Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)


2,192 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in marine echinoderms: Results of laboratory-scale experiments with Holothuria tubulosa Gmelin, 1791

Authors: Martín, J; Hidalgo, F; García-Corcoles, MT; Ibáñez-Yuste, AJ; Alonso, E; Vilchez, JL; Zafra-Gómez, A (2019) Chemosphere 215:261-271. HERO ID: 5080403

[Less] Bioaccumulation of six perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) was assessed using the marine echinoderm Holothuria . . . [More] Bioaccumulation of six perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) was assessed using the marine echinoderm Holothuria tubulosa Gmelin, 1791. Batch experiments were conducted to establish the relationship between concentrations in water, sediment and biota over 197 days. The sample treatment for the determination of compounds involves steps of lyophilization, solvent extraction and clean-up of the extracts with dispersive sorbents. PFAS were then analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. During contaminant exposure, detectable levels of compounds were found in all samples collected. Mean concentrations of selected PFAS were higher in sediments than in water samples. This fact is explained by the strong adsorption of these compounds into sediments. Sediment-water distribution coefficients (log Kd) were in the range 0.11 (PFBuA) to 2.46 (PFOA). Beside this, PFAS accumulation was observed in Holothuria tubulosa organisms. The uptake of PFAS was very rapid, reaching the maximum between 22 and 38 days of assay. Bioaccumulation factors (mean log BAF: 1.16-4.39) and biota sediment accumulation factors (mean log BSAF: 1.37-2.89) indicated a high bioaccumulation potential for the target compounds. Both parameters increased with perfluoroalkyl chain length (R2 > 0.93; p < 0.05). In organ-specific distributions of PFAS, greater concentrations were found in intestine than in gonads. Also, male specimens showed higher concentration levels than female (student t-test: tcal = 2.788, ttab = 2.262; p < 0.05). These data provide a detailed accounting of PFAS fate and distribution in the marine environment highlighting accumulation at lower trophic levels, a potential source for contamination in higher organisms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nanotechnology in remediation of water contaminated by poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances: A review

Authors: Zhang, W; Zhang, D; Liang, Y (2019) Environmental Pollution 247:266-276. [Review] HERO ID: 5080369

[Less] This article gives an overview of nanotechnologies applied in remediation of water contaminated by poly- . . . [More] This article gives an overview of nanotechnologies applied in remediation of water contaminated by poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in physical sorption and photochemical reactions offers a promising solution in PFAS removal because of the high surface area and the associated high reactivities of the ENMs. Modification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (e.g., oxidation, applying electrochemical assistance) significantly improves their adsorption rate and capacity for PFASs removal and opens a new door for use of CNTs in environmental remediation. Modified nanosized iron oxides with high adsorption capacity and magnetic property have also been demonstrated to be ideal sorbents for PFASs with great recyclability and thus provide an excellent alternative for PFAS removal under various conditions. Literature shows that PFOA, which is one of the most common PFASs detected at contaminated sites, can be effectively decomposed in the presence of either TiO2-based, Ga2O3-based, or In2O3-based nano-photocatalysts under UV irradiation. The decomposition abilities and mechanisms of different nano-photocatalysts are reviewed and compared in this paper. Particularly, the nanosized In2O3 photocatalysts have the best potential in PFOA decomposition and the decomposition performance is closely related to the specific surface area and the amount of photogenerated holes on the surfaces of In2O3 nanostructures. In addition to detailed review of the published studies, future prospects of using nanotechnology for PFAS remediation are also discussed in this article.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determining global background soil PFAS loads and the fluorotelomer-based polymer degradation rates that can account for these loads

Authors: Washington, JW; Rankin, K; Libelo, EL; Lynch, DG; Cyterski, M (2019) Science of the Total Environment 651:2444-2449. HERO ID: 5080393

[Less] In recent years, fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs) have been the dominant product of the fluorotelomer . . . [More] In recent years, fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs) have been the dominant product of the fluorotelomer industry. For the last decade, whether FTPs degrade to toxic perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) has been vigorously contested, with early studies arguing that FTPs have half-lives >1000 years, and others concluding decadal half-lives. Given this FTP half-life discrepancy of 10- to >100-fold, here we investigate whether environmental loads of long-chain PFCAs might offer an independent approach to assess FTP half-lives. Specifically we: i) use surface soil-PFCA data to estimate terrestrial surface-soil background PFCA concentrations and loads; ii) extrapolate these data to generate global PFCA load estimates; iii) compare these estimates to published ocean-derived and industrial-emissions load estimates, finding agreement for perfluorooctanoate (C8), but an excess in longer-chain (C10,C12) PFCAs for ocean- and soil-derived loads relative to emissions; iv) model FTP degradation rates required to reconcile this discrepancy; and iv) compare our modeled estimates to existing experimental results. These findings show agreement for FTP half-lives at the decades-scale supporting existing laboratory studies that report decade-scale half-lives for FTPs. This suggests that global long-chain PFCA loads will increase for decades if legacy FTPs already manufactured are not contained upon disposal. These results suggest that FTPs comprised of novel poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) now in production might constitute considerable sources to the environment of the new generation of PFASs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of pops contaminated sites and the need for stringent soil standards for food safety for the protection of human health

Authors: Weber, R; Bell, L; Watson, A; Petrlik, J; Paun, MC; Vijgen, J (2019) Environmental Pollution 249:703-715. HERO ID: 5080555

[Less] Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including PCDD/Fs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are . . . [More] Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including PCDD/Fs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are among the most important and hazardous pollutants of soil. Food producing animals such as chicken, beef, sheep and goats can take up soil while grazing or living outdoors (free-range) and this can result in contamination. In recent decades, large quantities of brominated flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and per- and polyfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been produced and released into the environment and this has resulted in widespread contamination of soils and other environmental matrices. These POPs also bioaccumulate and can contaminate food of animal origin resulting in indirect exposure of humans. Recent assessments of chicken and beef have shown that surprisingly low concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in soil can result in exceedances of regulatory limits in food. Soil contamination limits have been established in a number of countries for PCDD/Fs but it has been shown that the contamination levels which result in regulatory limits in food (the maximum levels in the European Union) being exceeded, are below all the existing soil regulatory limits. 'Safe' soil levels are exceeded in many areas around emission sources of PCDD/Fs and PCBs. On the other hand, PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB levels in soil in rural areas, without a contamination source, are normally safe for food producing animals housed outdoors resulting in healthy food (e.g. meat, eggs, milk). For the majority of POPs (e.g. PBDEs, PFOS, PFOA, SCCP) no regulatory limits in soils exist. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop appropriate and protective soil standards minimising human exposure from food producing animals housed outdoors. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to eliminate POPs pollution sources for soils and to control, secure and remediate contaminated sites and reservoirs, in order to reduce exposure and guarantee food safety.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Environmental toxicants in breast milk of Norwegian mothers and gut bacteria composition and metabolites in their infants at 1 month

Authors: Iszatt, N; Janssen, S; Lenters, V; Dahl, C; Stigum, H; Knight, R; Mandal, S; Peddada, S; González, A; Midtvedt, T; Eggesbø, M (2019) 7:34. HERO ID: 5080204

[Less] BACKGROUND: Early disruption of the microbial community may influence life-long health. . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Early disruption of the microbial community may influence life-long health. Environmental toxicants can contaminate breast milk and the developing infant gut microbiome is directly exposed. We investigated whether environmental toxicants in breastmilk affect the composition and function of the infant gut microbiome at 1 month. We measured environmental toxicants in breastmilk, fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and gut microbial composition from 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using samples from 267 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Microbiota Cohort (NoMIC). We tested 28 chemical exposures: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated flame retardants (PBDEs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and organochlorine pesticides. We assessed chemical exposure and alpha diversity/SCFAs using elastic net regression modeling and generalized linear models, adjusting for confounders, and variation in beta diversity (UniFrac), taxa abundance (ANCOM), and predicted metagenomes (PiCRUSt) in low, medium, and high exposed groups.

RESULTS: PBDE-28 and the surfactant perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were associated with less microbiome diversity. Some sub-OTUs of Lactobacillus, an important genus in early life, were lower in abundance in samples from infants with relative "high" (> 80th percentile) vs. "low" (< 20th percentile) toxicant exposure in this cohort. Moreover, breast milk toxicants were associated with microbiome functionality, explaining up to 34% of variance in acetic and propionic SCFAs, essential signaling molecules. Per one standard deviation of exposure, PBDE-28 was associated with less propionic acid (- 24% [95% CI - 35% to - 14%] relative to the mean), and PCB-209 with less acetic acid (- 15% [95% CI - 29% to - 0.4%]). Conversely, PFOA and dioxin-like PCB-167 were associated with 61% (95% CI 35% to 87%) and 22% (95% CI 8% to 35%) more propionic and acetic acid, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Environmental toxicant exposure may influence infant gut microbial function during a critical developmental window. Future studies are needed to replicate these novel findings and investigate whether this has any impact on child health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants in Northern Tanzania and their distribution between breast milk, maternal blood, placenta and cord blood

Authors: Müller, MHB; Polder, A; Brynildsrud, OB; Grønnestad, R; Karimi, M; Lie, E; Manyilizu, WB; Mdegela, RH; Mokiti, F; Murtadha, M; Nonga, HE; Skaare, JU; Solhaug, A; Lyche, JL (2019) Environmental Research 170:433-442. HERO ID: 5080599

[Less] Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) begins during pregnancy and may cause adverse . . . [More] Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) begins during pregnancy and may cause adverse health effects in the fetus or later in life. The present study aimed to assess prenatal POPs exposure to Tanzanian infants and evaluate the distribution of POPs between breast milk, maternal blood, placenta and cord blood. For assessment of prenatal exposure, 48 maternal blood samples from Mount Meru Regional Referral Hospital (MMRRH), Arusha Tanzania, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), dioxin-like (DL) activity and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs). For evaluation of POPs distribution between maternal/infant compartments, breast milk, placenta and cord blood corresponding to the maternal blood were analyzed for OCPs, PCBs and BFRs. In maternal blood, p,p´- DDE was detected in 100% of the samples ranging between 29 and 1890 ng/g lipid weight (lw). PCB-153 was the only PCB detected in maternal blood, with detection rate of 29% and concentrations up to 116 ng/g lw. BDE-47 was detected in 65% of the maternal blood samples, ranging between

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Variation in microbial community structure in surface seawater from Pearl River Delta: Discerning the influencing factors

Authors: Chen, L; Tsui, MMP; Lam, JCW; Hu, C; Wang, Q; Zhou, B; Lam, PKS (2019) Science of the Total Environment 660:136-144. HERO ID: 5024203

[Less] Contamination of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is ubiquitously detected in various environments. However, . . . [More] Contamination of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is ubiquitously detected in various environments. However, their potential effects on microbial communities remain largely unknown. In this study, surface seawater of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is sampled to measure PFAA concentrations and profile the structure of free-living microbial community. Total PFAAs concentrations range from 131 to 1563 pg L-1 in surface seawater. PFOS (16-470 pg L-1), PFOA (27-272 pg L-1), PFHpA (18-201 pg L-1) and PFBA (25-152 pg L-1) are the major homologues, indicating continued industrial application or release of PFOS and a gradual shift towards using shorter-chain PFAAs. Concentrations of PFAAs from this recent cruise are much lower than previous reports, which may be due to the effective management of PFAA usage around PRD region. In addition, the microbial community in PRD surface seawater is predominantly colonized by the Proteobacteria phylum (27.2 to 61.5%) and the Synechococcus genus (5.6 to 38.6%). The structure of the microbial communities varies among stations, mainly resulting from different abundances of Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus and Nitrosopumilus. Geochemical parameters (e.g., nutrients and salinity) and phytoplankton are significantly associated with the microbial community dynamics in surface seawater. In the interactive network of microbiota, a subset of bacteria (i.e., Fluviicola, Nitrosopumilus, Limnohabitans, Sediminibacterium, C39 and Polynucleobacter) shows significantly positive correlations with PFAAs (R > 0.6; P < 0.001). Overall, this study gives a timely monitoring of PFAA pollution around PRD area. Shift in environmental microbiota by geochemical factors and phytoplankton is also observed, which may affect biogeochemical cycling.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorobutanesulfonic Acid Disrupts Pancreatic Organogenesis and Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in the Zebrafish, Danio rerio

Authors: Sant, KE; Venezia, OL; Sinno, PP; Timme-Laragy, AR (2019) Toxicological Sciences 167:258-268. HERO ID: 5079849

[Less] Following the phase-out of highly persistent perfluorosulfonates in the United States from non-stick . . . [More] Following the phase-out of highly persistent perfluorosulfonates in the United States from non-stick and stain-resistant products in the early 2000s, perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) has replaced these compounds as a primary surfactant. Measurements of PFBS in environmental and human samples have been rising in recent years, raising concerns about potential negative health effects. We previously found that embryonic exposures to a related compound, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), decreased pancreas length and insulin-producing islet area in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). The objective of this study was to compare the effects of PFBS exposures on pancreatic organogenesis with our previous PFOS findings. Dechorionated zebrafish embryos from two different transgenic fish lines (Tg[insulin:GFP], Tg[ptf1a:GFP]) were exposed to 0 (0.01% DMSO), 16, or 32 µM PFBS daily beginning at 1 day post fertilization (dpf) until 4 and 7 dpf when they were examined using fluorescent microscopy for islet area and morphology, and exocrine pancreas length. PFBS-exposed embryos had significantly increased caudal fin deformities, delayed swim bladder inflation, and impaired yolk utilization. Incidence of fish with significantly stunted growth and truncated exocrine pancreas length was significantly increased, although these two effects occurred independently. Islet morphology revealed an increased incidence of severely hypomorphic islets (areas lower than the 1st percentile of controls) and an elevated occurrence of fragmented islets. RNA-Seq data (4 dpf) also identify disruptions in regulation of lipid homeostasis. Overall, this work demonstrates that PFBS exposure can perturb embryonic development, energy homeostasis, and pancreatic organogenesis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl acids in fish of Italian deep lakes: Environmental and human risk assessment

Authors: Mazzoni, M; Buffo, A; Cappelli, F; Pascariello, S; Polesello, S; Valsecchi, S; Volta, P; Bettinetti, R (2019) Science of the Total Environment 653:351-358. HERO ID: 5079952

[Less] Determination of 20 PFASs in a fish species (Alosa agone) of commercial interest has been carried out . . . [More] Determination of 20 PFASs in a fish species (Alosa agone) of commercial interest has been carried out in five Italian subalpine lakes to assess the risk for humans and predators for fish consumption. PFOS still presents the highest concentrations (0.9-16.6ngg-1ww) among the analysed PFASs, in spite of its normative restrictions. PFOS concentrations measured in all lakes, except in Lake Maggiore, are homogeneous with an average of 3.1±1.9ngg-1ww, which could be considered the "anthropogenic background concentration" of PFOS in fish of lakes located in an industrialised and urbanised region but without point sources. In Lake Maggiore, fish concentrations always exceed the EU EQSbiota (9.1ngg-1ww) based on human fish consumption. Considering the effective consumption of fish in this area, an actual risk for fish consumption by humans is not evidenced, while a moderate risk of secondary poisoning for predators is highlighted. PFOA has been detected in significant concentration only in one sample in Lake Maggiore, while long chain PFCAs have been detected without significant differences among the lakes (0.3 to 2.7ngg-1ww). The present study demonstrates that biota monitoring of fish can be used as a valuable tool to classify the quality status of water bodies regarding bioaccumulative PFAAs, even if the water concentrations are close to the reachable detection limits.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Risk characterisation from the presence of environmental contaminants and antibiotic residues in wild and farmed salmon from different FAO zones

Authors: Chiesa, LM; Nobile, M; Ceriani, F; Malandra, R; Arioli, F; Panseri, S (2019) Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 36:152-162. HERO ID: 5080510

[Less] Salmon consumption is increasing year by year. Salmon aquaculture is the fastest growing food production . . . [More] Salmon consumption is increasing year by year. Salmon aquaculture is the fastest growing food production system in the world, and often uses feed mixed with antibiotics or other drugs. Feed can be also contaminated by environmental contaminants like persistent organic pollutants and organophosphorus pesticides that usually accumulate in fatty tissue, or emerging contaminants such as perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), that instead bioaccumulate in protein tissues. Therefore, there is the need to investigate the presence of antibiotics and environmental contaminants, with multi-class and multi-residue liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods to monitor a broad spectrum of residues comparing between wild and farmed salmons. The presence of residues was encountered at a concentration range of 0.35-51.52 ng g-1 for antibiotics only in farmed salmon, 0.19-34.51 ng g-1 for PFASs and 0.26-9.01 ng g-1 for (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) PBDEs, and 0.19-5.91 ng g-1 for organochlorine pesticides with higher frequencies and concentrations in farmed fish. Finally, the risk deriving from salmon intake is low, being of minor concern only for PBDE 99 and perfluorooctanoic acid.