; Chaparro, A; Cuapio, P; Salazar-López, C; Bonilla, E (2019) HERO ID: 5080569

[Less] Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) is a synthetic perfluorinated compound, which has been reported to exert . . . [More] Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) is a synthetic perfluorinated compound, which has been reported to exert adverse effects on somatic cells. However, its effects on germ cells have not been studied to date. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of PFDA on the viability, intracellular calcium levels and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) during porcine oocyte maturation in vitro. PFDA negatively impacted oocyte viability (medium lethal concentration, LC50 = 7.8 μM) and maturation (medium inhibition of maturation, IM50 = 3.8 μM). Oocytes exposed to 3.8 μM PFDA showed higher levels of intracellular calcium relative to control oocytes. In addition, GJIC among the cumulus cells and the oocyte was disrupted. The effects of PFDA on oocyte calcium homeostasis and intercellular communication seem to be responsible for the inhibition of oocyte maturation and oocyte death. In addition, since the deleterious effects of PFDA on oocyte viability, maturation and GJIC are significantly stronger than the previously reported effects of another widely used perfluorinated compound (Perfluorooctane sulfonate) in the same model, the use of PFDA in consumer products is questioned.