Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)


3,081 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Do concentrations of perfluoroalkylated acids (PFAAs) in isopods reflect concentrations in soil and songbirds? A study using a distance gradient from a fluorochemical plant

Authors: Groffen, T; Eens, M; Bervoets, L (2019) Science of the Total Environment 657:111-123. HERO ID: 5080482

[Less] Perfluoroalkylated acids (PFAAs) are persistent chemicals that have been detected globally in the environment . . . [More] Perfluoroalkylated acids (PFAAs) are persistent chemicals that have been detected globally in the environment and in wildlife. Although it is known that PFAAs sorb to solid matrices, little is known on PFAA concentrations in soils. PFAA pollution has often been studied in aquatic invertebrates. However, this has rarely been done on terrestrial species. In the present study, we examined whether the concentrations of 15 PFAAs in isopods (Oniscidae), collected at a fluorochemical plant and in four other areas, representing a gradient in distance from the pollution source (1 km to 11 km), were related to those in the soil and in eggs of a songbird, the great tit (Parus major), collected in the same areas. Additionally, we examined the effect of physicochemical properties such as total organic carbon (TOC) and clay content on the relationship between the concentrations in soil and isopods. Finally, we examined the composition profile in the soil and isopods. Mean PFOS and PFOA concentrations of 1700 ng/g dw and 24 ng/g dw were detected in the soil at the plant. PFOS and PFPeA were the dominant PFAAs in isopods and were detected at mean concentrations of 253 and 108 ng/g ww, respectively. The great tit eggs showed elevated mean PFOS concentrations of 55,970 ng/g ww. In most cases, PFAA concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the plant. As PFAA concentrations in isopods were correlated with concentrations in the soils, isopods could serve as a bioindicator for PFAA concentrations in soils. Additionally, there were indications that isopods could also serve as a bioindicator for PFAA concentrations in eggs of great tits. However, these indications were only the case at two locations, showing the need to further monitor the possibilities of using isopods as a bioindicator for PFAA concentrations in song bird eggs. CAPSULE: Elevated PFAA concentrations in isopods reflected concentrations in songbird eggs and in soil, indicating that trophic transfer of PFAAs from soil, via isopods, to songbirds might play a role in the PFAA exposure of terrestrial songbirds.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances and organophosphorus compounds in breast milk by liquid chromatography coupled to orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry

Authors: Beser, MI; Pardo, O; Beltrán, J; Yusà, V (2019) Analytica Chimica Acta 1049:123-132. HERO ID: 5080502

[Less] The human exposure to perfluoroalkyl (PFASs) and organophosphorus (OPs) compounds is a cause of concern . . . [More] The human exposure to perfluoroalkyl (PFASs) and organophosphorus (OPs) compounds is a cause of concern and its determination in biological matrices, including human milk, is an emergent approach for evaluate their exposure. A comprehensive strategy for the quantitative determination of 21 PFASs and OPs compounds in breast milk was developed. The proposed method includes an extraction and clean-up procedure based on the QuEChERs methodology followed by an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) determination. The full-scan mass data were acquired with a resolution of 50000 FWHM and a mass accuracy better than 5 ppm. Method validation was performed in terms of recovery, repeatability, linearity and limit of quantification. The obtained recoveries varied between 70 and 120% with a precision (RSD) lower than 25%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged between 1.9 and 19.0 ng g-1 lipid weight for OPs, and between 0.066 ng mL-1 and 0.666 ng mL-1 for PFASs. A breast milk reference material was used in order to check the validated method. The developed analytical strategy was applied to 20 breast milk samples collected from mothers living in the Valencian Region (Spain). All of the OPs analyzed except tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) were detected in at least one sample. In all samples, perfluoro-n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluoro-n-octanoic acid (PFOA) and sodium perfluoro-1-octanesulfonate (PFOS) were the most frequently detected analytes. Concentration of total OPs (∑OPs) and total PFASs (∑PFASs) ranged from 1.9 to 37.7 ng g-1 lipid weight and from 0.066 to 0.356 ng mL-1, respectively.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Renal function and isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS): Isomers of C8 Health Project in China

Authors: Wang, J; Zeng, XW; Bloom, MS; Qian, Z; Hinyard, LJ; Belue, R; Lin, S; Wang, SQ; Tian, YP; Yang, M; Chu, C; Gurram, N; Hu, LW; Liu, KK; Yang, BY; Feng, D; Liu, RQ; Dong, GH (2019) Chemosphere 218:1042-1049. HERO ID: 5080583

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widely-utilized synthetic chemicals commonly found in industrial . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widely-utilized synthetic chemicals commonly found in industrial and consumer products. Previous studies have examined associations between PFASs and renal function, yet the results are mixed. Moreover, evidence on the associations of isomers of PFASs with renal function in population from high polluted areas is scant. To help to address this data gap, we used high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure serum isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and other PFASs from 1612 adults residing in Shenyang, China, and characterized their associations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Results showed that after adjusted for multiple confounding factors, most of the higher fluorinated PFASs, except for PFOA and PFDA, were negatively associated with eGFR and positively associated with CKD. Compared with linear PFOS (n-PFOS), branched PFOS isomers (Br-PFOS) were more strongly associated with eGFR (Br-PFOS; β = -1.22, 95%CI: 2.02, -0.42; p = 0.003 vs. n-PFOS; β = -0.16, 95%CI: 0.98, 0.65; p = 0.691) and CKD (Br-PFOS; OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.58; p = 0.037 vs. n-PFOS; OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.20; p = 0.834). In conclusion, branched PFOS isomers were negatively associated with renal function whereas their linear counterparts were not. Given widespread exposure to PFASs, potential nephrotoxic effects are of great public health concern, Furthermore, longitudinal research on the potential nephrotoxic effects of PFASs isomers will be necessary to more definitively assess the risk.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl substances exposure and risk of polycystic ovarian syndrome related infertility in Chinese women

Authors: Wang, W; Zhou, W; Wu, S; Liang, F; Li, Y; Zhang, J; Cui, L; Feng, Y; Wang, Y (2019) Environmental Pollution 247:824-831. HERO ID: 5080500

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a family of synthetic, fluorinated organic compounds. They have . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a family of synthetic, fluorinated organic compounds. They have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products and widespread in the environment, wildlife and human. Experimental and epidemiologic evidence suggested that PFASs are capable of interfering with endocrine processes and have potential reproductive and developmental toxicities. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), one of the main reasons of female infertility, is a common endocrine disorder in reproductive age women. We performed a case-control study to evaluate associations between PCOS-related infertility and PFASs concentrations in plasma. A total of 180 infertile PCOS-cases and 187 healthy controls were recruited from the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Shandong University. Blood specimens were collected at enrollment and analyzed for ten PFASs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression procedure was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each PFAS. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were the dominant PFASs in the plasma of participants, with the median concentration of 5.07 ng/mL and 4.05 ng/mL, respectively. The median levels of individual PFAS were not significantly different between PCOS-cases and controls. While adjusted for the potential confounders (age, BMI, household income, education level, employment status, age at menarche, menstrual volume), the plasma concentration of perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), a 12 carbons lengths of perfluorocarboxylic acids, was associated with a significantly increased risk of PCOS-related infertility (medium vs low tertile: OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.12, 4.99, P = 0.02; high vs low tertile: OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.19, 7.67, P = 0.02), with the P trend 0.01. No significant relationship was observed between PCOS-related infertility and other PFAS analytes in the adjusted model, despite perfluoroundecanoic acid showed a negative association (P trend 0.03). The potential reproductive health effects of PFASs and the underlying mechanisms merit further investigation in the future.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

Authors: Huang, R; Chen, Q; Zhang, L; Luo, K; Chen, L; Zhao, S; Feng, L; Zhang, J (2019) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 18:5. HERO ID: 5083564

[Less] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been reported . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been reported to disrupt endocrine system and reproduction. However, epidemiological evidence on the association between PFAS and preeclampsia is inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between prenatal PFAS exposure and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) in humans.

METHODS: PFAS were measured by liquid chromatography system coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in 687 umbilical cord plasma samples collected between 2011 and 2012 in Shanghai, China. Information on HDP including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was abstracted from medical records. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of each PFAS with gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and overall HDP in separate models. Elastic net regression with logit link was used to identify independent associations between exposures and outcomes. Logistic regression was used to obtain the unpenalized estimates of the selected PFAS components for the associations with outcomes, adjusting for age, education level, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, and mutual adjustment of selected PFAS.

RESULTS: The risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 3.3% and 2.8% in our subjects, respectively. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) were associated with preeclampsia based on elastic net penalty regression. In the fully adjusted statistical model, women with a higher level of standardized ln-transformed PFBS had an increased odds of preeclampsia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-3.17], and overall HDP (AOR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.09-2.47).

CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to PFBS was positively associated with the risk of preeclampsia and overall HDP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Calibration and application of passive sampling for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in a drinking water treatment plant

Authors: Gobelius, L; Persson, C; Wiberg, K; Ahrens, L (2019) Journal of Hazardous Materials 362:230-237. HERO ID: 5083652

[Less] The aim of this study was to calibrate and apply polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) . . . [More] The aim of this study was to calibrate and apply polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) to examine 26 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). As a first step, the sampling rates (Rs) of 14 PFASs were determined in a laboratory calibration study for POCIS-WAX (weak-anion exchange) and POCIS-HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) (each with a surface area per mass of sorbent ratio of 227 cm2 g-1). While most PFASs were still in the linear uptake phase during the 28-day calibration study, Rs ranged from 0.003 to 0.10 L d-1 for POCIS-WAX and 0.00052 to 0.13 for POCIS-HLB. It is important to note that POCIS-WAX had higher Rs for short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with a perfluorocarbon chain length of C3-C6 and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) compared with POCIS-HLB. Furthermore, Rs was significantly positively correlated with the sorbent-water partition coefficient (Kpw) for POCIS-WAX and POCIS-HLB (p < 0.0001). Use of POCIS-WAX and POCIS-HLB in the DWTP showed good agreement with composite water sampling. No removal of PFASs was observed in the full-scale DWTP. Overall, this is the first study of PFAS monitoring in a DWTP using two types of POCIS. The results demonstrate high suitability for future applications.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comprehensive analysis of photoinitiators and primary aromatic amines in food contact materials using liquid chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Sanchis, Y; Coscollà, C; Yusà, V (2019) Talanta 191:109-118. HERO ID: 5080281

[Less] A comprehensive strategy for the analysis of UV-ink photoinitiators and primary aromatic amines (PAAS) . . . [More] A comprehensive strategy for the analysis of UV-ink photoinitiators and primary aromatic amines (PAAS) in food-packaging materials such as, juice tetrabricks, pouches and bags has been developed using liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap-HRMS). The methodology includes both quantitative target analysis and post-run target screening analysis. The quantitative method was validated after a previous optimisation of the single-stage Orbitrap fragmentation through the Higher-Energy Collisional Dissociation (HCD) Cell. Overall, the quantitative method presented recoveries ranging from 78% to 119%, with a precision (RSD) lower than 20%, for the 18 substances in the scope of the target method. Limit of quantification (LOQ) for UV-inks photoinitiators ranged from 0.5 µg/kg-1 for Isopropyl Thioxanthone (ITX) and 2-Ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (EHDAB) to 5 µg/kg-1 for the rest of photoinitiators. LOQ for PAAs were 2 µg/kg-1 except for aniline (ANL) and 3,3' dimethylbenzidine (3,3'-DMB) which was 2.5 µg/kg-1 in the two studied simulants (acetic acid 3% and ethanol 50%). For post-run target screening a customized theoretical database, that included Bisphenols, Polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), Phosphorus Flame Retardants (PFRs) and other substances was built. For identification purposes, a mass accuracy lower than 5 ppm, and some diagnostic ions including isotopes and/or fragments were used. The strategy was applied to 18 samples collected in the Valencian region (Spain). No compounds were detected when the standardised migration test was applied. However, in the destructive test, benzophenone and EHDAB were determined from tetrabrick and pouch materials. In the post-run target analysis two PFCs (Perfluorooctanoic acid and Perfluoro-1-butanesulfonate) and four PFRs (2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate, tris(2-choloroisopropyl) phosphate, triphenyl phosphate and 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate) were identified.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Efficiency of maternal-fetal transfer of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances

Authors: Wang, Y; Han, W; Wang, C; Zhou, Y; Shi, R; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, EC; Yao, Q; Yuan, T; Gao, Y; Zhang, J; Tian, Y (2019) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26:2691-2698. HERO ID: 5083694

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can be transferred from a mother to her fetus . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can be transferred from a mother to her fetus during pregnancy and adversely affect fetal development. However, the efficiency and influencing factors of PFASs maternal-fetal transfer remain unclear. We measured the levels of six perfluoroalkylcarboxylates, three perfluoroalkylsulfonates, and one sulfonamide in 369 pairs of maternal and umbilical cord serum and examined the transplacental transfer efficiency (TTE) of PFASs by the functional group and carbon chain length in a prospective birth cohort in Shandong, China. All ten PFASs were detected in both maternal and umbilical cord serum in nearly all samples. Maternal and cord levels were closely correlated (the correlation coefficient [r] ranging from 0.485 to 0.908) in most PFASs except perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) (r = 0.159). TTE was significantly affected by the functional group and carbon chain length. Compared to perfluoroalkylcarboxylates, perfluoroalkylsulfonates had a lower ratio of maternal to fetal transfer. A U-shaped relationship between carbon chain length and TTE was observed for perfluoroalkylcarboxylates while a monotonic descending trend was identified between TTE and the increasing carbon chain length for perfluoroalkylsulfonates. PFASs can readily pass through the placenta. The functional group and carbon chain length are important determinants for the TTE of PFASs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants in Northern Tanzania and their distribution between breast milk, maternal blood, placenta and cord blood

Authors: Müller, MHB; Polder, A; Brynildsrud, OB; Grønnestad, R; Karimi, M; Lie, E; Manyilizu, WB; Mdegela, RH; Mokiti, F; Murtadha, M; Nonga, HE; Skaare, JU; Solhaug, A; Lyche, JL (2019) Environmental Research 170:433-442. HERO ID: 5080599

[Less] Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) begins during pregnancy and may cause adverse . . . [More] Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) begins during pregnancy and may cause adverse health effects in the fetus or later in life. The present study aimed to assess prenatal POPs exposure to Tanzanian infants and evaluate the distribution of POPs between breast milk, maternal blood, placenta and cord blood. For assessment of prenatal exposure, 48 maternal blood samples from Mount Meru Regional Referral Hospital (MMRRH), Arusha Tanzania, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), dioxin-like (DL) activity and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs). For evaluation of POPs distribution between maternal/infant compartments, breast milk, placenta and cord blood corresponding to the maternal blood were analyzed for OCPs, PCBs and BFRs. In maternal blood, p,p´- DDE was detected in 100% of the samples ranging between 29 and 1890 ng/g lipid weight (lw). PCB-153 was the only PCB detected in maternal blood, with detection rate of 29% and concentrations up to 116 ng/g lw. BDE-47 was detected in 65% of the maternal blood samples, ranging between

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Probing mechanisms for bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids in carp (Cyprinus carpio): Impacts of protein binding affinities and elimination pathways

Authors: Zhong, W; Zhang, L; Cui, Y; Chen, M; Zhu, L (2019) Science of the Total Environment 647:992-999. HERO ID: 5080399

[Less] With regulations on the manufacture and usage of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate . . . [More] With regulations on the manufacture and usage of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related compounds, short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are increasingly being used as alternatives. However, there are limited studies on their bioaccumulation mechanisms, especially for short-chain PFAAs. In this study, we examined the binding affinity of PFAAs with fish serum proteins and tissue distributions of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (C7-C11 PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (C4, C6, and C8 PFSAs) in carp (Cyprinus carpio), including the isomers of PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS). For both PFCAs and PFSAs, the fish serum protein binding constant (KA) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) increased with an increase in the carbon chain length. PFHxS (C6 PFSA) had a much higher KA but displayed a much lower BCF than those of C7-C11 PFCAs. It indicated that not only fish blood proteins, but also other proteins in the liver and kidney, mediated the accumulation of PFAAs in fish. The lowest concentration ratios of PFHxS in liver to blood and in kidney to blood suggested that it could not be effectively transported to liver and kidney by fatty acid binding proteins and organic anion transporters. PFOS and PFHxS displayed different elimination pathways, although their linear (n-) isomers were accumulated more in fish than the corresponding branched (br-) isomers. The n-PFOS was eliminated more via the feces but br-PFOS was eliminated more via the urine; while the opposite trend was observed for PFHxS isomers.