Phytotoxicity induced by perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate via metabolomics
Authors: Li, P; Oyang, X; Xie, X; Li, Z; Yang, H; Xi, J; Guo, Y; Tian, X; Liu, B; Li, J; Xiao, Z
Journal of Hazardous Materials 389:121852.
HERO ID: 6315700
Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are becoming common pollutants in natural environment, while . . .
Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are becoming common pollutants in natural environment, while the toxic effects and defense mechanisms in agricultural plants are poorly understood. Here, lettuce exposed to either perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at two different concentrations (500, 5000 ng/L) in hydroponic media was investigated via metabolomics. Under the tested conditions, the growth and biomass of lettuce were not affected by PFOA and PFOS, but metabolic profiles in leaves were altered. The composition and metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acids and some antioxidants were regulated, compromising the nutritional quality of the plants. Key pathways in energy metabolism were disturbed by both PFOA and PFOS, including tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism. Amino acid metabolism, e.g., phenylalanine and tyrosine, was disturbed by PFOA. The metabolism of linoleic acid was disturbed by PFOS. The changes of antioxidants and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine indicated the occurrence of oxidative stress and DNA damage under PFOA or PFOS exposure. The main defense processes against PFASs exposure in lettuce included alteration in plasma membrane, activation of antioxidant systems, increase of tolerance and repair of DNA injury. These findings help elucidate the response of plants to PFASs in a molecular-scale perspective.