Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)


513 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Environmental contamination and human exposure to PFASs near a fluorochemical production plant: Review of historic and current PFOA and GenX contamination in the Netherlands

Authors: Gebbink, WA; van Leeuwen, SPJ (2020) Environment International 137:105583. [Review] HERO ID: 6305899

[Less] Fluorochemical production plants (FPP) are primary emission sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances . . . [More] Fluorochemical production plants (FPP) are primary emission sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to the local environment. An FPP located in the Netherlands has historically used perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) for fluoropolymer production and is currently using GenX (HFPO-DA; 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)propionic acid) as a replacement. This study reviewed existing data from open access reports and peer reviewed publications on the environmental presence of PFOA and GenX in environmental matrices such as surface water, groundwater, soil and vegetation. Published data on human exposure to PFOA and GenX (i.e. via drinking water and food as well as blood monitoring) were reviewed in order to assess the influence of the FPP on contamination of the local population. Concentrations in environmental and human exposure samples were compared to (inter)national quality standards or risk limits. The data showed higher PFOA and GenX concentrations in surface water, groundwater, soil and vegetation samples taken close to point sources, and the highest observed concentrations exceeded these standards and limits (except for PFOA in soil). Drinking water and food also contained higher PFOA and GenX concentrations in samples taken close to point sources compared to samples further away. Tolerable daily intake (TDIs) for both PFASs were exceeded, however, only in a maximum exposure scenario. Blood monitoring of the local population near the FPP, and FPP workers, confirmed high exposure can occur as blood concentrations of several individuals exceeded the safe level. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on PFOA and GenX contamination close to point sources in the Netherlands.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in tern eggs from St. Brandon's Atoll, Indian Ocean

Authors: van Der Schyff, V; Kwet Yive, NSC; Polder, A; Cole, NC; Bouwman, H (2020) Marine Pollution Bulletin 154:111061. HERO ID: 6311633

[Less] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are anthropogenic fluorinated compounds of concern for human . . . [More] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are anthropogenic fluorinated compounds of concern for human and environmental health. There is no data on PFAS concentrations in marine bird eggs from the Western Indian Ocean. We analysed eight PFAS in eggs of fairy terns (Gygis alba), sooty terns (Onychoprion fuscatus), and common noddies (Anous stolidus) from St. Brandon's Atoll. Fairy tern eggs contained the highest concentrations, followed by sooty terns and common noddies. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) had the highest mean concentration (2.3 ng/g wm), followed by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) (2.0 ng/g wm), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (0.93 ng/g wm) in fairy tern eggs. Concentrations of all PFAS were lower than values found in literature. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were three orders of magnitude lower than toxicity reference values and levels of lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level concentrations. Eggs from St. Brandon's would be useful to monitor background changes on a regional and perhaps global scale.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Behavioural effects and bioconcentration of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

Authors: Menger, F; Pohl, J; Ahrens, L; Carlsson, G; Örn, S (2020) Chemosphere 245:125573. HERO ID: 6311635

[Less] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that cause concern . . . [More] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that cause concern regarding their environmental impact and risk to human health. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to PFASs for six days, to investigate behaviour toxicity and bioconcentration factor (BCF). Nine individual PFASs (five C4-C8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) (PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA), three C4, C6 and C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) (PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and 6:2 fluorotelomersulfonate (6:2 FTSA)) and a mixture of these were investigated at seven concentrations ranging from environmentally relevant to acutely toxic levels. In exposed embryos, significant differences were found in total swimming distance (PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS, PFOS, 6:2 FTSA, PFAS mixture), burst activity (PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS, PFOS, PFAS mixture) and startle response (PFNA, PFHxS, PFOS, PFAS mixture). Toxicity was only observed at concentrations well above environmental levels. The toxicity of the PFAS mixture generally followed that of the individual substances, but the mixture reduced the potencies of individual PFASs. BCF was determined for all nine PFASs and ranged between 0.9 (PFPeA) and 2700 (PFOS). Long-chain PFASs (C8) and PFASs with sulfonate as an active group showed the greatest toxic potential, while short-chain PFASs (C6 and C7) also caused significant behaviour alterations and accumulated in the embryos. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the behaviour toxicity of a PFAS mixture with that of the individual PFASs. Follow-up studies are needed to identify the mechanistic responses to PFAS mixtures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Albumin is the major carrier protein for PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA and PFDA in human plasma

Authors: Forsthuber, M; Kaiser, AM; Granitzer, S; Hassl, I; Hengstschläger, M; Stangl, H; Gundacker, C (2020) Environment International 137:105324. HERO ID: 6311640

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl (PFAS) substances are widespread in the environment and in organisms. The fact that exposure . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl (PFAS) substances are widespread in the environment and in organisms. The fact that exposure to PFAS is associated with elevated cholesterol levels is a major concern for human health. Previous investigations, in which bovine serum albumin was frequently studied, indicate that PFOS, PFOA and PFNA bind to serum albumin. However, it is critical to know whether these and other PFAS have a preference for the protein or the lipid fraction in native human blood fractions. For this reason, blood samples from four young healthy volunteers (two women, two men, 23–31 years old) were used for protein size separation and fractionation by the Cohn method in combination with serial ultracentrifugation. The plasma fractions were analyzed for 11 PFAS using high-performance tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Although the data are based on a small sample, they clearly show that albumin is the most important carrier protein for PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA and PFDA in native human plasma. These five compounds have very little or no affinity for lipoproteins. The confirmation of their transport through albumin is important for the epidemiology of PFAS. The present results must be verified by the examination of a larger number of persons.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and blood pressure in pre-diabetic adults-cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the diabetes prevention program outcomes study

Authors: Lin, PD; Cardenas, A; Hauser, R; Gold, DR; Kleinman, KP; Hivert, MF; Calafat, AM; Webster, TF; Horton, ES; Oken, E (2020) Environment International 137:105573. HERO ID: 6311641

[Less] The relationship of plasma concentration of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with blood pressure . . . [More] The relationship of plasma concentration of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with blood pressure (BP) is uncertain. This study examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of PFAS with BP and hypertension. We quantified plasma PFAS concentrations from 957 participants enrolled in the lifestyle and placebo arms of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a randomized controlled trial with approximately 15 years of follow-up. We used multivariable linear and logistic regressions to test cross-sectional associations of six PFAS, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid (EtFOSAA), N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid (MeFOSAA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), with BP and hypertension prevalence, respectively, at baseline. We used generalized linear mixed models to estimate longitudinal associations between baseline PFAS and the rate of BP changes, and Cox-Proportional hazard models to estimate risk of developing hypertension relative to baseline PFAS. Models were adjusted for baseline age, sex, race/ethnicity, treatment arm, educational attainment, income, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol drinking, and diet. We tested for effect modification by the treatment arm and sex, and accounted for multiple comparisons using the False-Discovery Rate (FDR). PFAS concentrations and hypertension prevalence within the study population (65.3% female, 57.7% White, 65.3% aged 40-59 years) were comparable to the general U.S. population. Cross-sectionally, we found small but statistically significant associations of baseline plasma concentrations of PFOA with systolic BP (β per doubling: 1.49 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.29, 2.70); and MeFOSAA with hypertension (RR = 1.09 per doubling, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19). Estimates were not statistically significant after FDR adjustment. Longitudinally, we observed null associations in the placebo arm, but some inverse associations of baseline PFOS and MeFOSAA with systolic BP in the lifestyle arm, perhaps due to regression toward the mean. Baseline PFAS concentrations also were not prospectively associated with hypertension risk. Overall, there were modest and mostly null associations of plasma PFAS concentrations with BP and hypertension.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Intrauterine exposure to perfluorinated compounds and overweight at age 4: A case-control study

Authors: Martinsson, M; Nielsen, C; Björk, J; Rylander, L; Malmqvist, E; Lindh, C; Rignell-Hydbom, A (2020) PLoS ONE 15:e0230137. HERO ID: 6311645

[Less] AIMS: The aims were to investigate the association between maternal serum levels of . . . [More] AIMS: The aims were to investigate the association between maternal serum levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in early pregnancy and overweight in the child at 4 years and to assess potential heterogeneity in exposure effect between strata with different levels of other risk factors for overweight.

METHODS: We used a case-control design and included 354 cases (ISO-BMI ≥ 18 kg/m2) and 2 controls per case (ISO-BMI ≤17 kg/m2) from child health care centers in Malmö, Sweden. Controls were selected stratified on risk scores for overweight in a propensity score framework. Maternal serum levels were analyzed in biobanked samples collected by routine around gestational week 14. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios between quartiles of maternal serum levels and child overweight at age 4.

RESULTS: There were no consistent monotonic exposure-response relationships. We found some significant odds ratios in specific quartiles but these were regarded as spurious findings. The absence of an effect was consistent over risk strata.

CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence of an association between maternal serum levels of PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA in early pregnancy and child overweight at age 4. The level of other risk factors for overweight did not affect children's susceptibility to prenatal PFAS exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dietary characteristics associated with plasma concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances among adults with pre-diabetes: Cross-sectional results from the Diabetes Prevention Program Trial

Authors: Lin, PD; Cardenas, A; Hauser, R; Gold, DR; Kleinman, KP; Hivert, MF; Fleisch, AF; Calafat, AM; Sanchez-Guerra, M; Osorio-Yáñez, C; Webster, TF; Horton, ES; Oken, E (2020) Environment International 137:105217. HERO ID: 6311651

[Less] Diet is assumed to be the main source of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in non-occupationally . . . [More] Diet is assumed to be the main source of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in non-occupationally exposed populations, but studies on the diet-PFAS relationship in the United States are scarce. We extracted multiple dietary variables, including daily intakes of food group, diet scores, and dietary patterns, from self-reported dietary data collected at baseline (1996-1999) from adults with pre-diabetes enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program, and used linear regression models to evaluate relationships of each dietary variable with plasma concentrations of six PFAS (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetic acid (EtFOSAA), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetic acid (MeFOSAA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) adjusting for covariates. Participants (N = 941, 65% female, 58% Caucasian, 68% married, 75% with higher education, 95% nonsmoker) had similar PFAS concentrations compared to the general U.S. population during 1999-2000. Using a single food group approach, fried fish, other fish/shellfish, meat and poultry had positive associations with most PFAS plasma concentrations. The strongest effect estimate detected was between fried fish and PFNA [13.6% (95% CI: 7.7, 19.9) increase in median concentration per SD increase]. Low-carbohydrate and high protein diet score had positive association with plasma PFHxS. Some food groups, mostly vegetables and fruits, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score had inverse associations with PFOS and MeFOSAA. A vegetable diet pattern was associated with lower plasma concentrations of MeFOSAA, while high-fat meat and low-fiber and high-fat grains diet patterns were associated with higher plasma concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, MeFOSAA and PFNA. We summarized four major dietary characteristics associated with variations in PFAS plasma concentrations in this population. Specifically, consuming more meat/fish/shellfish (especially fried fish, and excluding Omega3-rich fish), low-fiber and high-fat bread/cereal/rice/pasta, and coffee/tea was associated with higher plasma concentrations while dietary patterns of vegetables, fruits and Omega-3 rich fish were associated with lower plasma concentrations of some PFAS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Destruction of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) with Advanced Reduction Processes (ARPs): A Critical Review

Authors: Cui, J; Gao, P; Deng, Y (2020) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 6315675

[Less] Advanced reduction processes (ARPs) have emerged as a promising method for destruction of persistent . . . [More] Advanced reduction processes (ARPs) have emerged as a promising method for destruction of persistent per-and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in water due to the generation of short-lived and highly reductive hydrated electrons (eaq-). This study provides a critical review on the mechanisms and performance of reductive destruction of PFAS with eaq-. Unique properties of eaq- and its generation in different ARP systems, particularly UV/sulfite and UV/iodide, are overviewed. Different degradation mechanisms of PFAS chemicals, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and others (e.g. short chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs), per- and polyfluoro dicarboxylic acids, and fluorotelomer carboxylic acids), are reviewed, discussed, and compared. The degradation pathways of these PFAS chemicals rely heavily upon their head groups. For specific PFAS types, fluoroalkyl chain lengths may also affect their reductive degradation patterns. Degradation and defluorination efficiencies of PFAS are considerably influenced by solution chemistry parameters and operating factors, such as pH, dose of chemical solute (i.e. sulfite or iodide) for eaq- photo-production, dissolved oxygen, humic acid, nitrate, and temperature. Furthermore, implications of the state-of-the-art knowledge on practical PFAS control actions in water industries are discussed and the priority research needs are identified.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl Substances Stimulate Insulin Secretion by Islet β Cells via G Protein-Coupled Receptor 40

Authors: Qin, WP; Cao, LY; Li, CH; Guo, LH; Colbourne, J; Ren, XM (2020) Environmental Science and Technology 54:3428-3436. HERO ID: 6315677

[Less] The potential causal relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and diabetes is troubling. . . . [More] The potential causal relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and diabetes is troubling. Exposure of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is found to be associated with hyperinsulinemia and the enhancement of insulin secretion by islet β cells in humans, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here, by combining in vivo studies with both wild type and gene knockout mice and in vitro studies with mouse islet β cells (β-TC-6), we demonstrated clearly that 1 h exposure of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) stimulated insulin secretion and intracellular calcium level by activating G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), a vital free fatty acid regulated membrane receptor on islet β cells. We further showed that the observed effects of PFASs on the mouse model may also exist in humans by investigating the molecular binding interaction of PFASs with human GPR40. We thus provided evidence for a novel mechanism for how insulin-secretion is disrupted by PFASs in humans.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chronic PFAS-exposure under environmentally relevant conditions delays development in northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) larvae

Authors: Flynn, RW; Iacchetta, M; de Perre, C; Lee, L; Sepúlveda, MS; Hoverman, JT (2020) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. HERO ID: 6315679

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are pervasive in aquatic systems globally and capable of causing detrimental . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are pervasive in aquatic systems globally and capable of causing detrimental effects on human and wildlife health. However, most studies are conducted under artificial conditions that are not representative of environmental exposures. Environmental exposures are characterized by multiple routes of exposure, low aquatic PFAS levels, and greater environmental variability than laboratory tests. Determining whether these factors influence toxicity is critical for understanding the effects of PFAS on aquatic life, including amphibians. Our goal was to assess the impact of PFAS on an amphibian under semi-realistic conditions. We reared northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) larvae in outdoor mesocosms containing sediment spiked to low, medium, and high levels (nominally 10, 100, or 1000 ppb dw) of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) for 30 days. Larvae in all PFOS treatments and the medium-PFOA treatment were ~1.5 Gosner stages less developed than control animals after 30 days. Notably, these developmental delays were observed at PFOS concentrations in the water as low as 0.06 ppb, which is considerably lower than levels associated with developmental effects in laboratory studies. Our results suggest that deriving toxicity values from laboratory studies examining aquatic exposure only may underestimate the effects of environmental PFAS exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.