Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


5:3 acid (914637-49-3)


143 References Were Found:

Archival Material
Archival Material

Certificate of analysis. Product: 2H,2H,3H,3H-Perfluorooctanoic acid; Code Number: PC2908; CAS Number: 914637-49-3

Author: Apollo Scientific (2017) Available online at http://www.apolloscientific.co.uk/downloads/coa_typical/PC2908_TypicalCofA.pdf. [Website] HERO ID: 3982542


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Efficient and scalable synthesis of 3-(polyfluoroacyl)pyruvaldehydes dimethyl acetals: A novel functionalized fluorinated building-block

Authors: Chizhov, DL; Belyaev, DV; Yachevskii, DS; Rusinov, GL; Chupakhin, ON; Charushin, VN (2017) HERO ID: 3860754

[Less] An efficient approach for the synthesis of 3-(polyfluoroacyl)pyruvaldehydes dimethyl acetals (1,1-dimethoxy-4polyfluoroalkyl-butan-2,4-dions) . . . [More] An efficient approach for the synthesis of 3-(polyfluoroacyl)pyruvaldehydes dimethyl acetals (1,1-dimethoxy-4polyfluoroalkyl-butan-2,4-dions) from 1,1-dimethoxyacetone and polyfluorinated carboxylic acid esters has been developed. The procedure includes the Claisen type condensation of the starting materials by means of calcium hydride in methanol, followed by isolation of copper complexes of the corresponding diketones and their destroying with disodium EDTA. A simple synthesis of 5(3)-(polyfluoroalkyl)-1H-pyrazole-3(5)-carbaldehydes and their acetals is also presented.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

National Estimate of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance (PFAS) Release to U.S. Municipal Landfill Leachate

Authors: Lang, JR; Allred, BM; Field, JA; Levis, JW; Barlaz, MA (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:2197-2205. HERO ID: 3860763

[Less] Landfills are the final stage in the life cycle of many products containing per- and polyfluoroalkyl . . . [More] Landfills are the final stage in the life cycle of many products containing per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and their presence has been reported in landfill leachate. The concentrations of 70 PFASs in 95 samples of leachate were measured in a survey of U.S. landfills of varying climates and waste ages. National release of PFASs was estimated by coupling measured concentrations for the 19 PFASs where more than 50% of samples had quantifiable concentrations, with climate-specific estimates of annual leachate volumes. For 2013, the total volume of leachate generated in the U.S. was estimated to be 61.1 million m(3), with 79% of this volume coming from landfills in wet climates (>75 cm/yr precipitation) that contain 47% of U.S. solid waste. The mass of measured PFASs from U.S. landfill leachate to wastewater treatment plants was estimated to be between 563 and 638 kg for 2013. In the majority of landfill leachate samples, 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (FTCA) was dominant and variations in concentrations with waste age affected total estimated mass. There were six PFASs that demonstrated significantly higher concentrations in leachate from younger waste compared to older waste and six PFAS demonstrated significant variation with climate.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Source apportionment of perfluoroalkyl substances in surface sediments from lakes in Jiangsu Province, China: Comparison of three receptor models

Authors: Qi, Y; He, Z; Huo, S; Zhang, J; Xi, B; Hu, S (2017) Journal of Environmental Sciences 57:321-328. HERO ID: 3860785

[Less] Receptor models have been proved as useful tools to identify source categories and quantitatively calculate . . . [More] Receptor models have been proved as useful tools to identify source categories and quantitatively calculate the contributions of extracted sources. In this study, sixty surface sediment samples were collected from fourteen lakes in Jiangsu Province, China. The total concentrations of C4-C14-perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (∑12PFASs) in sediments ranged from 0.264 to 4.44ng/gdw (dry weight), with an average of 1.76ng/gdw. Three commonly-applied receptor models, namely principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR), positive matrix factorization (PMF) and Unmix models, were employed to apportion PFAS sources in sediments. Overall, these three models all could well track the ∑12PFASs concentrations as well as the concentrations explained in sediments. These three models identified consistently four PFAS sources: the textile treatment sources, the fluoropolymer processing aid/fluororesin coating sources, the textile treatment/metal plating sources and the precious metal sources, contributing 28.1%, 37.0%, 29.7% and 5.3% by PCA-MLR model, 30.60%, 39.3%, 22.4% and 7.7% by PMF model, and 20.6%, 52.4%, 20.2% and 6.8% by Unmix model to the ∑12PFASs, respectively. Comparative statistics of multiple analytical methods could minimize individual-method weaknesses and provide convergent results to enhance the persuasiveness of the conclusions. The findings could give us a better knowledge of PFAS sources in aquatic environments.

Archival Material
Archival Material

Summary of classification and labelling. EC/List No. 811-572-3. 2H,2H,3H,3H-Perfluorooctanoic acid. CAS Number 914637-49-3

Author: ECHA (2017) Helsinki, Finland: European Chemicals Agency. HERO ID: 3981235


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

6:2 Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate, a PFOS alternative, induces embryotoxicity and disrupts cardiac development in zebrafish embryos

Authors: Shi, G; Cui, Q; Pan, Y; Sheng, N; Sun, S; Guo, Y; Dai, J (2017) Aquatic Toxicology 185:67-75. HERO ID: 3860744

[Less] As an alternative to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate . . . [More] As an alternative to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (commercial name: F-53B) has been used as a mist suppressant in Chinese electroplating industries for over 30 years. It has been found in the environment and fish, and one acute assay indicated F-53B was moderately toxic. However, the toxicological information on this compound was incomplete and insufficient for assessment of their environment impact. The object of this study was to examine the developmental toxicity of F-53B using zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos were incubated in 6-well plates with various concentrations of F-53B (1.5, 3, 6, and 12mg/L) from 6 to 132h post fertilization (hpf). Results showed that F-53B exposure induced developmental toxicity, including delayed hatching, increased occurrence of malformations, and reduced survival. Malformations, including pericardial and yolk sac edemas, abnormal spines, bent tails, and uninflated swim bladders, appeared at 84 hpf, and increased with time course and dose. A decrease in survival percentages was noted in the 6 and 12mg/L F-53B-treated groups at 132 hpf. Continuous exposure to 3mg/L F-53B resulted in high accumulation levels in zebrafish embryos, suggesting an inability for embryos to eliminate this compound and a high cumulative risk to fish. We also examined the cardiac function of embryos at specific developmental stages following exposure to different concentrations, and found that F-53B induced cardiac toxicity and reduced heart rate. Even under low F-53B concentration, o-dianisidine staining results showed significant decrease of relative erythrocyte number at 72 hpf before the appearance of observed effects of F-53B on the heart. To elucidate the underlying molecular changes, genes involved in normal cardiac development were analyzed using real-time qPCR in the whole-body of zebrafish embryos. F-53B inhibited the mRNA expression of β-catenin (ctnnb2) and wnt3a. The mRNA levels of β-catenin targeted genes (nkx2.5 and sox9b), which play critical roles in cardiogenesis, were also reduced after exposure. Thus, exposure to F-53B impaired the development of zebrafish embryos and disrupted cardiac development, which might be mediated by effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and decrease of erythrocyte numbers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Aerobic biodegradation of 2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide-based aqueous film-forming foam components produces perfluoroalkyl carboxylates

Authors: D'Agostino, LA; Mabury, SA (2017) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36:2012-2021. HERO ID: 3859275

[Less] The biodegradation of 2 common fluorotelomer surfactants used in aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs), . . . [More] The biodegradation of 2 common fluorotelomer surfactants used in aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylamine (FTAA) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaine (FTAB), was investigated over 109 d with aerobic wastewater-treatment plant (WWTP) sludge. Results show that biodegradation of 6:2 FTAA and 6:2 FTAB produces 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH), 6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (FTCA), 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (FTUCA), 5:3 FTCA, and short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs). Additional degradation products included 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide (FTSAm), which was a major degradation product in the presence of either active or sterilized sludge, whereas 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FTSA) production was measured with sterilized sludge only. Six additional degradation products were tentatively identified by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) and attributed to N-dealkylation and oxidation of 6:2 FTAA. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-10. © 2017 SETAC.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol aerobic biotransformation on a sediment microbial community

Authors: Zhang, S; Merino, N; Wang, N; Ruan, T; Lu, X (2017) Science of the Total Environment 575:1361-1368. HERO ID: 3857384

[Less] Sediment microbial communities are responsible for many chemical biotransformation processes in the . . . [More] Sediment microbial communities are responsible for many chemical biotransformation processes in the aquatic environment and play a critical role in various ecosystems and biogeochemical cycling. However, the impact of polyfluoroalkyl substances on sediment microbial communities remains unclear. These substances are increasingly being used in consumer and industrial products to replace environmentally persistent perfluoroalkyl substances. In this study, we investigated the effects of low (5mg/L) and high (15mg/L) doses of 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol [6:2 FTOH, F(CF2)6CH2CH2OH] on the structure of a sediment microbial community. 6:2 FTOH biotransformation was rapid in the sediment mixture with a half-life <3days, regardless of the initial doses. After 28days, major products produced in the high dose condition included 28mol% 5:2 sFTOH [F(CF2)5CH(OH)CH3], 9.6mol% 5:3 Acid [F(CF2)5CH2CH2COOH] and 11mol% PFHxA [F(CF2)5COOH], while 73mol% 5:2 sFTOH, 23mol% 5:3 Acid and 26mol% PFHxA were observed in the low dose condition. In the original (control) sediment without 6:2 FTOH dosing, Proteobacteria was the predominant microorganism (18%), followed by Chloroflexi (14%), Verrucomicrobia (13%), Firmicutes (3.4%), Bacterioidetes (2.4%), Actinobacteria (1.7%) and Planctomycetes (1.3%). The presence of 6:2 FTOH and the accumulation of transient transformation products in the sediment exerted selection pressure on the microbial taxonomic distribution and diversity. Our observations indicate that potential 6:2 FTOH degraders and tolerant strains, such as Dokdonella spp., Thauera spp., Albidovulum spp. and Caldanaerovirga spp., existed in the sediment mixture and began to dominate over time. This suggests that these genera might have higher tolerance towards elevated 6:2 FTOH and its transformation products. These findings on the characterization of sediment microbial community stability and dynamics will help predict changes in response to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and also help identify robust microbial strains to degrade polyfluoroalkyl substances in the environment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantitative bias analysis of a reported association between perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and endometriosis: The influence of oral contraceptive use

Authors: Ngueta, G; Longnecker, MP; Yoon, M; Ruark, CD; Clewell, HJ; Andersen, ME; Verner, MA (2017) Environment International 104:118-121. HERO ID: 3860773

[Less] An association between serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and endometriosis has recently . . . [More] An association between serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and endometriosis has recently been reported in an epidemiologic study. Oral contraceptive use to treat dysmenorrhea (pelvic pain associated with endometriosis) could potentially influence this association by reducing menstrual fluid loss, a route of excretion for PFAS. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of differential oral contraceptive use on the association between PFAS and endometriosis. We used a published life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to simulate plasma levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from birth to age at study participation (range 18-44years). In the simulated population, PFAS level distributions matched those for controls in the epidemiologic study. Prevalence and geometric mean duration (standard deviation [SD]) of oral contraceptive use in the simulated women were based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; among the women with endometriosis the values were, respectively, 29% and 6.8 (3.1) years; among those without endometriosis these values were 18% and 5.3 (2.8) years. In simulations, menstrual fluid loss (ml/cycle) in women taking oral contraceptives was assumed to be 56% of loss in non-users. We evaluated the association between simulated plasma PFAS concentration and endometriosis in the simulated population using logistic regression. Based on the simulations, the association between PFAS levels and endometriosis attributable to differential contraceptive use had an odds ratio (95% CI) of 1.05 (1.02, 1.07) for a loge unit increase in PFOA and 1.03 (1.02, 1.05) for PFOS. In comparison, the epidemiologic study reported odds ratios of 1.62 (0.99, 2.66) for PFOA and 1.25 (0.87, 1.80) for PFOS. Our results suggest that the influence of oral contraceptive use on the association between PFAS levels and endometriosis is relatively small.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Syntheses of Biologically Active 2-Arylcyclopropylamines

Authors: Miyamura, S; Itami, K; Yamaguchi, J (2017) HERO ID: 3860772

[Less] The 2-arylcyclopropylamine (ACPA) motif is often seen in biologically active compounds. This review . . . [More] The 2-arylcyclopropylamine (ACPA) motif is often seen in biologically active compounds. This review focuses on the synthesis of biologically active ACPAs and categorizes, by reaction type, the synthetic methods used toward such compounds.

1 Introduction

2 Cyclopropanation Using Diazo Compounds

2.1 Styrene

2.2 Cinnamate

2.3 Vinyl Phthalimide

2.4 Vinyl Acetamide

2.5 Oxazolone

2.6 Diketopiperazine

3 Cyclopropanation Using Ylides

3.1 Cinnamate

3.2 Nitrostyrene

3.3 Oxirane

3.4 Nitroacetate

4 Transformation of Cyclopropanes

4.1 Iodocyclopropane

4.2 Aminocyclopropane

5 Miscellaneous Methods

5.1 Kulinkovich Reaction

5.2 Three-Component Reaction

5.3 Intramolecular Nucleophilic Cyclization

5.4 Intramolecular Mitsunobu Reaction

5.5 Rearrangement from Cyclobutanone

6 Summary