Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)


20 References Were Found:

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Perfluorooctanoic acid

Author: IARC (2016) HERO ID: 3982387


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of four human cell lines with distinct biotransformation properties for genotoxic screening

Authors: Khoury, L; Zalko, D; Audebert, M (2016) Mutagenesis 31:83-96. HERO ID: 3982388

[Less] In a previous study, we validated an in vitro genotoxicity assay based on γH2AX quantification using . . . [More] In a previous study, we validated an in vitro genotoxicity assay based on γH2AX quantification using the In-Cell Western (ICW) method in HepG2 cells. The assay demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity but failed to detect genotoxicity for few compounds that require specific metabolic bioactivation not sufficiently covered by HepG2 cells. The aim of the present study was to assess γH2AX ICW sensitivity using a broader range of genotoxic molecules with HepG2 cells and three additional human cell lines with distinct biotransformation properties: two cell lines expressing some phase I and II bioactivation capabilities (LS-174T and Hep3B), and one with poor general bioactivation properties (ACHN). We evaluated the four cell lines by testing 24 compounds recommended by European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods and a set of 24 additional chemicals with different mode of genotoxic action (MOA) (aneugenicity, DNA adducts formation, induction of oxidative stress), including some known to require specific cytochrome P450 metabolic bioactivation. Results for the 48 compounds tested showed that the γH2AX ICW assay was more sensitive with LS-174T and HepG2 cells than with Hep3B or ACHN cell lines. Among the 38 compounds tested with positive or equivocal carcinogenicity data, 36 (95%) showed a positive genotoxic response with the γH2AX ICW assay compared to only 27 (71%) using the Ames assay. We confirm that the γH2AX ICW assay on HepG2 cells, without an exogenous metabolic activation system, may be a suitable test to predict the in vivo genotoxicity of chemicals with different genotoxic MOA. Moreover, the use of the ACHN cell line in combination with LS-174T and HepG2 cells may permit in many cases to discriminate direct from bioactivated genotoxins. Overall, our results confirm the high sensitivity of the γH2AX ICW assay which, in turn, should reduce the number of animals used for genotoxicity assessment.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Systematic review of immunotoxicity associated with exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (pfoa) or perfluorooctane sulfonate (pfos)

Author: NTP (2016) National Toxicology Program. HERO ID: 3861540


Data/Software
Data/ Software

Perfluoroctanesulfonic acid (CASRN: 1763-23-1)

Author: HSDB (2016) Bethesda, MD: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET). [Database] HERO ID: 3982555

[Less] IDENTIFICATION: Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, also called PFOS, is a liquid. It is sparingly soluble . . . [More] IDENTIFICATION: Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, also called PFOS, is a liquid. It is sparingly soluble in water.

USE: PFOS was an important commercial chemical that was used as a fabric protector (3M Scotchguard). PFOS was also used in fire-fighting foams. Its manufacture was stopped in 2002.

EXPOSURE: PFOS is widely distributed around the globe. It is found in soil, air and water. Workers who used or produced PFOS may have breathed in mists or have had direct skin contact. The general population may be exposed by dermal contact with fabrics treated with PFOS. Because PFOS is now found everywhere in the environment, people are exposed through food, in particular fish, and house dust. For people living near industries that made PFOS, exposure was from water, soil and air. PFOS has been found in very small amounts in the blood of people and animals worldwide. PFOS is extremely persistent. If PFOS is released to the environment it will not be broken down in air. It can travel long distances in the air on particles that eventually fall to the ground. It is not expected to be broken down by sunlight. PFOS may get into the air during windy days. It will not move into air from moist soil and water surfaces. It is not expected to move through soil. It may be carried through soil by groundwater and flooding. It will not be broken down by microorganisms, and is expected to build up in fish.

RISK: In general, data regarding the potential toxicity of PFOS are inconsistent. Additionally, it is currently under debate whether or not effects observed in animals are relevant to humans based on species differences in how the body reacts to exposure, particularly cancer effects. Therefore, health risks associated with exposure to PFOS are unclear. Increased cholesterol levels, increased risk of high blood pressure, thyroid disease, and liver damage have been associated with increased blood levels of PFOS in exposed humans in some studies. In laboratory animals, skin and eye irritation, weight loss, altered cholesterol levels, liver damage, and immune system impairment are the primary effects associated with exposure to PFOS. Data regarding the potential for PFOS to cause infertility, abortion, or birth defects in humans are not available. Birth defects, delayed development, and early deaths have been observed in laboratory animals exposed to PFOS during pregnancy. There is limited evidence that high occupational exposure to PFOS may increase the risk of bladder cancer; however, data for this endpoint are inconsistent. No other forms of cancer have been associated with PFOS exposure in humans. Liver tumors developed in laboratory animals exposed to PFOS over their lifetime. The potential for PFOS to cause cancer in humans has not been assessed by the U.S. EPA IRIS program, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, or the U.S. National Toxicology Program 13th Report on Carcinogens. (SRC)

Technical Report
Technical Report

Drinking water health advisory for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA 822-R-16-004). Washington, DC: U.S. EPA, Office of Water. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3982043


Technical Report
Technical Report

Drinking water health advisory for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA 822-R-16-005). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water. HERO ID: 3982042

[Less] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the nonregulatory Health Advisory (HA) Program . . . [More] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the nonregulatory Health Advisory (HA) Program in 1978 to provide information for public health officials or other interested groups on pollutants associated with short-term contamination incidents or spills that can affect drinking water quality, but are not regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). At present, EPA lists HAs for more than 200 contaminants.

HAs identify the concentration of a contaminant in drinking water at which adverse health effects are not anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations (e.g., 1 day, 10 days, a lifetime). HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist federal, state, and local officials, and managers of public or community water systems in protecting public health when emergency spills or other contamination situations occur. An HA document provides information on the environmental properties, health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technologies for removing drinking water contaminants.

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a manmade chemical in a large family of chemicals called perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) (Buck et al. 2011). PFOA has been used in a variety of consumer products and in the production of fluoropolymers, and is generated as a degradation product of other perfluorinated compounds. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and the human body; it has been detected in water, wildlife, and humans worldwide. This document, EPA’s 2016 Drinking Water Health Advisory for Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA), presents a guideline concentration for PFOA in drinking water at which adverse health effects are not anticipated to occur over a human lifetime. This lifetime HA is based on the latest health effects information for noncancer and cancer effects for PFOA as described in EPA’s Health Effects Support Document for Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) (USEPA 2016a). The HA value is not a legally enforceable federal standard and is subject to change as new information becomes available. The structure, principles, and approach of this document are consistent with EPA’s Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making (USEPA 2014a).

Technical Report
Technical Report

Health effects support document for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA 822-R-16-002). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Health and Ecological Criteria Division. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3603365


Technical Report
Technical Report

Health effects support document for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA 822-R-16-003). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Health and Ecological Criteria Division. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3603279


Technical Report
Technical Report

Human health tier II assessment for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its direct precursors

Author: NICNAS (2015) Sydney, NW, Australia: Australian Government Department of Health. HERO ID: 3982040

[Less] This assessment was carried out under the National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment . . . [More] This assessment was carried out under the National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS). This scheme has been established by the Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act 1989 (the Act), to aid in the protection of the Australian people and the environment by assessing the risks of industrial chemicals, providing information and making recommendations to promote their safe use.

As part of the reforms regarding Existing Chemicals, NICNAS has implemented a new framework to address the human health and environmental impacts of previously unassessed industrial chemicals listed on the Australian Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS).

The Inventory Multi-tiered Assessment and Prioritisation (IMAP) framework was developed, with significant input from stakeholders. The framework provides a more rapid, flexible and transparent approach for the assessment of existing chemicals.

Stage One of this program, which will take four years, started 1 July 2012 and is examining 3000 chemicals meeting characteristics identified by stakeholders as needing priority assessment. This includes chemicals for which NICNAS already holds exposure information, chemicals identified as a concern or for which regulatory action has been taken overseas, and chemicals detected in international studies analysing chemicals present in babies’ umbilical cord blood.

The IMAP framework is a science and risk-based model designed to align the assessment effort with the human health and environmental impacts of chemicals. It has three tiers of assessment, with the assessment effort increasing with each tier. The Tier I assessment is a high throughput approach using tabulated electronic data. The Tier II assessment is an evaluation of risk on a substance-by-substance or chemical category-by-category basis. Tier III assessments are conducted to address specific concerns that could not be resolved during the Tier II assessment.

NICNAS assessments are carried out by staff employed by the Australian Government Department of Health and the Australian Government Department of the Environment. The human health and environment risk assessments are being conducted and published separately, using information available at the time, and may be undertaken at different tiers.

This chemical/group of chemicals is/are being assessed at Tier II because the Tier I assessment indicated that it needed further investigation.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Draft toxicological profile for perfluoroalkyls

Author: ATSDR (2015) HERO ID: 3859918