Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFDA (335-76-2)


57 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dietary intake, drinking water ingestion and plasma perfluoroalkyl substances concentration in reproductive aged Chinese women

Authors: Zhou, W; Zhao, S; Tong, C; Chen, L; Yu, X; Yuan, T; Aimuzi, R; Luo, F; Tian, Y; Zhang, J; Shanghai Birth Cohort study (2019) Environment International 127:487-494. HERO ID: 5081324

[Less] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of synthetic . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of synthetic chemicals that are widely used in industrial and consumer products. A growing body of literature suggests that exposure to these chemicals are associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in women. However, the sources of PFAS exposure are often poorly characterized in women of child-bearing age.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of plasma PFAS concentrations with dietary intake and drinking water sources in reproductive aged women in Shanghai, one of the high PFAS polluted regions in China.

METHODS: Concentrations of ten PFAS in plasma samples were measured in 933 women. Information on dietary intake and type of drinking water was collected by questionnaire. We used multivariable linear regression models to assess the association of PFAS concentrations with dietary intake and drinking water.

RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounders, a higher frequency of intake of aquatic products (freshwater fish, marine fish, shellfish, shrimp and crab) was positively and significantly associated with concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUA and PFDoA in 900 reproductive aged women. Intake of freshwater fish showed the strongest association with PFAS. Compared with the lowest intake group of freshwater fish, the intermediate intake group had 8-32% increase in the concentrations of these pollutants; and the highest group had 11-57% increase. Conversely, intake of soy products was associated with lower levels of PFDA, PFUA, PFNA, PFOS, and PFDoA. In addition, compared with women drinking tap water, drinking bottled water was associated with significantly decreases in PFHpA, PFDA, PFOA, PFUA and PFBS blood levels by 9-13% in 905 reproductive aged women.

CONCLUSIONS: Intake of freshwater fish, marine fish, shrimp and crab was positively associated with plasma PFAS concentrations, while intake of soy products and bottled water was associated with lower PFAS concentrations in the Chinese women of reproductive age.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Destabilizing effect of perfluorodecanoic acid on simple membrane models

Authors: Viada, B; Cámara, CI; Yudi, LM (2019) HERO ID: 5082178

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFA) are amphiphilic surfactants widely used in industry with several commercial . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFA) are amphiphilic surfactants widely used in industry with several commercial applications. An important feature of these compounds is their non-biodegradability and their tendency to bio-accumulate in the environment, which has led to these compounds being considered among the most persistent pollutants worldwide. Many studies have provided evidence of their toxic effect on humans and wildlife. For this reason, more and more efforts have been made to better understand the effect of these compounds on living organisms. The aim of the present study is to understand how the electrostatic interactions and film compactness of biological membrane models modulate their interaction with PFA, more specifically with perfluorodecanoic acid (PFD). Langmuir isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) are used to evaluate the effect of PFD on lipid membrane models (air/water monolayers and vesicles), analyzing the behavior of PFD : lipid mixtures. The lipids used in this study are distearoyl phosphatidic acid (DSPA), dilauroyl phosphatidic acid (DLPA) and distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE). PFD induces an increase in the mean molecular area per lipid in monolayers, mainly at lower surface pressures. BAM images demonstrate that PFD mixes with DLPA, inducing a decrease in gray level, while it forms a non-miscible mixture with DSPA, segregating PFD domains. Insertion studies of PFD within monolayers and dynamic light scattering experiments demonstrate that PFD can penetrate into monolayers and bilayers above 30 mN m-1, which is the lateral pressure value accepted for a cellular bilayer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Decreased plasma levels of perfluoroalkylated substances one year after bariatric surgery

Authors: Jansen, A; Müller, MHB; Grønnestad, R; Klungsøyr, O; Polder, A; Skjerve, E; Aaseth, J; Lyche, JL (2019) Science of the Total Environment 657:863-870. HERO ID: 5081174

[Less] Per- and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), . . . [More] Per- and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and known to be protein bound. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of 17 different PFASs before and one year after bariatric surgery, and to assess whether weight loss and changed serum protein concentrations could be influencing factors. Plasma samples from 63 patients were analyzed for nine perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), three perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), and five perfluoroalkyl sulfonamide based substances (PASF) before and after surgery. Protein determination was performed in the corresponding serum samples. Mean weight loss one year after surgery was 32.1 kg. The plasma levels of all PFASs decreased with 4-34% compared to preoperative values, and included perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), which have been identified with increasing levels in the general population during recent years. Serum protein concentrations also decreased with 7-8%. Although protein levels were positively correlated with PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS and PFOS, regression analysis revealed that neither weight loss nor reductions in concentrations of serum protein could explain the decreased PFAS levels. The type of surgical procedure did not influence the changes of PFAS levels between the two sample points. A reduced food intake and alterations in absorptions of nutrients after bariatric surgery may have influenced the observed decreasing plasma levels of PFASs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

XRCC4, which is inhibited by PFDA, regulates DNA damage repair and cell chemosensitivity

Authors: Liu, F; Fan, Z; Song, N; Han, M; Yan, M; Guo, LH; Jihui, J; Liu, S (2019) Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 120:12665-12676. HERO ID: 5097955

[Less] The mechanism of environmental pollution promoting gastric cancer incidence and difficulty of treatment . . . [More] The mechanism of environmental pollution promoting gastric cancer incidence and difficulty of treatment is not fully understood. In the present article, perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), a common persistent environmental pollutant, was used to treat the gastric cell lines and mice to test its genotoxicity. The γ-H2AX immunoblot and plasmid fragment PCR results showed that PFDA had a promotion effect on the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human and mouse cells. Subsequent results showed that PFDA significantly altered the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy. Microarray data showed that the expressions of some important DNA repair genes were changed. Further investigation discovered that PFDA inhibition of DNA repair was mediated by X-ray repair cross complementing 4 (XRCC4). The cells deficient in XRCC4 generally exhibited reduced proliferation and premature aging in culture; however, our results indicated that PFDA induced p53 inhibition rescued cells from the apoptosis that was triggered by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) inactivation, and overexpression of p53 expression in PFDA-treated cells enhanced their apoptosis. Finally, T-cell specific factor 4 was suggested by the results as an upstream regulator of XRCC4. This article revealed for the first time that perfluorinated chemicals affect chemotherapeutic sensitivity and the NHEJ pathway, and p53 reduction rescues cells from death.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evironmental pollutant perfluorodecanoic acid upregulates cIAP2 to suppress gastric cell senescence

Authors: Zhang, Z; Song, N; Peng, Y; Fan, Z; Han, M; Zhao, M; Dong, T; Liu, S (2019) Oncology Reports 41:981-988. HERO ID: 5097956

[Less] The role of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in gastric carcinogenesis and its mechanism remains unknown. . . . [More] The role of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in gastric carcinogenesis and its mechanism remains unknown. Our previous research revealed that PFDA regulated the growth of human gastric cells. However, its core molecules and basic mechanisms are still not clear. In the present study, cDNA microarrays were used to determine mRNA changes in AGS cells after treatment with PFDA. DAVID analysis of the genes with >2‑fold increased expression in microarray data revealed five genes which were involved in cancer pathways. The most upregulated gene was cIAP2, whose upregulation in AGS was confirmed by western blot analysis and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses. In order to investigate the role of cIAP2 in cell proliferation, cIAP2 siRNA was employed to regulate cIAP2 expression following PFDA treatment. The results revealed that the growth rate of cIAP2‑knockdown cells was reduced by about 50% compared to the control. Given that our previous flow cytometric assays revealed no significant change (3.7 vs. 6.4%) in the percentage of apoptotic cells when PFDA was added to the medium and cIAP2 expression was upregulated, we next applied flow cytometry to assess whether cIAP2 would lead to cell cycle variations. The research data revealed that the proportion of cells in the G1, S and G2 phases was not significantly altered with the decrease of cIAP2 expression. Finally, the role of cIAP2 in AGS cell senescence was investigated, and the results indicated that cell senescence was significantly increased in the cIAP2 siRNA group in comparison to the control siRNA group. Since p53 has been identified as a tumor suppressor and its molecular alterations are common in different human tumors, we investigated the relationship of p53 with cIAP2. The experimental results demonstrated that cIAP2 regulated the expression of p53 and thus was likely to be a potential mechanism for PFDA‑induced growth promotion. Overall, the results revealed that PFDA may suppress cellular senescence induced by p53 through the regulation of cIAP2 protein expression.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the blood of two colobine monkey species from China: Occurrence and exposure pathways

Authors: Cui, Q; Shi, F; Pan, Y; Zhang, H; Dai, J (2019) Science of the Total Environment 674:524-531. HERO ID: 5097957

[Less] Per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), which are widely used in industrial and commercial products, . . . [More] Per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), which are widely used in industrial and commercial products, have been identified as global and ubiquitous pollutants. Despite this, limited data are available regarding the impacts of PFAS exposure and intake in non-human primates. Here, we report for the first time on the occurrence of PFASs in the blood and dietary sources of two rare and endangered primate species, namely, the golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) and Francois' leaf monkey (Trachypithecus francoisi). Results showed that perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were dominant and found at the highest proportions in the blood of both species at the four study sites. The ∑PFAS levels in blood samples from captive golden snub-nosed monkeys in Tongling Zoo (mean: 2.51 ng/mL) and Shanghai Wild Zoo (3.52 ng/mL) near urbanized areas were one order of magnitude higher than the levels in wild monkeys from Shennongjia Nature Reserve (0.27 ng/mL). Furthermore, significant age positive relationships for perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonates (6:2 Cl-PFESA) were observed in both golden snub-nosed monkeys at Shanghai Wild Zoo and Francois' leaf monkeys at Wuzhou Breeding Center. In addition, PFAS levels in frequently consumed food and drinking water were analyzed for Francois' leaf monkeys. Results showed that tree leaves accounted for the highest percentage of total daily intake of PFASs, especially PFOA, thus highlighting tree leaf consumption as a primary PFAS exposure route for this species. Overall, however, dietary exposure to PFASs was of relatively low risk to Francois' leaf monkey health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of perfluoroalkyl substances in sediment cores from High and Low Arctic lakes in Canada

Authors: Macinnis, JJ; Lehnherr, I; Muir, DCG; Quinlan, R; De Silva, AO (2019) Science of the Total Environment 666:414-422. HERO ID: 5024202

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic environmentally-persistent pollutants that are amenable . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic environmentally-persistent pollutants that are amenable to long-range transport and accumulation in remote Arctic ecosystems. In this study, historical inventories of twenty-three PFASs (i.e. C4-C14, C16 perfluoroalkane carboxylic acids (PFCAs); C4, C6-C8, C10 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs); perfluoro-4-ethyl-cyclohexane sulfonic acid (PFECHS); dodecafluoro-3H-4,8-dioxanonanoic acid (ADONA); 8-chloro-perfluoro-1-octane sulfonic acid (8-Cl-PFOS); chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs) including 9-chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanonane-1-sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA) and 11-chloroeicosafluoro-3-oxaundecane-1-sulfonic acid (8:2 Cl-PFESA); as well as perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA)) are determined in two intact sediment cores collected from Lake Hazen, located in northern Ellesmere Island at 82° N in 2012 and Lake B35, located in central Nunavut at 64° N in 2009. In Lake Hazen, fluxes of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) increased during 1963-2011. In Lake B35, fluxes of perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) increased during 1952-2009. The temporal trends for PFASs in Lake Hazen and Lake B35 sediments are consistent with the continuous annual delivery of PFASs to the Arctic of Canada. Temporal trends in sediment cores appear to follow historical market changes in PFAS manufacturing inventory. The doubling time of PFAS fluxes are faster in Lake Hazen sediments than Lake B35 sediments. In Lake Hazen, this may be attributed to the enhanced delivery of sediment and historically-archived PFASs promoted by climate-induced glacier melting in the Lake Hazen watershed post-2005. Exponentially increasing PFAS temporal trends in High and Low Arctic lakes in Canada stress the importance of developing effective global regulatory policies for PFAS manufacturing and highlights the potential for climate change-induced contaminant release from melting glaciers in the Arctic.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Bioaccumulation behavior and spatiotemporal trends of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins from the Pearl River Estuary, China

Authors: Gui, D; Zhang, M; Zhang, T; Zhang, B; Lin, W; Sun, X; Yu, X; Liu, W; Wu, Y (2019) Science of the Total Environment 658:1029-1038. HERO ID: 5024213

[Less] Sixteen per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in liver (n = 52) and kidney (n = 18) . . . [More] Sixteen per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in liver (n = 52) and kidney (n = 18) tissues of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) stranded in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) of China between 2004 and 2016. The average concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and most of other PFASs in the liver samples were respectively greater than any records previously reported in cetaceans globally. PFOS levels in 46% of dolphin liver samples exceeded the hepatic toxicity threshold in cetaceans. For the first time, we found a U-shaped trend for the distribution pattern of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) between liver and kidney with increasing carbon chain lengths (C5-C16), whereas a descending trend (C4-C10) was found for perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFASs), which may be explained by binding efficiencies of PFAS analogues to proteins. Dolphins with the highest levels of ∑PFASs (age-corrected) were clustered near the river outlets in Lingdingyang area, which agrees with the spatial distribution of PFASs in the environment. Significant temporal trends were observed for many PFASs. Concentrations of PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) all peaked in year 2011, followed by a decreasing trend, while a consistently descending trend was shown for perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) and perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS). Our findings contribute to the knowledge of tissue distribution and spatiotemporal trends of PFASs in the PRE dolphins, which are valuable for us to understand the PFASs exposure risk and their industrial emission in Southern China.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exploring sex differences in human health risk assessment for PFNA and PFDA using a PBPK model

Authors: Kim, SJ; Choi, EJ; Choi, GW; Lee, YB; Cho, HY (2019) Archives of Toxicology 93:311-330. HERO ID: 5063958

[Less] Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), which are classified as perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), which are classified as perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), have been widely used in industrial applications as a surface protectant. PFASs have been detected in wildlife and in humans around the globe. The purposes of this study are to develop and validate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for detecting PFNA and PFDA in male and female rats, and to apply the model to a human health risk assessment regarding the sex difference. A PBPK model of PFNA and PFDA was established based on an in vivo study in male and female rats. Analytes in biological samples (plasma, nine tissues, urine, and feces) were determined by ultra-liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. PFNA and PFDA showed a gender differences in the elimination half-life and volume of distribution. The tissue-plasma partition coefficients were the highest in the liver in both male and female rats. The predicted rat plasma and urine concentrations simulated and fitted were in good agreement with the observed values. The PBPK models of PFNA and PFDA in male and female rats were then extrapolated to a human PBPK model based on human physiological parameters. The external doses were calculated at 3.35 ng/kg/day (male) and 17.0 ng/kg/day (female) for PFNA and 0.530 ng/kg/day (male) and 0.661 ng/kg/day (female) for PFDA. Human risk assessment was estimated using Korean biomonitoring values considering the gender differences. This study provides valuable insight into human health risk assessment regarding PFNA and PFDA exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of perfluorodecanoic acid on pig oocyte viability, intracellular calcium levels and gap junction intercellular communication during oocyte maturation in vitro

Authors: Domínguez, A; Salazar, Z; Betancourt, M; Ducolomb, Y; Casas, E; Fernández, F; Bahena, I; Salomón, A; Teteltitla, M; Martínez, R; Chaparro, A; Cuapio, P; Salazar-López, C; Bonilla, E (2019) Toxicology In Vitro 58:224-229. HERO ID: 5080569

[Less] Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) is a synthetic perfluorinated compound, which has been reported to exert . . . [More] Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) is a synthetic perfluorinated compound, which has been reported to exert adverse effects on somatic cells. However, its effects on germ cells have not been studied to date. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of PFDA on the viability, intracellular calcium levels and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) during porcine oocyte maturation in vitro. PFDA negatively impacted oocyte viability (medium lethal concentration, LC50 = 7.8 μM) and maturation (medium inhibition of maturation, IM50 = 3.8 μM). Oocytes exposed to 3.8 μM PFDA showed higher levels of intracellular calcium relative to control oocytes. In addition, GJIC among the cumulus cells and the oocyte was disrupted. The effects of PFDA on oocyte calcium homeostasis and intercellular communication seem to be responsible for the inhibition of oocyte maturation and oocyte death. In addition, since the deleterious effects of PFDA on oocyte viability, maturation and GJIC are significantly stronger than the previously reported effects of another widely used perfluorinated compound (Perfluorooctane sulfonate) in the same model, the use of PFDA in consumer products is questioned.