Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)


2,190 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Low concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate repress osteogenic and enhance adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

Authors: Liu, W; Qin, H; Pan, Y; Luo, F; Zhang, Z (2019) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 367:82-91. HERO ID: 5080292

[Less] Humans are exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from sources of both continuing discharges and . . . [More] Humans are exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from sources of both continuing discharges and environmental legacies, and the health effects of low dose exposure remain unknown. We assessed the effects of PFOS at 0.2-200 nmol/L on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). PFOS affected hBMSCs differentiation in a nonmonotonic dose-response relationship, where the effects peaked at 100 nmol/L. PFOS repressed calcium deposition on day 14 of osteogenic differentiation. The molecular osteogenic biomarkers, osteopontin, osteonectin and osteocalcin, and the transcription factor β-catenin, were also decreased on differentiation day 7. In hBMSCs co-treated by PFOS and WNT signaling agonist, LiCl, the osteogenic marker levels were higher than those treated by PFOS alone. Moreover, the osteogenic effect of PFOS was repressed by DKK1, the WNT signaling antagonist. PFOS additionally supported the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio. In contrast, PFOS enhanced adipogenesis in regard to lipid droplet formation and marker gene expression of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα), lipoprotein lipase and leptin. Microarray analysis identified 597 differentially expressed genes at p < .05 and log2 (fold change) > 0.3. These results demonstrated that PFOS repressed osteogenesis and enhanced adipogenesis, which could well explain the homeostatic imbalance seen in human bone associated with exposure to PFOS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessing the human health risks of perfluorooctane sulfonate by in vivo and in vitro studies

Authors: Zeng, Z; Song, B; Xiao, R; Zeng, G; Gong, J; Chen, M; Xu, P; Zhang, P; Shen, M; Yi, H (2019) Environment International 126:598-610. [Review] HERO ID: 5080367

[Less] The wide use of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has led to increasing concern about its human health . . . [More] The wide use of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has led to increasing concern about its human health risks over the past decade. In vivo and in vitro studies are important and effective means to ascertain the toxic effects of PFOS on humans and its toxic mechanisms. This article systematically reviews the human health risks of PFOS based on the currently known facts found by in vivo and in vitro studies from 2008 to 2018. Exposure to PFOS has caused hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, immunotoxicity, thyroid disruption, cardiovascular toxicity, pulmonary toxicity, and renal toxicity in laboratory animals and many in vitro human systems. These results and related epidemiological studies confirmed the human health risks of PFOS, especially for exposure via food and drinking water. Oxidative stress and physiological process disruption based on fatty acid similarity were widely studied mechanisms of PFOS toxicity. Future research for assessing the human health risks of PFOS is recommended in the chronic toxicity and molecular mechanisms, the application of various omics, and the integration of toxicological and epidemiological data.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorinated substances, risk factors for multiple sclerosis and cellular immune activation

Authors: Ammitzbøll, C; Börnsen, L; Petersen, ER; Oturai, AB; Søndergaard, HB; Grandjean, P; Sellebjerg, F (2019) Journal of Neuroimmunology 330:90-95. HERO ID: 5080379

[Less] Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) have immunomodulatory effects but the impact on multiple . . . [More] Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) have immunomodulatory effects but the impact on multiple sclerosis (MS) and cellular immune functions is only sparsely described. In the present study, we found lower concentrations of the long chain PFAS perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in MS than in healthy controls (HC). In HC, we did not detect associations between PFOS concentrations and immune phenotypes. Analyzing the impact of known MS risk factors on cellular immune functions, we found that smoking and Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 antibodies were associated with distinct circulating immune cell changes. In summary, current background PFAS exposure is not an important risk factor for MS.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Autism spectrum disorders, endocrine disrupting compounds, and heavy metals in amniotic fluid: a case-control study

Authors: Long, M; Ghisari, M; Kjeldsen, L; Wielsøe, M; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Mortensen, EL; Abdallah, MW; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, EC (2019) 10:1. HERO ID: 5080602

[Less] Background: Evidence has indicated that some non-inherited factors such as exposure . . . [More] Background: Evidence has indicated that some non-inherited factors such as exposure to environmental pollutants are associated with neurodevelopment disorders like autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies report that endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and some metals, have adverse effects on the fetal neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to measure the amniotic fluid (AF) levels of EDCs and metals as well as the receptor transactivities induced by AF and investigate the possible link between prenatal exposure to EDCs and heavy metals and ASD risk.

Methods: In this case-control study, we included AF samples of 75 ASD cases and 135 frequency-matched controls and measured the levels of the endogenous sex hormones, PFAS, and elements including heavy metals. The combined effect of endogenous hormones and EDCs on the receptor of estrogen (ER), androgen (AR), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), and thyroid hormone-like activity were also determined and expressed as receptor ligand equivalents. We assessed the associations of AF levels of chemicals, sex hormones, and receptor activities with ASD risk using unconditional logistical regression analyses. To control for multiple comparisons, the false discovery rate (FDR) was used and q values less than 0.25 were designated as statistical significance.

Results: PFAS and metals were detectable in AF samples. The ASD cases had significantly lower AF levels of PFAS than controls, and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 0.410 (95% CI 0.174, 0.967; p = 0.042; FDR qvalue = 0.437) for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The principal component, including PFAS congeners, copper, iron, and estrogenic activity, was significantly inversely associated with ASD risk (adjusted OR = 0.100; 95% CI 0.016, 0.630; p = 0.014; FDR qvalue = 0.098).Testosterone level in AF weakly associated with ASD risk (adjusted OR = 1.002; 95% CI 1.000, 1.004; p = 0.05). However, after multiple comparison correction, the association was not significant (FDR qvalue = 0.437). No significant associations between AF-induced receptor transactivities and ASD risk were observed. The adjusted OR was 2.176 (95%CI 0.115, 41.153) for the ratio of the combined androgenic activity to combined estrogenic activity.

Conclusions: The presence of PFAS and heavy metals in AF indicates that they can cross the placenta. The inverse association between levels of PFAS congeners in AF and ASD risk might relate to the weak estrogenic activities and anti-androgenic activities of PFAS.The observed tendency of positive association between the ratio of combined androgenic effect to the combined estrogenic effect and ASD risk needs further studies to explore whether EDCs together with endogenous hormones play a role in the development of ASD.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Distribution and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in surface soil, plants, and earthworms at a contaminated site

Authors: Zhu, H; Kannan, K (2019) Science of the Total Environment 647:954-961. HERO ID: 5079649

[Less] A field study was conducted to elucidate distribution and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic . . . [More] A field study was conducted to elucidate distribution and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C7-12) in a terrestrial ecosystem that was contaminated with industrial sources of release. Surface soil (0-6 cm), plants, and earthworms were collected from a field located within a 1-mile radius of a fluoropolymer industry that had been manufacturing fluorochemicals for over five decades. The mean concentrations of ∑PFCAs were 150, 420, 61, 68, and 430 ng/g dry weight (dw) in surface soil, earthworms, grass roots, grass leaves, and tree leaves, respectively. The measured concentrations were higher than those reported for corresponding matrices in other locations worldwide, suggesting that fluorochemical manufacturing operations have contributed to the contamination of this nearby land. Soil and plant tissues consisted mainly of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; C8) (77.3-97.1% of the total PFCAs), whereas longer-chain PFCAs, such as perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA; C11: 17.6%) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA; C12: 31.9%), accounted for relatively higher proportions in earthworms. Spatial distribution of PFCAs at this site suggested that both atmospheric deposition and groundwater recharge have contributed to the sources of contamination. Both earthworm- and grass-accumulated PFCAs from soil with biota-soil accumulation factors and root concentration factors increased with perfluorocarbon chain length. The translocation factors of PFCAs in grass decreased as the number of carbons in the fluorocarbon moiety increased. This field study is appropriate to improve our understanding of partitioning of PFCAs among soil, plants, and earthworms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Blueberry anthocyanin alleviate perfluorooctanoic acid-induced toxicity in planarian (Dugesia japonica) by regulating oxidative stress biomarkers, ATP contents, DNA methylation and mRNA expression

Authors: Zhang, J; Wang, B; Zhao, B; Li, Y; Zhao, X; Yuan, Z (2019) Environmental Pollution 245:957-964. HERO ID: 5080585

[Less] Blueberry anthocyanin (BA) have strong health benefits as an active natural antioxidant and perfluorooctanoic . . . [More] Blueberry anthocyanin (BA) have strong health benefits as an active natural antioxidant and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) can result in oxidative stress in animals. In our study, the protective effects of BA against stress induced by PFOA was investigated in the planarian Dugesia japonica using oxidative stress biomarkers, ATP contents, ATPase activity, DNA methylation and mRNA expression. PFOA exposure could resulted in malondialdehyde production. At the same time, treatment with BA decreased the production of malondialdehyde in BA-exposed and co-treatment planarians. PFOA caused activities increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and activities decrease in glutathione reductase (GR). PFOA exposure decreased the GSH and ATP contents. Additionally, it increased the GSSG contents and ATPase activity. BA administration increased the activities of GPx, GST and GR in BA and co-treatment planarians. Meanwhile BA maintained the contents of ATP, ATPase activity, GSH and GSSG by alleviating PFOA toxicity. Moreover, PFOA and BA increased the contents of 5-methylcytosine and decreased 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in all group. In addition, PFOA and BA treated planarians significantly altered the expression of genes associated with above biochemical parameters. The results showed that the mRNA expression of gpx, Djgst, gr, Djnak and dnmt1 were significantly elevated in all groups. Alterations in the mRNA expression levels indicated a stress response to PFOA exposure and anthocyanin protection. These alterations regulated biomarkers of oxidative stress, energy metabolism and DNA methylation levels in planarians. These results indicate that BA attenuated PFOA-induced oxidative stress, energy metabolism, DNA methylation and gene expression disorders.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Efficient removal of perfluorinated compounds from water using a regenerable magnetic activated carbon

Authors: Meng, P; Fang, X; Maimaiti, A; Yu, G; Deng, S (2019) Chemosphere 224:187-194. HERO ID: 5080615

[Less] Adsorption by powder activated carbon (PAC) is recognized as an efficient method for the removal of . . . [More] Adsorption by powder activated carbon (PAC) is recognized as an efficient method for the removal of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in water, while the poor separation of spent PAC makes it difficult for further regeneration, increasing the treatment cost significantly. In this study, an ultrafine magnetic activated carbon (MAC) consisting of Fe3O4 and PAC was prepared by ball milling to remove PFCs from water efficiently. Increasing the percentage of Fe3O4 and balling milling time decreased its adsorption capacity for perfluoroctane sulfonate (PFOS), whereas increased the magnetic separation property to some degree. The optimized MAC was prepared with a Fe3O4 to PAC mass ratio of 1:3 after ball milling for 2 h, and the adsorption equilibriums of all the four PFCs on the optimal MAC were reached within less than 2 h, with the adsorption capacities of 1.63, 0.90, 0.33 and 0.21 mmol/g for PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), respectively. Increasing the solution pH hindered the adsorption of PFOS significantly when the pH was less than the zero potential point (around 6) of the MAC, due to the decreased electrostatic attraction. The spent MAC could be easily separated with a magnet and regenerated by a small volume of methanol, and the regenerated MAC could be reused for more than 5 time and remain stable adsorption capacity for PFOS after 3 cycles. This study provides useful insights into the removal of PFCs by separable magnetic PAC in wastewater.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivealis) as bio-indicators for exposure differences to legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants from the Arctic terrestrial environment on Svalbard

Authors: Warner, NA; Sagerup, K; Kristoffersen, S; Herzke, D; Gabrielsen, GW; Jenssen, BM (2019) Science of the Total Environment 667:638-647. HERO ID: 5080638

[Less] Eggs of snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivealis) were applied as a bio-indicator to examine differences . . . [More] Eggs of snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivealis) were applied as a bio-indicator to examine differences in exposure to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and perflouroalkyl subtances (PFAS) from the terrestrial environment surrounding the settlements of Longyearbyen, Barentsburg and Pyramiden on Svalbard, Norway. Significantly higher concentrations of summed polychlorinated biphenyls (sumPCB7) in eggs collected from Barentsburg (2980 ng/g lipid weight (lw)) and Pyramiden (3860 ng/g lw) compared to Longyearbyen (96 ng/g lw) are attributed to local sources of PCBs within these settlements. Similar findings were observed for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) where higher median concentrations observed in Pyramiden (173 ng/g lw) and Barentsburg (75 ng/g lw) compared to Longyearbyen (48 ng/g lw) may be influenced by guano inputs from breeding seabird populations, although other point sources cannot be ruled out. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and several perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in snow bunting eggs were found to be statistically higher in the populated settlements of Longyearbyen and Barentsburg compared to the abandoned Pyramiden. Narrow foraging ranges of snow buntings during breeding season was useful in assessing point sources of exposure for PCBs and PFAS at particular sites with extreme differences observed between nest locations. SumPCB7 concentrations ranged from 2 μg/g ww to below detection limits between nest sites located less than a kilometer from each other in Pyramiden. Similar findings were observed in Longyearbyen, where several PFCAs ranged from 2 to 55 times higher between nest sites with similar spatial distances. These findings indicate that snow buntings can be a useful bio-indicator offering high spatial resolution for contaminant source apportionment in terrestrial environments on Svalbard.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Stabilization and solidification remediation of soil contaminated with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)

Authors: Sörengård, M; Kleja, DB; Ahrens, L (2019) Journal of Hazardous Materials 367:639-646. HERO ID: 5079966

[Less] Remediation methods for soils contaminated with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are urgently . . . [More] Remediation methods for soils contaminated with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are urgently needed to protect the surrounding environment and drinking water source areas from pollution. In this study, the stabilization and solidification (S/S) technique was tested on aged PFAS-contaminated soil that were artificially spiked with 14 PFAS. To further reduce leaching of PFASs in S/S-treated soil, seven different additives were tested at 2% concentration: powdered activated carbon (PAC), Rembind®, pulverized zeolite, chitosan, hydrotalcite, bentonite, and calcium chloride. Standardized leaching tests on S/S-treated soil revealed that leaching of 13 out of 14 target PFASs (excluding perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBA)) was reduced by, on average, 70% and 94% by adding PAC and Rembind®. Longer-chained PFASs such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which is considered persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic, were stabilized by 99.9% in all S/S treatments when PAC or Rembind® was used as an additive. The S/S stabilization efficiency depended on PFAS perfluorocarbon chain length and functional group, e.g., it increased on average by 11-15 % per CF3-moeity and was on average 49% higher for the perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs) than the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs). Overall, the S/S treatment with active carbon-based additives showed excellent performance in reducing leaching of PFASs, without marked loss of physical matrix stability.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Uptake and elimination of emerging polyfluoroalkyl substance F-53B in zebrafish larvae: Response of oxidative stress biomarkers

Authors: Wu, Y; Deng, M; Jin, Y; Mu, X; He, X; Luu, NT; Yang, C; Tu, W (2019) Chemosphere 215:182-188. HERO ID: 5080387

[Less] 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F-53B) has been widely applied as a mist suppressant . . . [More] 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F-53B) has been widely applied as a mist suppressant to replace perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the metal plating industry in China for decades. Recently, F-53B has been frequently identified in the aquatic environment and wild-caught fish. However, studies on the uptake and elimination kinetics, and the toxicological effects of F-53B were very scarce. In this study, zebrafish larvae (72 h post fertilization, hpf) were exposed to F-53B (10, 100 μg/L) for 48 h, followed by a 24 h of depuration to examine both the dynamics of accumulation and elimination of F-53B and responses of antoxidant defense system in fish. The results showed that F-53B rapidly accumulated in zebrafish larvae in a concentration and time-dependent manner with BCF values of 3612-3615, but was eliminated slowly (half-life ranged from 241.5 to 258.6 h). F-53B exposure induced oxidative stress in zebrafish larvae, as reflected by the reduction in the GSH and MDA contents, CAT, SOD, CuZn-SOD, and GSH-ST activities, and the increase in GSH-Px activity as well as CAT and SOD protein levels. However, these oxidative stress markers were restored to control levels except for a decrease in protein level of SOD after depuration. Collectively, the results of this work indicate that F-53B behaves like PFOS and is bioaccumulative and persistent in zebrafish larvae, and further induced oxidative stress responses.