Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFDA (335-76-2)


784 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of perfluorodecanoic acid on pig oocyte viability, intracellular calcium levels and gap junction intercellular communication during oocyte maturation in vitro

Authors: Domínguez, A; Salazar, Z; Betancourt, M; Ducolomb, Y; Casas, E; Fernández, F; Bahena, I; Salomón, A; Teteltitla, M; Martínez, R; Chaparro, A; Cuapio, P; Salazar-López, C; Bonilla, E (2019) HERO ID: 5080569

[Less] Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) is a synthetic perfluorinated compound, which has been reported to exert . . . [More] Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) is a synthetic perfluorinated compound, which has been reported to exert adverse effects on somatic cells. However, its effects on germ cells have not been studied to date. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of PFDA on the viability, intracellular calcium levels and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) during porcine oocyte maturation in vitro. PFDA negatively impacted oocyte viability (medium lethal concentration, LC50 = 7.8 μM) and maturation (medium inhibition of maturation, IM50 = 3.8 μM). Oocytes exposed to 3.8 μM PFDA showed higher levels of intracellular calcium relative to control oocytes. In addition, GJIC among the cumulus cells and the oocyte was disrupted. The effects of PFDA on oocyte calcium homeostasis and intercellular communication seem to be responsible for the inhibition of oocyte maturation and oocyte death. In addition, since the deleterious effects of PFDA on oocyte viability, maturation and GJIC are significantly stronger than the previously reported effects of another widely used perfluorinated compound (Perfluorooctane sulfonate) in the same model, the use of PFDA in consumer products is questioned.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Per- and polyfluorinated compounds in saleswomen's urine linked to indoor dust in clothing shops

Authors: Wu, N; Cai, D; Guo, M; Li, M; Li, X (2019) Science of the Total Environment 667:594-600. HERO ID: 5080616

[Less] This study aims to investigate the characteristics of typical per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) . . . [More] This study aims to investigate the characteristics of typical per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in indoor dust from clothing shops and urine sampled from saleswomen. A total of 58 indoor dust samples and 73 urine samples from saleswomen were collected from clothing shops in Shanghai, China. All samples were analyzed for PFCs using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The mean PFC concentrations in indoor dust ranged from 0.42 (PFDA) to 5.04 ng g-1 (PFDoA). PFDoA and PFHxS were the most prominent PFCs, with median concentrations of 2.95 ng g-1 and 1.49 ng g-1, respectively. The median PFC concentrations in urine ranged from 10.15 (PFDS) to 666.1 ng l-1 (PFOA) and PFOA was the most abundant chemical with concentrations ranging from 207 to 907 ng l-1. A significant positive correlation was obtained between long-chain PFCs in dust and in urine (p < 0.01). Daily intake values of PFCs via dust ingestion were also calculated, and even under high-end exposure scenarios, the intake of PFOA (36.5 pg day-1) and PFOS (56.7 pg day-1) were well within the tolerable daily intake values. These results are important to both characterize PFC levels and estimate the saleswomen's exposure to PFCs from indoor dust.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Limited reproductive impairment in a passerine bird species exposed along a perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) pollution gradient

Authors: Groffen, T; Lasters, R; Lopez-Antia, A; Prinsen, E; Bervoets, L; Eens, M (2019) Science of the Total Environment 652:718-728. HERO ID: 5080648

[Less] Although bird eggs have been used in biomonitoring studies on perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), effects . . . [More] Although bird eggs have been used in biomonitoring studies on perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), effects of environmental concentrations on reproduction remain largely unknown in wild birds. In the present study we examined the associations between the concentrations of 4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in the eggs of great tits (Parus major), collected along a distance gradient from a pollution source, and multiple reproductive parameters (including the start of egg laying, clutch size, hatching success, fledging success and total breeding success) along with egg shell thickness and body condition of the nestlings. The PFAA concentrations measured at the plant site were among the highest ever reported in wild bird eggs. PFAA concentrations decreased sharply with increasing distance (0-11 km) from the plant, but remained relatively elevated in the adjacent sites. PFAAs were grouped into principal components (PCs) to prevent collinearity. High concentrations of PFOS, PFDS, PFDoDA, PFTrDA and PFTeDA (grouped as PC1) were associated with a reduced hatching success of nests where at least one egg hatched, thinner egg shells and increased survival of the hatched chicks. High concentrations of PFDA (PC2) were associated with a reduced hatching success, especially in nests where no eggs hatched, an earlier start of egg laying and a reduction of total breeding success, mainly caused by the failure in hatching. Although the major manufacturer of PFAAs phased out the production of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and related products in 2002, concentrations appear to have increased since previous measurements. Surprisingly, despite the very high concentrations close to the fluorochemical plant, there was no clear evidence for reproductive impairment as the observed associations between PFAA concentrations and reproductive parameters were rather limited compared to previous studies in songbirds. These findings also suggest potential differences in sensitivity between species. CAPSULE: Despite the very high PFAA concentrations at the perfluorochemical hotspot, correlations with reproductive parameters were limited.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Destabilizing effect of perfluorodecanoic acid on simple membrane models

Authors: Viada, B; Cámara, CI; Yudi, LM (2019) HERO ID: 5082178

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFA) are amphiphilic surfactants widely used in industry with several commercial . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFA) are amphiphilic surfactants widely used in industry with several commercial applications. An important feature of these compounds is their non-biodegradability and their tendency to bio-accumulate in the environment, which has led to these compounds being considered among the most persistent pollutants worldwide. Many studies have provided evidence of their toxic effect on humans and wildlife. For this reason, more and more efforts have been made to better understand the effect of these compounds on living organisms. The aim of the present study is to understand how the electrostatic interactions and film compactness of biological membrane models modulate their interaction with PFA, more specifically with perfluorodecanoic acid (PFD). Langmuir isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) are used to evaluate the effect of PFD on lipid membrane models (air/water monolayers and vesicles), analyzing the behavior of PFD : lipid mixtures. The lipids used in this study are distearoyl phosphatidic acid (DSPA), dilauroyl phosphatidic acid (DLPA) and distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE). PFD induces an increase in the mean molecular area per lipid in monolayers, mainly at lower surface pressures. BAM images demonstrate that PFD mixes with DLPA, inducing a decrease in gray level, while it forms a non-miscible mixture with DSPA, segregating PFD domains. Insertion studies of PFD within monolayers and dynamic light scattering experiments demonstrate that PFD can penetrate into monolayers and bilayers above 30 mN m-1, which is the lateral pressure value accepted for a cellular bilayer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vitro and in silico evaluations of binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl substances to baikal seal and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α

Authors: Ishibashi, H; Hirano, M; Kim, EY; Iwata, H (2019) Environmental Science and Technology 53:2181-2188. HERO ID: 5024210

[Less] In this study, we assessed the binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] In this study, we assessed the binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), to the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of Baikal seal ( Pusa sibirica; bs) and human (h) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). An in vitro competitive binding assay showed that six PFCAs and two PFSAs could bind to recombinant bs and hPPARα LBD proteins in a dose-dependent manner. The relative binding affinities (RBAs) of PFASs to bsPPARα were as follows: PFOS > PFDA > PFNA > PFUnDA > PFOA > PFHxS > PFHpA > PFHxA. The RBAs to bsPPARα showed a significant positive correlation with those to hPPARα. In silico PPARα homology modeling predicted that there were two ligand-binding pockets (LBPs) in the bsPPARα and hPPARα LBDs. Structure-activity relationship analyses suggested that the binding potencies of PFASs to PPARα might depend on LBP binding cavity volume, hydrogen bond interactions, the number of perfluorinated carbons, and the hydrophobicity of PFASs. Interspecies comparison of the in vitro binding affinities revealed that bsPPARα had higher preference for PFASs with long carbon chains than hPPARα. The in silico docking simulations suggested that the first LBP of bsPPARα had higher affinities than that of hPPARα; however, the second LBP of bsPPARα had lower affinities than that of hPPARα. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence showing interspecies differences in the binding of PFASs to PPARαs and their structure-activity relationships.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of perfluoroalkyl substances in sediment cores from High and Low Arctic lakes in Canada

Authors: Macinnis, JJ; Lehnherr, I; Muir, DCG; Quinlan, R; De Silva, AO (2019) Science of the Total Environment 666:414-422. HERO ID: 5024202

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic environmentally-persistent pollutants that are amenable . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic environmentally-persistent pollutants that are amenable to long-range transport and accumulation in remote Arctic ecosystems. In this study, historical inventories of twenty-three PFASs (i.e. C4-C14, C16 perfluoroalkane carboxylic acids (PFCAs); C4, C6-C8, C10 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs); perfluoro-4-ethyl-cyclohexane sulfonic acid (PFECHS); dodecafluoro-3H-4,8-dioxanonanoic acid (ADONA); 8-chloro-perfluoro-1-octane sulfonic acid (8-Cl-PFOS); chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs) including 9-chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanonane-1-sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA) and 11-chloroeicosafluoro-3-oxaundecane-1-sulfonic acid (8:2 Cl-PFESA); as well as perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA)) are determined in two intact sediment cores collected from Lake Hazen, located in northern Ellesmere Island at 82° N in 2012 and Lake B35, located in central Nunavut at 64° N in 2009. In Lake Hazen, fluxes of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) increased during 1963-2011. In Lake B35, fluxes of perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) increased during 1952-2009. The temporal trends for PFASs in Lake Hazen and Lake B35 sediments are consistent with the continuous annual delivery of PFASs to the Arctic of Canada. Temporal trends in sediment cores appear to follow historical market changes in PFAS manufacturing inventory. The doubling time of PFAS fluxes are faster in Lake Hazen sediments than Lake B35 sediments. In Lake Hazen, this may be attributed to the enhanced delivery of sediment and historically-archived PFASs promoted by climate-induced glacier melting in the Lake Hazen watershed post-2005. Exponentially increasing PFAS temporal trends in High and Low Arctic lakes in Canada stress the importance of developing effective global regulatory policies for PFAS manufacturing and highlights the potential for climate change-induced contaminant release from melting glaciers in the Arctic.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bioaccumulation behavior and spatiotemporal trends of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins from the Pearl River Estuary, China

Authors: Gui, D; Zhang, M; Zhang, T; Zhang, B; Lin, W; Sun, X; Yu, X; Liu, W; Wu, Y (2019) Science of the Total Environment 658:1029-1038. HERO ID: 5024213

[Less] Sixteen per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in liver (n = 52) and kidney (n = 18) . . . [More] Sixteen per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in liver (n = 52) and kidney (n = 18) tissues of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) stranded in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) of China between 2004 and 2016. The average concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and most of other PFASs in the liver samples were respectively greater than any records previously reported in cetaceans globally. PFOS levels in 46% of dolphin liver samples exceeded the hepatic toxicity threshold in cetaceans. For the first time, we found a U-shaped trend for the distribution pattern of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) between liver and kidney with increasing carbon chain lengths (C5-C16), whereas a descending trend (C4-C10) was found for perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFASs), which may be explained by binding efficiencies of PFAS analogues to proteins. Dolphins with the highest levels of ∑PFASs (age-corrected) were clustered near the river outlets in Lingdingyang area, which agrees with the spatial distribution of PFASs in the environment. Significant temporal trends were observed for many PFASs. Concentrations of PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) all peaked in year 2011, followed by a decreasing trend, while a consistently descending trend was shown for perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) and perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS). Our findings contribute to the knowledge of tissue distribution and spatiotemporal trends of PFASs in the PRE dolphins, which are valuable for us to understand the PFASs exposure risk and their industrial emission in Southern China.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exploring sex differences in human health risk assessment for PFNA and PFDA using a PBPK model

Authors: Kim, SJ; Choi, EJ; Choi, GW; Lee, YB; Cho, HY (2019) Archives of Toxicology 93:311-330. HERO ID: 5063958

[Less] Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), which are classified as perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), which are classified as perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), have been widely used in industrial applications as a surface protectant. PFASs have been detected in wildlife and in humans around the globe. The purposes of this study are to develop and validate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for detecting PFNA and PFDA in male and female rats, and to apply the model to a human health risk assessment regarding the sex difference. A PBPK model of PFNA and PFDA was established based on an in vivo study in male and female rats. Analytes in biological samples (plasma, nine tissues, urine, and feces) were determined by ultra-liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. PFNA and PFDA showed a gender differences in the elimination half-life and volume of distribution. The tissue-plasma partition coefficients were the highest in the liver in both male and female rats. The predicted rat plasma and urine concentrations simulated and fitted were in good agreement with the observed values. The PBPK models of PFNA and PFDA in male and female rats were then extrapolated to a human PBPK model based on human physiological parameters. The external doses were calculated at 3.35 ng/kg/day (male) and 17.0 ng/kg/day (female) for PFNA and 0.530 ng/kg/day (male) and 0.661 ng/kg/day (female) for PFDA. Human risk assessment was estimated using Korean biomonitoring values considering the gender differences. This study provides valuable insight into human health risk assessment regarding PFNA and PFDA exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in edible fish species from Charleston Harbor and tributaries, South Carolina, United States: Exposure and risk assessment

Authors: Fair, PA; Wolf, B; White, ND; Arnott, SA; Kannan, K; Karthikraj, R; Vena, JE (2019) Environmental Research 171:266-277. HERO ID: 5080377

[Less] Concentrations of 11 PFASs were determined in muscle and whole fish for six species collected from Charleston, . . . [More] Concentrations of 11 PFASs were determined in muscle and whole fish for six species collected from Charleston, South Carolina (SC) for the assessment of potential health risks to humans and wildlife. Across all species and capture locations, total PFAS levels in whole fish were significantly higher than fillets by a factor of two- to three-fold. Mean ∑PFAS concentrations varied from 12.7 to 33.0 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole fish and 6.2-12.7 ng/g ww in fillets. For individual whole fish, ∑PFASs ranged from 12.7 ng/g ww in striped mullet to 85.4 ng/g ww in spotted seatrout, and in fillets individual values ranged from 6.2 ng/g ww in striped mullet to 27.9 ng/g ww in spot. The most abundant compound in each species was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), comprising 25.5-69.6% of the ∑PFASs. Striped mullet had significantly lower relative amounts of PFOS compared to all other species and higher relative amounts of PFUnDA compared to Atlantic croaker, spotted seatrout, and spot. Unlike whole fish, PFAS levels in fillets varied significantly by location with higher ∑PFOS from the Ashley River than the Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, which reflects the levels of PFASs contamination in these systems. In whole fish, differences in relative concentrations of PFOS, PFNA, and PFDA occurred by capture location, suggestive of different sources. PFOS concentrations for southern flounder and spotted seatrout fillets were within the advisory range to limit fish consumption to 4 meals a month. PFOS levels exceeded screening values to protect mammals in 83% of whole fish examined and represent a potential risk to wildlife predators such as dolphins.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human embryonic and fetal organs from first, second, and third trimester pregnancies

Authors: Mamsen, LS; Björvang, RD; Mucs, D; Vinnars, MT; Papadogiannakis, N; Lindh, CH; Andersen, CY; Damdimopoulou, P (2019) Environment International 124:482-492. HERO ID: 5080595

[Less] BACKGROUND: The persistent environmental contaminants perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The persistent environmental contaminants perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have gained attention due to their potential adverse health effects, in particular following early life exposure. Information on human fetal exposure to PFASs is currently limited to one report on first trimester samples. There is no data available on PFAS concentrations in fetal organs throughout all three trimesters of pregnancy.

METHODS: We measured the concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) in human embryos and fetuses with corresponding placentas and maternal serum samples derived from elective pregnancy terminations and cases of intrauterine fetal death. A total of 78 embryos and fetuses aged 7-42 gestational weeks were included and a total of 225 fetal organs covering liver, lung, heart, central nervous system (CNS), and adipose tissue were analyzed, together with 71 placentas and 63 maternal serum samples. PFAS concentrations were assayed by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: All evaluated PFASs were detected and quantified in maternal sera, placentas and embryos/fetuses. In maternal serum samples, PFOS was detected in highest concentrations, followed by PFOA > PFNA > PFDA = PFUnA = PFHxS. Similarly, PFOS was detected in highest concentrations in embryo/fetal tissues, followed by PFOA > PFNA = PFDA = PFUnA. PFHxS was detected in very few fetuses. In general, PFAS concentrations in embryo/fetal tissue (ng/g) were lower than maternal serum (ng/ml) but similar to placenta concentrations. The total PFAS burden (i.e. the sum of all PFASs) was highest in lung tissue in first trimester samples and in liver in second and third trimester samples. The burden was lowest in CNS samples irrespective of fetal age. The placenta:maternal serum ratios of PFOS, PFOA and PFNA increased across gestation suggesting bioaccumulation in the placenta. Further, we observed that the ratios were higher in pregnancies with male fetuses compared to female fetuses.

CONCLUSIONS: Human fetuses were intrinsically exposed to a mixture of PFASs throughout gestation. The compounds were detected in all analyzed tissues, suggesting that PFASs reach and may affect many types of organs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PFASs pass the placenta and deposit to embryo and fetal tissues, calling for risk assessment of gestational exposures.