Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)


2,191 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in marine echinoderms: Results of laboratory-scale experiments with Holothuria tubulosa Gmelin, 1791

Authors: Martín, J; Hidalgo, F; García-Corcoles, MT; Ibáñez-Yuste, AJ; Alonso, E; Vilchez, JL; Zafra-Gómez, A (2019) Chemosphere 215:261-271. HERO ID: 5080403

[Less] Bioaccumulation of six perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) was assessed using the marine echinoderm Holothuria . . . [More] Bioaccumulation of six perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) was assessed using the marine echinoderm Holothuria tubulosa Gmelin, 1791. Batch experiments were conducted to establish the relationship between concentrations in water, sediment and biota over 197 days. The sample treatment for the determination of compounds involves steps of lyophilization, solvent extraction and clean-up of the extracts with dispersive sorbents. PFAS were then analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. During contaminant exposure, detectable levels of compounds were found in all samples collected. Mean concentrations of selected PFAS were higher in sediments than in water samples. This fact is explained by the strong adsorption of these compounds into sediments. Sediment-water distribution coefficients (log Kd) were in the range 0.11 (PFBuA) to 2.46 (PFOA). Beside this, PFAS accumulation was observed in Holothuria tubulosa organisms. The uptake of PFAS was very rapid, reaching the maximum between 22 and 38 days of assay. Bioaccumulation factors (mean log BAF: 1.16-4.39) and biota sediment accumulation factors (mean log BSAF: 1.37-2.89) indicated a high bioaccumulation potential for the target compounds. Both parameters increased with perfluoroalkyl chain length (R2 > 0.93; p < 0.05). In organ-specific distributions of PFAS, greater concentrations were found in intestine than in gonads. Also, male specimens showed higher concentration levels than female (student t-test: tcal = 2.788, ttab = 2.262; p < 0.05). These data provide a detailed accounting of PFAS fate and distribution in the marine environment highlighting accumulation at lower trophic levels, a potential source for contamination in higher organisms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nanotechnology in remediation of water contaminated by poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances: A review

Authors: Zhang, W; Zhang, D; Liang, Y (2019) Environmental Pollution 247:266-276. [Review] HERO ID: 5080369

[Less] This article gives an overview of nanotechnologies applied in remediation of water contaminated by poly- . . . [More] This article gives an overview of nanotechnologies applied in remediation of water contaminated by poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in physical sorption and photochemical reactions offers a promising solution in PFAS removal because of the high surface area and the associated high reactivities of the ENMs. Modification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (e.g., oxidation, applying electrochemical assistance) significantly improves their adsorption rate and capacity for PFASs removal and opens a new door for use of CNTs in environmental remediation. Modified nanosized iron oxides with high adsorption capacity and magnetic property have also been demonstrated to be ideal sorbents for PFASs with great recyclability and thus provide an excellent alternative for PFAS removal under various conditions. Literature shows that PFOA, which is one of the most common PFASs detected at contaminated sites, can be effectively decomposed in the presence of either TiO2-based, Ga2O3-based, or In2O3-based nano-photocatalysts under UV irradiation. The decomposition abilities and mechanisms of different nano-photocatalysts are reviewed and compared in this paper. Particularly, the nanosized In2O3 photocatalysts have the best potential in PFOA decomposition and the decomposition performance is closely related to the specific surface area and the amount of photogenerated holes on the surfaces of In2O3 nanostructures. In addition to detailed review of the published studies, future prospects of using nanotechnology for PFAS remediation are also discussed in this article.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determining global background soil PFAS loads and the fluorotelomer-based polymer degradation rates that can account for these loads

Authors: Washington, JW; Rankin, K; Libelo, EL; Lynch, DG; Cyterski, M (2019) Science of the Total Environment 651:2444-2449. HERO ID: 5080393

[Less] In recent years, fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs) have been the dominant product of the fluorotelomer . . . [More] In recent years, fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs) have been the dominant product of the fluorotelomer industry. For the last decade, whether FTPs degrade to toxic perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) has been vigorously contested, with early studies arguing that FTPs have half-lives >1000 years, and others concluding decadal half-lives. Given this FTP half-life discrepancy of 10- to >100-fold, here we investigate whether environmental loads of long-chain PFCAs might offer an independent approach to assess FTP half-lives. Specifically we: i) use surface soil-PFCA data to estimate terrestrial surface-soil background PFCA concentrations and loads; ii) extrapolate these data to generate global PFCA load estimates; iii) compare these estimates to published ocean-derived and industrial-emissions load estimates, finding agreement for perfluorooctanoate (C8), but an excess in longer-chain (C10,C12) PFCAs for ocean- and soil-derived loads relative to emissions; iv) model FTP degradation rates required to reconcile this discrepancy; and iv) compare our modeled estimates to existing experimental results. These findings show agreement for FTP half-lives at the decades-scale supporting existing laboratory studies that report decade-scale half-lives for FTPs. This suggests that global long-chain PFCA loads will increase for decades if legacy FTPs already manufactured are not contained upon disposal. These results suggest that FTPs comprised of novel poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) now in production might constitute considerable sources to the environment of the new generation of PFASs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cord blood perfluoroalkyl substances in mothers exposed to the World Trade Center disaster during pregnancy

Authors: Spratlen, MJ; Perera, FP; Lederman, SA; Robinson, M; Kannan, K; Trasande, L; Herbstman, J (2019) HERO ID: 5079969

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may have been released during the collapse of the World Trade Center . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may have been released during the collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 9/11. Evidence suggests PFAS can cross the placental barrier in humans and cause harm to the developing fetus; however, no studies have measured PFAS in mothers exposed to the WTC disaster during pregnancy. We measured PFAS in maternal plasma (n = 48) or cord blood (n = 231) from pregnant women in the Columbia University WTC birth cohort, enrolled between December 13, 2001 and June 26, 2002 at one of three hospitals located near the WTC site. In order to maximize sample size, we used a linear regression to transform the 48 maternal plasma samples to cord blood equivalents in our study; cord blood and transformed maternal plasma-to-cord blood samples were then analyzed together. We evaluated the association between WTC exposure and PFAS concentrations using three exposure variables: 1) living/working within two miles of WTC; 2) living within two miles of WTC regardless of work location; and 3) working but not living within two miles of WTC. Exposure was compared with those not living/working within two miles of WTC (reference group). Living/working within two miles of WTC was associated with 13% higher perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations compared with the reference group [GMR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.01, 1.27)]. The association was stronger when comparing only those who lived within two miles of WTC to the reference group [GMR (95% CI): 1.17 (1.03, 1.33)], regardless of work location. Our results provide evidence that exposure to the WTC disaster during pregnancy resulted in increases in PFAS concentrations, specifically PFOA. This work identifies a potentially vulnerable and overlooked population, children exposed to the WTC disaster in utero, and highlights the importance of future longitudinal studies in this cohort to investigate later life effects resulting from these early life exposures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reaction of Perfluorooctanoic Acid with Criegee Intermediates and Implications for the Atmospheric Fate of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids

Authors: Taatjes, CA; Khan, MAH; Eskola, AJ; Percival, CJ; Osborn, DL; Wallington, TJ; Shallcross, DE (2019) HERO ID: 5079978

[Less] The reaction of perfluorooctanoic acid with the smallest carbonyl oxide Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, . . . [More] The reaction of perfluorooctanoic acid with the smallest carbonyl oxide Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, has been measured and is very rapid, with a rate coefficient of (4.9 ± 0.8) × 10-10 cm3 s-1, similar to that for reactions of Criegee intermediates with other organic acids. Evidence is shown for the formation of hydroperoxymethyl perfluorooctanoate as a product. With such a large rate coefficient, reaction with Criegee intermediates can be a substantial contributor to atmospheric removal of perfluorocarboxylic acids. However, the atmospheric fates of the ester product largely regenerate the initial acid reactant. Wet deposition regenerates the perfluorocarboxylic acid via condensed-phase hydrolysis. Gas-phase reaction with OH is expected principally to result in formation of the acid anhydride, which also hydrolyzes to regenerate the acid, although a minor channel could lead to destruction of the perfluorinated backbone.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Protein-specific distribution patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids in egg yolk and albumen samples around a fluorochemical facility

Authors: Wang, F; Zhao, C; Gao, Y; Fu, J; Gao, K; Lv, K; Wang, K; Yue, H; Lan, X; Liang, Y; Wang, Y; Jiang, G (2019) Science of the Total Environment 650:2697-2704. HERO ID: 5080187

[Less] In this study, eggs from free-range and barn chickens in farms around a fluorochemical facility were . . . [More] In this study, eggs from free-range and barn chickens in farms around a fluorochemical facility were collected to assess the distribution profiles of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), in egg yolk and albumen. The results revealed that the concentrations of PFAAs in yolks were significantly higher than those in albumen. All 17 PFAAs examined could be detected in yolks, showing decreasing concentrations with increasing distance from the fluorochemical facility. The three predominant compounds in yolks were perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA, mean concentration 81.4 ng/g ww), PFOS (28.0 ng/g ww), and PFOA (4.83 ng/g ww), and this result is consistent with the product structure of the facility. Moreover, n-PFOA, n-PFOS, and n-PFHxS were the dominant contaminants in yolk, with mean concentrations of 4.75, 25.7, and 4.29 ng/g ww, respectively. In albumen, PFBA was still the predominant PFAA congener (mean concentration = 3.93 ng/g ww), followed by PFOA. Docking analysis indicated that the PFAAs presented higher binding abilities with the low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and vitellin proteins in yolk than that with ovalbumin albumen proteins, which might be the main factor influencing the possible difference in distributions of PFAAs in yolk and albumen.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Using 2003-2014 U.S. NHANES data to determine the associations between per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and cholesterol: Trend and implications

Authors: Dong, Z; Wang, H; Yu, YY; Li, YB; Naidu, R; Liu, Y (2019) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 173:461-468. HERO ID: 5080195

[Less] Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a major concern due to their widespread occurrence . . . [More] Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a major concern due to their widespread occurrence and adverse health outcomes. The possible binding of PFASs to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and nuclear receptors raises concerns that PFASs may impact cholesterol levels in human. In this study, the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data were employed to address the temporal trend for PFAS concentrations in biomonitoring and associations between cholesterol levels and PFAS exposure. Compared to the PFAS levels in 2003-2004, the median perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) levels in human serum in 2013-2014 decreased from 3.7 to 1.8 ng/mL, 19.2-4.7 ng/mL, 1.7 ng/mL to 1.3 ng/mL and 0.8 ng/mL to 0.6 ng/mL, respectively. Also, an estimate of 1.5 ± 0.7 mg/dL (95% confidence interval: 0.2 - 2.8) and 0.4 ± 0.2 mg/dL (95% confidence interval: 0.1 - 0.6) total cholesterol increases for unit PFOA and PFOS increase (ng/mL), respectively. By using hybrid approach, RfDs were estimated to be 2.0 ng PFOS/kg per day and 0.8 ng PFOA/kg per day. However, it should be cautious when using proposed RfDs based on data obtained from cross-sectional datasets, especially evidence based on data originating from experimental or animal studies is still controversial.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Molecular and phenotypic responses of male crucian carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid

Authors: Dong, H; Lu, G; Yan, Z; Liu, J; Ji, Y (2019) Science of the Total Environment 653:1395-1406. HERO ID: 5080299

[Less] Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has long been produced and widely used due to its excellent water and . . . [More] Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has long been produced and widely used due to its excellent water and oil repellent properties. However, this trend has facilitated to the ubiquitous existence of PFOA in environmental matrix, and the potential ecotoxicity on aquatic organisms has not been fully elucidated. To study the tissue-specific bioconcentration and the nervous system- and energy-related biochemical effects of PFOA, as well as the phenotypic alterations by this chemical, male crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were exposed to gradient concentrations of PFOA (nominal 0.2, 10, 500 and 25,000 μg/L) in a flow-through apparatus for 7 days. PFOA was enriched in tissues following an order of blood > kidney ≥ liver > gill > brain > muscle. The bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.1 to 60.4. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the fish brain was inhibited, while liver carboxylesterase was induced in most cases and attenuated with time. The acyl-CoA oxidase activity was dose-dependently elevated and accompanied by a decline of ATP contents. PFOA treatments also inhibited the activity of the electron transport system (ETS). At the transcriptional level, ETS component complexes II and IV were concordantly depressed, and ATP synthesis was also downregulated. The mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α was increasingly upregulated, with related downstream genes upregulated in varying degrees. The phenotypes showed patterns of increased liver pathology and reduced swimming activity. In summary, PFOA leads to adverse effects in Carassius auratus related to multiple aspects, which may be associated with the nervous system, fundamental energy metabolism and other unpredictable factors. The results obtained in this study are expected to help clarify the PFOA toxic mechanisms on energy relevance.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sorption of PFOA onto different laboratory materials: Filter membranes and centrifuge tubes

Authors: Lath, S; Knight, ER; Navarro, DA; Kookana, RS; Mclaughlin, MJ (2019) Chemosphere 222:671-678. HERO ID: 5080301

[Less] Measurement and reporting of concentrations of contaminants of emerging concern such as per- and polyfluoroalkyl . . . [More] Measurement and reporting of concentrations of contaminants of emerging concern such as per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), is an integral part of most investigations. Occurrence of sorption losses of PFAS analytes onto particular laboratory-ware (e.g. glass containers) has been suggested in the published literature but has not been investigated in detail. We examined sorption losses from aqueous PFOA solutions in contact with different commonly-used materials in filter units and centrifuge tubes (glass and plastics). Sorption of PFOA onto different filter membrane types ranged from 21-79% indicating that filtration can introduce a major source of error in PFOA analysis; pre-treatment of filter membranes with phosphate or methanol solutions did not improve PFOA recovery. Substantial adsorption of PFOA was also observed on tubes made from polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), and glass where losses observed were between 32-45%, 27-35%, 16-31% and 14-24%, respectively. Contrary to suggestions in the literature, our results indicated that the greatest sorption losses for PFOA occurred on PP, whereas losses on glass tubes were much lower. Variations in ionic strength and pH did not greatly influence PFOA recovery. When PFOA concentrations were increased, the percent recovery of PFOA increased, indicating that binding sites on tube-walls were saturable. This study draws attention towards analytical bias that can occur due to sorption losses during routine procedures, and highlights the importance of testing the suitability of chosen laboratory-ware for specific PFAS analytes of interest prior to experimental use.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorooctanoic acid exposure induces apoptosis in SMMC-7721 hepatocellular cancer cells

Authors: Lv, D; Gu, Y; Guo, M; Hou, P; Li, Y; Wu, R (2019) Environmental Pollution 247:509-514. HERO ID: 5080368

[Less] To better understand the toxicological activities of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), we examined the . . . [More] To better understand the toxicological activities of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), we examined the effects of PFOA on apoptosis and its molecular mechanism in SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay and apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR were used to examine the protein and gene expressions of Bax and Bcl-2. Our results showed that PFOA inhibited SMMC-7721 cell growth and induced apoptosis. PFOA treatment increased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression at both gene and protein levels. Our study demonstrated that PFOA had toxic effects on SMMC-7721 cells, such as inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, we showed that PFOA-mediated induction of apoptosis involved inducing Bax and decreasing Bcl-2 expression as a molecular mechanism of its toxicological effects.