Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)


30 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Plasma perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances concentration and menstrual cycle characteristics in preconception women: Supplemental materials

Authors: Zhou, W; Zhang, L; Tong, C; Fang, F; Zhao, S; Tian, Y; Tao, Y; Zhang, J (2017) Environmental Health Perspectives 125. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3860309

Abstract: Supplementary materials

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in cord serum and birth outcomes in China: Guangzhou Birth Cohort Study

Authors: Li, M; Zeng, XW; Qian, ZM; Vaughn, MG; Sauvé, S; Paul, G; Lin, S; Lu, L; Hu, LW; Yang, BY; Zhou, Y; Qin, XD; Xu, SL; Bao, WW; Zhang, YZ; Yuan, P; Wang, J; Zhang, C; Tian, YP; Nian, M; Xiao, X; Fu, C; Dong, GH (2017) Environment International 102:1-8. HERO ID: 3981358

[Less] Prior investigations on the associations of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with fetal growth are . . . [More] Prior investigations on the associations of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with fetal growth are mixed. Moreover, little research has accrued pertaining to the association between isomers of PFASs with gestational age and birth weight. To address this gap and present novel information, we conducted a study including 321 pairs of mothers and their infants recruited from Guangzhou, China. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to analyze isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) along with other PFAS levels in cord serum samples. Mothers' and infants' characteristics were gathered from medical records. The resulting data revealed that higher PFOS, PFOA and isomers of PFOS were associated with lower birth weight. Per ln-unit (ng/mL) increase in cord serum total branched PFOS isomers was associated with a 126.3g (95% CI: -195.9, -56.8) reduction in the weight of infants at birth, while an ln-unit (ng/mL) increase of serum linear PFOS isomers (n-PFOS) was associated with a 57.2g (95% CI: -103.1, -11.3) reduction in the weight of infants at birth upon the subsequent adjustment for potential confounding variables. Notably, the association between cord PFAS level and birth weight was more pronounced in male infants. Furthermore, a positive association among branched PFOS isomers (1m-PFOS and 3+4+5m-PFOS) and gestational age was found. No associations could be found among other PFASs in conjunction with gestational age or birth weight. In conclusion, this investigation suggests that higher PFAS concentrations are associated with lower birth weight, and branched PFOS isomers show greater impact on infant birth weight than linear PFOS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantitative bias analysis for epidemiological associations of perfluoroalkyl substance serum concentrations and early onset of menopause

Authors: Ruark, CD; Song, G; Yoon, M; Verner, MA; Andersen, ME; Clewell, HJ; Longnecker, MP (2017) Environment International 99:245-254. HERO ID: 3981395

[Less] An association between increased serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluorooctane . . . [More] An association between increased serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and early menopause has been reported (Knox et al., 2011; Taylor et al., 2014). This association may be explained by the fact that women who underwent menopause no longer excrete PFAS through menstruation. Our objective was to assess how much of the epidemiologic association between PFAS and altered timing of menopause might be explained by reverse causality. We extended a published population life-stage physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of PFOS and PFOA characterized by realistic distributions of physiological parameters including age at menopause. We then conducted Monte Carlo simulations to replicate the Taylor population (Taylor et al., 2014) and the Knox population (Knox et al., 2011). The analysis of the simulated data overall showed a pattern of results that was comparable to those reported in epidemiological studies. For example, in the simulated Knox population (ages 42-51) the odds ratio (OR) for menopause in the fifth quintile of PFOA compared to those in the first quintile was 1.33 (95% CI 1.26-1.40), whereas the reported OR was 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.8). Using our model structure, a substantial portion of the associations reported can be explained by pharmacokinetics.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A study of reverse causation: Examining the associations of perfluorooctanoic acid serum levels with two outcomes

Authors: Dhingra, R; Winquist, A; Darrow, LA; Klein, M; Steenland, K (2017) Environmental Health Perspectives 125:416-421. HERO ID: 3981432

[Less] BACKGROUND: Impaired kidney function and earlier menopause were associated with perfluorooctanoic . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Impaired kidney function and earlier menopause were associated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum levels in previous cross-sectional studies. Reverse causation, whereby health outcomes increase serum PFOA, may underlie these associations.

OBJECTIVE: We compared measured (subject to reverse causation) versus modeled (unaffected by reverse causation) serum PFOA in association with these outcomes to examine the possible role of reverse causation in these associations.

METHODS: In cross-sectional analyses, we analyzed PFOA in relation to self-reported menopause among women (n = 9,192) 30-65 years old and in relation to kidney function among adults > 20 years old (n = 29,499) in a highly exposed Mid-Ohio Valley cohort. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, a marker of kidney function) and serum PFOA concentration were measured in blood samples collected during 2005-2006. Retrospective year-specific serum PFOA estimates were modeled independently of measured PFOA based on residential history and plant emissions. Using measured and modeled PFOA in 2005 or 2006 (predictor variables), cross-sectional associations were assessed for eGFR and menopause (yes/no). We also analyzed measured PFOA (dependent variable) in relation to the number of years since menopause.

RESULTS: Menopause and eGFR were significantly associated with measured (trend tests: p = 0.013, p = 0.0005, respectively) but not with modeled serum PFOA (p = 0.50, p = 0.76, respectively). Measured PFOA levels increased for the first 7 years after menopause (trend test, p < 0.0001), providing further evidence that the observed association between measured PFOA and menopause is subject to reverse causation for this outcome.

CONCLUSION: Our results support the conjecture that in previous studies, earlier menopause and reduced kidney function are the causes rather than the results of increased measured serum PFOA. These results suggest caution in using biomarkers in cross-sectional studies. Citation: Dhingra R, Winquist A, Darrow LA, Klein M, Steenland K. 2017. A study of reverse causation: examining the associations of perfluorooctanoic acid serum levels with two outcomes. Environ Health Perspect 125:416-421; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP273.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Plasma perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances concentration and menstrual cycle characteristics in preconception women

Authors: Zhou, W; Zhang, L; Tong, C; Fang, F; Zhao, S; Tian, Y; Tao, Y; Zhang, J; Shanghai Birth Cohort Study (2017) Environmental Health Perspectives 125:067012. HERO ID: 3859799

[Less] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent synthetic . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent synthetic chemicals that are widely used in industrial applications and often detectable in humans. In rats, PFASs can interfere with the estrous cycle. In humans, menstruation has been viewed as a proxy of female fecundity, and periodic menstruation plays a critical role in endometrial sloughing in the absence of pregnancy and in preparing for embryo implantation.

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between PFAS exposure and menstrual cycle characteristics in women who plan to become pregnant.

METHODS: Plasma level of 10 PFASs was measured in 950 women who were attempting to become pregnant and recruited in two preconception care clinics in Shanghai, China, from August 2013 to April 2015. Information on menstrual cycle characteristics was collected by questionnaires. Associations between PFAS levels and menstrual cycle regularity, length, and bleeding volume were examined using multiple logistic regression models.

RESULTS: Pre-pregnant women with higher levels of log-transformed perfluorooctanate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) had increased odds of self-reported history of irregular menstrual cycle [ (95% CI: 1.08, 2.15); (95% CI: 0.98, 1.70); (95% CI: 1.03, 2.07); (95% CI: 1.17, 2.77)] and long menstrual cycle [ (95% CI: 1.06, 2.10); (95% CI: 1.02, 1.75); (95% CI: 1.05, 2.11); (95% CI: 1.13, 2.65)]. Log-transformed PFOA, PFOS, PFNA. and PFHxS levels were negatively associated with self-reported history of menorrhagia [ (95% CI: 0.21, 0.65); (95% CI: 0.37, 0.90); (95% CI: 0.26, 0.86); (95% CI: 0.06, 0.36)].

CONCLUSIONS: Certain PFASs are associated with abnormal menstruation in humans. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1203.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of perfluorinated chemicals on thyroid function, markers of ovarian reserve, and natural fertility

Authors: Crawford, NM; Fenton, SE; Strynar, M; Hines, EP; Pritchard, DA; Steiner, AZ (2017) Reproductive Toxicology 69:53-59. HERO ID: 3859813

[Less] Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) can act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, but there has been limited . . . [More] Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) can act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, but there has been limited study of their effects on ovarian reserve or fecundability. 99 women, 30-44 years old, without infertility were followed until pregnancy. Initially, serum was evaluated for Antimullerian hormone (AMH), thyroid hormones: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (fT4), and triiodothyronine (T3), and PFCs: perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS). Bivariate analyses assessed the relationship between thyroid hormones, AMH, and PFCs. Fecundability ratios (FR) were determined for each PFC using a discrete time-varying Cox model and a day-specific probability model. PFC levels were positively correlated with each other (r 0.24-0.90), but there was no correlation with TSH (r 0.02-0.15) or AMH (r -0.01 to -0.15). FR point estimates for each PFC were neither strong nor statistically significant. Although increased exposure to PFCs correlates with thyroid hormone levels, there is no significant association with fecundability or ovarian reserve.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantitative bias analysis of a reported association between perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and endometriosis: The influence of oral contraceptive use

Authors: Ngueta, G; Longnecker, MP; Yoon, M; Ruark, CD; Clewell, HJ; Andersen, ME; Verner, MA (2017) Environment International 104:118-121. HERO ID: 3860773

[Less] An association between serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and endometriosis has recently . . . [More] An association between serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and endometriosis has recently been reported in an epidemiologic study. Oral contraceptive use to treat dysmenorrhea (pelvic pain associated with endometriosis) could potentially influence this association by reducing menstrual fluid loss, a route of excretion for PFAS. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of differential oral contraceptive use on the association between PFAS and endometriosis. We used a published life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to simulate plasma levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from birth to age at study participation (range 18-44years). In the simulated population, PFAS level distributions matched those for controls in the epidemiologic study. Prevalence and geometric mean duration (standard deviation [SD]) of oral contraceptive use in the simulated women were based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; among the women with endometriosis the values were, respectively, 29% and 6.8 (3.1) years; among those without endometriosis these values were 18% and 5.3 (2.8) years. In simulations, menstrual fluid loss (ml/cycle) in women taking oral contraceptives was assumed to be 56% of loss in non-users. We evaluated the association between simulated plasma PFAS concentration and endometriosis in the simulated population using logistic regression. Based on the simulations, the association between PFAS levels and endometriosis attributable to differential contraceptive use had an odds ratio (95% CI) of 1.05 (1.02, 1.07) for a loge unit increase in PFOA and 1.03 (1.02, 1.05) for PFOS. In comparison, the epidemiologic study reported odds ratios of 1.62 (0.99, 2.66) for PFOA and 1.25 (0.87, 1.80) for PFOS. Our results suggest that the influence of oral contraceptive use on the association between PFAS levels and endometriosis is relatively small.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl substances and endometriosis-related infertility in Chinese women

Authors: Wang, B; Zhang, R; Jin, F; Lou, H; Mao, Y; Zhu, W; Zhou, W; Zhang, P; Zhang, J (2017) Environment International 102:207-212. HERO ID: 3856459

[Less] Endometriosis is one of the main causes for female infertility. Previous studies suggested that perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] Endometriosis is one of the main causes for female infertility. Previous studies suggested that perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a group of ubiquitous environmental chemicals with properties of endocrine disruption and reproductive toxicity, were risk factors for endometriosis but there lacks direct evidence on the possible role of PFASs in endometriosis-related infertility. To fill this gap, we examined the association between PFASs and endometriosis-related infertility among Chinese reproductive-age women in a case-control study, which comprised 157 surgically confirmed endometriosis cases and 178 controls seeking infertility treatment because of male reproductive dysfunction in 2014 and 2015. Blood specimens were collected at the enrollment and analyzed for ten PFASs. Logistic regression was utilized to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for individual PFAS compound. Plasma concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) were associated with an increased risk of endometriosis-related infertility (second vs. lowest tertile: OR=3.74, 95% CI: 2.04, 6.84; highest vs. lowest tertile: OR=3.04, 95% CI: 1.65, 5.57). This association remained consistent when we restricted to subjects with no previous pregnancy (second vs. lowest tertile: OR=2.91, 95% CI: 1.28, 6.61; highest vs. lowest tertile: OR=3.41, 95% CI: 1.52, 7.65) or to subjects without other gynecologic pathology (second vs. lowest tertile: OR=4.65, 95% CI: 2.21, 9.82; highest vs. lowest tertile: OR=3.36, 95% CI: 1.58, 7.15). Plasma concentrations of perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were inversely associated with endometriosis-related infertility, but the associations were attenuated in the sensitivity analyses. Our preliminary evidence suggests that exposure to PFBS may increase the risk of female infertility due to endometriosis. Future prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals, Menstrual Cycle Length, and Fecundity: Findings from a Prospective Pregnancy Study

Authors: Lum, KJ; Sundaram, R; Barr, DB; Louis, TA; Buck Louis, GM (2017) Epidemiology 28:90-98. HERO ID: 3858516

[Less] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances have been associated with changes in menstrual . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances have been associated with changes in menstrual cycle characteristics and fecundity, when modeled separately. However, these outcomes are biologically related, and we evaluate their joint association with exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances.

METHODS: We recruited 501 couples from Michigan and Texas in 2005-2009 upon their discontinuing contraception and followed them until pregnancy or 12 months of trying. Female partners provided a serum sample on enrollment and completed daily journals on menstruation, intercourse, and pregnancy test results. We measured seven perfluoroalkyl substances in serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We assessed the association between perfluoroalkyl substances and menstrual cycle length using accelerated failure time models and between perfluoroalkyl substances and fecundity using a Bayesian joint modeling approach to incorporate cycle length.

RESULTS: Menstrual cycles were 3% longer comparing women in the second versus first tertile of perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA; acceleration factor [AF] = 1.03, 95% credible interval [CrI] = [1.00, 1.05]), but 2% shorter for women in the highest versus lowest tertile of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; AF = 0.98, 95% CrI = [0.96, 1.00]). When accounting for cycle length, relevant covariates, and remaining perfluoroalkyl substances, the probability of pregnancy was lower for women in second versus first tertile of perfluorononanoate (PFNA; odds ratio [OR] = 0.6, 95% CrI = [0.4, 1.0]) although not when comparing the highest versus lowest (OR = 0.7, 95% CrI = [0.3, 1.1]) tertile.

CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective cohort study, we observed associations between two perfluoroalkyl substances and menstrual cycle length changes, and between select perfluoroalkyl substances and diminished fecundity at some (but not all) concentrations. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B136.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorooctanoic acid exposure and natural menopause: A longitudinal study in a community cohort

Authors: Dhingra, R; Darrow, LA; Klein, M; Winquist, A; Steenland, K (2016) Environmental Research 146:323-330. HERO ID: 3981508

[Less] INTRODUCTION: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a suspected endocrine disruptor, is a . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a suspected endocrine disruptor, is a bio-persistent chemical found at low levels in the serum of nearly all U.S. residents. Early menopause has been positively associated with serum PFOA in prior cross-sectional studies.

METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal analysis of age at menopause among women, aged ≥40 years, (N=8759) in a Mid-Ohio Valley community cohort, exposed to high PFOA levels via contaminated drinking water. Using estimated retrospective year-specific serum PFOA concentrations (1951-2011), we examined the associations between PFOA, as cumulative exposure or year-specific serum estimates, and natural menopause using a Cox proportional hazards models. As participants were initially recruited in 2005-2006, we also analyzed the cohort prospectively (i.e., from the time of enrollment), using both modeled cumulative PFOA, and PFOA serum levels measured in 2005-2006. Women with hysterectomy (a competing risk) were either censored or excluded from the analysis.

RESULTS: Neither in the retrospective nor the prospective cohort did we find a significant (at α=0.05) trend between PFOA exposure and natural menopause. The non-significant, hazard ratios by quintile of increasing cumulative serum PFOA were 1.00 (referent), 1.00, 1.09, 1.05 and 1.06 (trend test for log cumulative exposure: p=0.37) with hysterectomies censored, and 1.00 (referent), 1.06, 1.13, 1.09 and 1.11 (trend test for log cumulative exposure: p=0.85) with hysterectomies excluded. Year-specific serum estimates were also not associated with early menopause.

CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that earlier age at menopause is not associated with PFOA exposure.