Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)


3,082 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Persistent organic pollutants and gestational diabetes: A multi-center prospective cohort study of healthy US women

Authors: Rahman, ML; Zhang, C; Smarr, MM; Lee, S; Honda, M; Kannan, K; Tekola-Ayele, F; Buck Louis, GM (2019) Environment International 124:249-258. HERO ID: 5024206

[Less] BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are linked with insulin resistance . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are linked with insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes (T2D) in the general population. However, their associations with gestational diabetes (GDM) are inconsistent.

OBJECTIVE: We prospectively evaluated the associations of POPs measured in early pregnancy with GDM risk. We also assessed whether pre-pregnancy BMI (ppBMI) and family history of T2D modify this risk.

METHODS: In NICHD Fetal Growth Study, Singletons, we measured plasma concentration of 76 POPs, including 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 9 polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), 44 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 11 per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) among 2334 healthy non-obese women at 8-13 weeks of gestation. GDM was diagnosed by Carpenter and Coustan criteria. We constructed chemical networks using a weighted-correlation algorithm and examined the associations of individual chemical and chemical networks with GDM using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance.

RESULTS: Higher concentrations of PCBs with six or more chlorine atoms were associated with increased risk of GDM in the overall cohort (risk ratios [RRs] range: 1.08-1.13 per 1-standard deviation [SD] increment) and among women with a family history of T2D (RRs range: 1.08-1.48 per 1-SD increment) or normal ppBMI (RRs range: 1.08-1.22 per 1-SD increment). Similar associations were observed for the chemical network comprised of PCBs with ≥6 chlorine atoms and the summary measure of total PCBs and non-dioxin like PCBs (138, 153, 170, 180). Furthermore, four PFAS congeners - perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) - showed significant positive associations with GDM among women with a family history of T2D (RRs range:1.22-3.18 per 1-SD increment), whereas BDE47 and BDE153 showed significant positive associations among women without a family history of T2D.

CONCLUSIONS: Environmentally relevant levels of heavily chlorinated PCBs and some PFAS and PBDEs were positively associated with GDM with suggestive effect modifications by family history of T2D and body adiposity status.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

Authors: Huang, R; Chen, Q; Zhang, L; Luo, K; Chen, L; Zhao, S; Feng, L; Zhang, J (2019) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 18:5. HERO ID: 5083564

[Less] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been reported . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been reported to disrupt endocrine system and reproduction. However, epidemiological evidence on the association between PFAS and preeclampsia is inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between prenatal PFAS exposure and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) in humans.

METHODS: PFAS were measured by liquid chromatography system coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in 687 umbilical cord plasma samples collected between 2011 and 2012 in Shanghai, China. Information on HDP including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was abstracted from medical records. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of each PFAS with gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and overall HDP in separate models. Elastic net regression with logit link was used to identify independent associations between exposures and outcomes. Logistic regression was used to obtain the unpenalized estimates of the selected PFAS components for the associations with outcomes, adjusting for age, education level, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, and mutual adjustment of selected PFAS.

RESULTS: The risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 3.3% and 2.8% in our subjects, respectively. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) were associated with preeclampsia based on elastic net penalty regression. In the fully adjusted statistical model, women with a higher level of standardized ln-transformed PFBS had an increased odds of preeclampsia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-3.17], and overall HDP (AOR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.09-2.47).

CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to PFBS was positively associated with the risk of preeclampsia and overall HDP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and levels of micropollutants across environmental and engineered compartments in Austria

Authors: Zoboli, O; Clara, M; Gabriel, O; Scheffknecht, C; Humer, M; Brielmann, H; Kulcsar, S; Trautvetter, H; Kittlaus, S; Amann, A; Saracevic, E; Krampe, J; Zessner, M (2019) Journal of Environmental Management 232:636-653. HERO ID: 5080480

[Less] Occurrence and concentration of a broad spectrum of micropollutants are investigated in Austrian river . . . [More] Occurrence and concentration of a broad spectrum of micropollutants are investigated in Austrian river catchments, namely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organotin compounds, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and metals. The parallel analysis across multiple environmental and engineered compartments sheds light on the ratio of dissolved and particulate transport and on differences in concentration levels between point and diffuse emission pathways. It is found that some PAHs and organotins are present in rivers, groundwater and bulk deposition at higher concentrations than in municipal wastewater effluents. Among PFAAs and metals, highest concentrations were recorded either in atmospheric deposition or in discharges from wastewater treatment plants. The relevance of the analysis across compartments is best shown by the case of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). Despite municipal wastewater effluents being the emission pathway with highest concentrations, this study reveals that not only rivers, but also atmospheric deposition and groundwater sometimes exceed the environmental quality standard for surface waters. Moreover, this work reveals partially counterintuitive patterns. In rivers with treated wastewater discharges, increasing levels of dissolved compounds were measured at rising flow conditions, whereas the opposite would be expected owing to the dilution effect. This might derive from the mobilisation from soil or suspended particulate matter or rather find its explanation in high concentrations in atmospheric deposition. These hypotheses require however being tested through targeted studies. Additional future research includes the analysis of how regional or catchment specific characteristics might alter the relative importance of different emission pathways, and the modelling of emission and river loads to assess their relative contribution to river pollution.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Removal of PFAS from aqueous solution using PbO2 from lead-acid battery

Authors: Fang, C; Sobhani, Z; Niu, J; Naidu, R (2019) Chemosphere 219:36-44. HERO ID: 5080483

[Less] Whilst advanced electrochemical oxidation can break down per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), . . . [More] Whilst advanced electrochemical oxidation can break down per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), the requirement for expensive electrode materials usually prevents its widespread application. Here we use an industrial material of lead peroxide (PbO2) from a lead-acid battery to break down PFAS including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (6:2 FTS). By optimising the PbO2 panel (activating and doping) and working conditions including supporting electrolyte (1 L 10 mM Na2SO4), initial concentration (10 μM), temperature (room temperature), current density (5 A for a 10 cm × 10 cm PbO2 panel) etc., we successfully remove > 99% PFAS (individual PFAS monitored via HPLC-MS) whilst mineralising ∼59% PFOA (defluorination, F- released and monitored via F-ISE, fluoride-ion selective electrode). By studying the pseudo-first-order kinetics of the PFAS breakdown (0.0028-0.007 min-1) and defluorination (0.84-5.9 × 10-8 min-1), we assign the difference to the adsorption of PFAS on the PbO2 panel and the appearance of intermediates before the full defluorination. The leaked HF gas (∼10-5 M, collected using 0.25 L 0.1 M NaOH) and Pb2+ (∼12 μM, or ∼ 2.5 ppm) are also confirmed. This study employs an economic industrial material, highlights the contribution of adsorption towards the PFAS removal and breakdown, and identifies the possible leakage of secondary contaminants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Does soil track-in contribute to house dust concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in areas affected by soil or water contamination?

Authors: Scher, DP; Kelly, JE; Huset, CA; Barry, KM; Yingling, VL (2019) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 29:218-226. HERO ID: 5080468

[Less] The Minnesota Department of Health measured levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in house dust at . . . [More] The Minnesota Department of Health measured levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in house dust at homes in communities impacted by PFAA-contaminated soil and drinking water to determine whether PFAAs in soil outside the home are associated with concentrations in dust. House dust samples from both interior living spaces and entryways to the yard were collected and analyzed separately based on the presumption that PFAAs in entryway dust may better reflect "track-in" of PFAAs into the home from contaminated soil or lawns irrigated with contaminated water. PFAA detections and concentrations in living rooms were significantly higher compared to entryways; and concentrations in both sampling locations were higher than corresponding soil concentrations, suggesting that interior sources were the main contributors to PFAAs in house dust. PFAA dust concentrations in entryways were significantly associated with living room dust levels for all analytes except PFBA. Relationships between entryway dust and soil were only seen for one PFAA (PFOA). However, median concentrations of PFOA in entryway and living room dust were 35 and 70 times higher (respectively) than in soil, which highlights the lack of importance of PFAA soil track-in as a contributor to dust concentration in this setting. Due to the small sample size, larger scale studies are needed to further assess the potential for migration of PFAA contaminated soil to indoor dust.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Factors associated with exposure of pregnant women to perfluoroalkyl acids in North China and health risk assessment

Authors: Yang, J; Wang, H; Du, H; Xu, L; Liu, S; Yi, J; Qian, X; Chen, Y; Jiang, Q; He, G (2019) Science of the Total Environment 655:356-362. HERO ID: 5080660

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been frequently found in blood of pregnant women, but the predictors . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been frequently found in blood of pregnant women, but the predictors and potential health risk have not been well studied in China. We recruited 534 pregnant women in Tangshan City of Hebei Province in North China between 2013 and 2014 and measured five PFAAs in serum during their early term of pregnancy, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoro‑n‑undecanoic acid (PFUdA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). We explored the factors associated with the levels of serum PFAAs and assessed associated health risks. Food consumption information was obtained by food frequency questionnaire covering 100 items. Multiple linear regression model was used to determine the associations of sociodemographic, anthropometric, and food factors with the concentrations of serum PFAAs. Some PFAAs in serum were positively associated with age and body mass index (BMI). Consumption of beans, aquatic products, and eggs was positively associated with the concentrations of several PFAAs after adjusting for important covariates. Pregnant women who ate more cereal, vegetables, mushrooms and alga tended to have lower levels of serum PFOA, PFOS and PFNA. The Hazard index (HI) for reproductive toxicity and developmental toxicity was below 0.8, and the HI for hepatotoxicity beyond 1 was found in 0.37% of pregnant women. These results suggested that age, BMI, and some food consumption were predictors for the exposure to PFAAs in Chinese pregnant women. More attention should be paid to the hepatotoxicity for these exposures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Concentrations of legacy and new contaminants are related to metabolite profiles in Hudson Bay polar bears

Authors: Morris, AD; Letcher, RJ; Dyck, M; Chandramouli, B; Cosgrove, J (2019) Environmental Research 168:364-374. HERO ID: 5017279

[Less] There are very few metabolomics assessments based on field accumulated, uncontrolled contaminant exposures . . . [More] There are very few metabolomics assessments based on field accumulated, uncontrolled contaminant exposures in wildlife, particularly in the Arctic. In the present study, targeted metabolomics and contaminant data were analyzed together to assess potential influences of contaminant exposure on the hepatic metabolome of male polar bears (n = 29) from the southern and western Hudson Bay (SHB and WHB respectively), Canada. The 29 metabolites identified as important in the differentiation of the two subpopulations after partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) included phosphatidylcholines (PCs), acylcarnitines (ACs; involved in β-oxidation of fatty acids), and the fatty acid (FA) arachidonic acid (ARA). Perfluorinated alkyl substances, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and some highly chlorinated ortho-polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were greater in the SHB bears and were consistently inversely correlated with discriminating ACs and PCs between the subpopulations. The concentrations of discriminatory, legacy organochlorine pesticides along with one tetrachlorobiphenyl were greater in the WHB and were directly correlated with the VIP-identified ACs and PCs. ARA, glycerophospholipid and several amino acid metabolic pathways were identified as different between subpopulations and/or were impacted. ARA is an important, conditionally essential, dietary n-6 FA and is also part of the inflammation response, and elevated concentrations in the SHB could be related to differences in chronic contaminant exposure and/or differences in diet and/or season, among a number of possible explanations. Dietary tracers (stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen) were correlated with some discriminatory metabolites, supporting the hypothesis that dietary variation was also an important factor in the differentiation of the subpopulations. The results suggest linkages between contaminant exposure in Hudson Bay polar bears and elements of the hepatic metabolome, particularly those related to lipid metabolism.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vitro and in silico evaluations of binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl substances to baikal seal and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α

Authors: Ishibashi, H; Hirano, M; Kim, EY; Iwata, H (2019) Environmental Science and Technology 53:2181-2188. HERO ID: 5024210

[Less] In this study, we assessed the binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] In this study, we assessed the binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), to the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of Baikal seal ( Pusa sibirica; bs) and human (h) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). An in vitro competitive binding assay showed that six PFCAs and two PFSAs could bind to recombinant bs and hPPARα LBD proteins in a dose-dependent manner. The relative binding affinities (RBAs) of PFASs to bsPPARα were as follows: PFOS > PFDA > PFNA > PFUnDA > PFOA > PFHxS > PFHpA > PFHxA. The RBAs to bsPPARα showed a significant positive correlation with those to hPPARα. In silico PPARα homology modeling predicted that there were two ligand-binding pockets (LBPs) in the bsPPARα and hPPARα LBDs. Structure-activity relationship analyses suggested that the binding potencies of PFASs to PPARα might depend on LBP binding cavity volume, hydrogen bond interactions, the number of perfluorinated carbons, and the hydrophobicity of PFASs. Interspecies comparison of the in vitro binding affinities revealed that bsPPARα had higher preference for PFASs with long carbon chains than hPPARα. The in silico docking simulations suggested that the first LBP of bsPPARα had higher affinities than that of hPPARα; however, the second LBP of bsPPARα had lower affinities than that of hPPARα. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence showing interspecies differences in the binding of PFASs to PPARαs and their structure-activity relationships.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The PFOA substitute GenX detected in the environment near a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant in the Netherlands

Authors: Brandsma, SH; Koekkoek, JC; van Velzen, MJM; de Boer, J (2019) Chemosphere 220:493-500. HERO ID: 5024246

[Less] The ban on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has led to the production and use of alternative fluorinated . . . [More] The ban on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has led to the production and use of alternative fluorinated compounds such as GenX. Limited information is available on the occurrence of this PFOA substitute. In this pilot study, we investigated the presence of GenX in/on grass and leaf samples collected near a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant in the Netherlands and in drinking water produced from surface and surface-water influenced groundwater intake points within 25 km from the plant. GenX was detected in/on all grass and leaf samples collected within 3 km north-east from the plant, with levels ranging from 1 to 27 ng/g wet weight (ww) and 4.3-86 ng/g ww, respectively. The PFOA levels in/on grass and leaves were lower, ranging from 0.7 to 11 ng/g ww and 0.9-28 ng/g ww, respectively. A declining concentration gradient of GenX and PFOA with increasing distance from the plant was observed, which suggests that the plant is a point source of GenX and was a point source for PFOA in the past. In all drinking water samples, GenX and PFOA were detected with levels ranging from 1.4 to 8.0 ng/L and 1.9-7.1 ng/L, respectively. The detection of GenX, which is only used since 2012, in/on grass and leaves and in drinking water indicates that GenX is now distributed through the environment. The presence of GenX and PFOA in/on grass and leaves within 3 km north-east of the plant also suggests that these chemicals could also be present on the locally grown food in gardens around the factory.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exploring sex differences in human health risk assessment for PFNA and PFDA using a PBPK model

Authors: Kim, SJ; Choi, EJ; Choi, GW; Lee, YB; Cho, HY (2019) Archives of Toxicology 93:311-330. HERO ID: 5063958

[Less] Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), which are classified as perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), which are classified as perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), have been widely used in industrial applications as a surface protectant. PFASs have been detected in wildlife and in humans around the globe. The purposes of this study are to develop and validate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for detecting PFNA and PFDA in male and female rats, and to apply the model to a human health risk assessment regarding the sex difference. A PBPK model of PFNA and PFDA was established based on an in vivo study in male and female rats. Analytes in biological samples (plasma, nine tissues, urine, and feces) were determined by ultra-liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. PFNA and PFDA showed a gender differences in the elimination half-life and volume of distribution. The tissue-plasma partition coefficients were the highest in the liver in both male and female rats. The predicted rat plasma and urine concentrations simulated and fitted were in good agreement with the observed values. The PBPK models of PFNA and PFDA in male and female rats were then extrapolated to a human PBPK model based on human physiological parameters. The external doses were calculated at 3.35 ng/kg/day (male) and 17.0 ng/kg/day (female) for PFNA and 0.530 ng/kg/day (male) and 0.661 ng/kg/day (female) for PFDA. Human risk assessment was estimated using Korean biomonitoring values considering the gender differences. This study provides valuable insight into human health risk assessment regarding PFNA and PFDA exposure.