Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFHpA (375-85-9)


218 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) contamination level in spices

Authors: Surma, M; Piskula, M; Wiczkowski, W; Zieliński, H (2017) European Food Research and Technology 243:297-307. HERO ID: 3856674

[Less] Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and . . . [More] Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety is of increasing concern. In this study, the usefulness of a modified QuEChERS method, based on the d-SPE, with micro-HPLC-MS/MS system for the determination of selected perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs) in spices was addressed. The commonly used spices in Spain and Slovakia were investigated. The studies showed the presence of perfluorooctanoic acid in 19 spices of Spanish and Slovak origin, and it ranged from 0.11 ng g(-1) for garlic to 0.67 ng g(-1) for peppermint. The perfluorobutanoic acid was quantified in 10 Slovak spices (from 1.13 ng g(-1) for allspice to 37.82 ng g(-)1 for star anise), whereas perfluorobutane sulfonate was identified only in 12 Spanish spices and it ranged from 0.24 ng g(-1) for cinnamon to 1.01 ng g(-1) for coriander. In contrast, perfluoroheptanoic acid was identified only in Slovak cardamom (1.94 ng g(-1)) and coriander (0.74 ng g(-1)). The average consumption of spices in Europe is approximately 0.5 g day(-1), while in Asia and northern Africa, it is many times higher. Average content of PFASs in this evaluation has a value 4.67 ng g(-1) giving 2.33 ng day(-1) per person. This study showed that daily used spices may contribute to the overall contamination of food by perfluoroalkyl substances.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous Determination of Nine Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids in Water by Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector

Authors: Xia Jing-Fen; Yuan Kai; Yang Guo-Jing; Tang Li; Lu Chen; Wang Dong-Bo; Li Xiao-Ming; Zeng Guang-Ming (2017) HERO ID: 3859893

[Less] A method for the simultaneous determination of nine perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in water by precolumn . . . [More] A method for the simultaneous determination of nine perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in water by precolumn derivatization. gas chromatography. electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was established. PFCAs were firstly converted to amide derivative products using 2,4. difluoroaniline (2,4-DFA) as derivatizing agent and N, N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as dehydrating agent. Then the amide derivative products were determined by ECD after separation with TR-5 capillary. column chromatography. The experimental conditions in derivatization of PFCAs were optimized, including the dosage of 2,4-DFA and DCC, reaction solvent, reaction temperature and reaction time. The optimal derivatization parameters were obtained. The results showed that the linear correlation coefficients of nine derivative products of PFCAs were higher than 0.99 under the optimized experimental conditions. The limits of detection were 0.62 - 1.38. mu g/L, while the relative standard derivations RSDs were 1.3% - 7.5%. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of PFCAs in municipal sewage. It was found that the municipal sewage contained trace PFCAs which mainly existed in the form of perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfloroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) and pentadecafluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The recoveries of actual samples were between 84.4% and 120.9%. The method was stable and reliable with low cost, and it could meet the simultaneous determination of several PFCAs in water samples. This study provided technical support for the pollution assessment of perfluorinated compounds in water.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl acids in groundwater, tile drainage, soil, and crop grain following a high application of municipal biosolids to a field

Authors: Gottschall, N; Topp, E; Edwards, M; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; Lapen, DR (2017) Science of the Total Environment 574:1345-1359. HERO ID: 3858509

[Less] Dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) were applied at a rate of 22Mgdwha(-1) to an agricultural field . . . [More] Dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) were applied at a rate of 22Mgdwha(-1) to an agricultural field in fall 2008. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -197, -207, -209), other brominated flame retardants (BFRs; HBB, PBEB, DBDPE, BTBPE) and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs; PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS, PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTA) were monitored in tile drainage, groundwater (2m, 4m and 6m depth), soil cores (0-0.3m) pre- and post-application, DMB aggregates incorporated into the soil post-application, and in wheat (Triticum spp.) planted post-application. Several compounds were detected in soil and water pre-application and on a reference field plot. PBDEs, other BFRs and PFAAs were detected in tile drainage and 2m groundwater throughout the post-application study period; a few PBDEs were also detected sporadically at lower depths in groundwater. Some of these compounds had not been detected pre-application, while some exceeded reference field plot/pre-application levels (some significantly (p<0.05) in tile drainage); both cases indicating biosolid-based water contamination. In DMB aggregates, several PBDE congeners were found to have dissipated exponentially, with reductions >90% in many of them within 1year post-application. Exponential dissipation of other BFRs and PFAAs in DMB aggregates were not significant. No PBDEs, other BFRs, or PFAAs were detected in wheat grain.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Removal efficiency of multiple poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water using granular activated carbon (GAC) and anion exchange (AE) column tests

Authors: Mccleaf, P; Englund, S; Östlund, A; Lindegren, K; Wiberg, K; Ahrens, L (2017) Water Research 120:77-87. HERO ID: 3856453

[Less] Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in drinking water at relatively high . . . [More] Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in drinking water at relatively high concentrations throughout the world which has led to implementation of regulatory guidelines for specific PFASs in drinking water in several European countries and in the U.S. The Swedish National Food Agency has determined that the drinking water of over one third of the country's municipal consumers is at risk or already affected by PFAS contamination. The present study investigated the effects of perfluorocarbon chain length, functional group and isomer structure (branched or linear) on removal of multiple PFASs using granular activated carbon (GAC, Filtrasorb(®) 400) and anion exchange (AE, Purolite(®) A600) column experiments. The removal of 14 different PFASs, i.e. the C3C11, C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTeDA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), and the C4, C6, C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS), was monitored for a 217 day period. The results indicate the selective nature of PFAS removal as the absorbents are loaded with PFASs and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A clear relationship between perfluorocarbon chain length and removal efficiency of PFASs using GAC and AE was found while PFASs with sulfonate functional groups displayed greater removal efficiency than those with carboxylate groups. Similarly, time to column breakthrough increased with increasing perfluorocarbon chain length and was greater for the PFSAs than the PFCAs for both GAC and AE. Shorter carbon chained PFASs such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA showed desorption behavior and long-chained PFASs showed increased removal towards the end of the experiment indicating agglomeration or micelle development. Linear isomers of PFOS, PFHxS, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) had greater column removal efficiencies using GAC (and also for AE at greater bed volume throughput) than the branched and this difference increased at greater bed volume throughputs. The GAC and AE columns showed a poor correlation between DOC and PFAS removal efficiency. The results indicate that designers and operators of AE and GAC treatment processes must take into consideration the selective nature of PFAS removal and associated desorption of short-chain PFCAs during co-removal of multiple PFASs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Distribution profiles of per- and poly fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and their re-regulation by ocean currents in the East and South China Sea

Authors: Zheng, H; Wang, F; Zhao, Z; Ma, Y; Yang, H; Lu, Z; Cai, M; Cai, M (2017) Marine Pollution Bulletin 125:481-486. HERO ID: 3981209

[Less] We investigated the distribution of 17 individual per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 42 . . . [More] We investigated the distribution of 17 individual per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 42 surface water samples collected from the East and South China Seas (7.0-36.0°N, 110.0°N-123.0°E). Concentrations of 7 individual PFASs, including perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), were quantified in the East China Sea, but only concentrations of PFOA and FOSA were quantified in the South China Sea. The total concentrations of the 17 PFASs ranged from 181 to 2658pg/L in the East China Sea and from 62 to 494pg/L in the South China Sea. We also show that river fluxes and ocean currents had a strong influence on the distribution of PFASs in the East China Sea. Using ArcGIS 10.1, we show how ocean currents control the spatial distribution of PFOA in the central South China Sea.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An ultra-sensitive method for the analysis of perfluorinated alkyl acids in drinking water using a column switching high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

Authors: Dasu, K; Nakayama, SF; Yoshikane, M; Mills, MA; Wright, JM; Ehrlich, S (2017) Journal of Chromatography A 1494:46-54. HERO ID: 3856458

[Less] In epidemiological research, it has become increasingly important to assess subjects' exposure to different . . . [More] In epidemiological research, it has become increasingly important to assess subjects' exposure to different classes of chemicals in multiple environmental media. It is a common practice to aliquot limited volumes of samples into smaller quantities for specific trace level chemical analyses. A novel method was developed for the determination of 14 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in small volumes (10mL) of drinking water using off-line solid phase extraction (SPE) pre-treatment followed by on-line pre-concentration on a WAX column before analysis on column-switching high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In general, large volumes (100-1000mL) have been used for the analysis of PFAAs in drinking water. The current method requires approximately 10mL of drinking water concentrated by using an SPE cartridge and eluted with methanol. A large volume injection of the extract was introduced on to a column-switching HPLC-MS/MS using a mix-mode SPE column for the trace level analysis of PFAAs in water. The recoveries for most of the analytes in the fortified laboratory blanks ranged from 73±14% to 128±5%. The lowest concentration minimum reporting levels (LCMRL) for the 14 PFAAs ranged from 0.59 to 3.4ng/L. The optimized method was applied to a pilot-scale analysis of a subset of drinking water samples from an epidemiological study. These samples were collected directly from the taps in the households of Ohio and Northern Kentucky, United States and the sources of drinking water samples are both surface water and ground water, and supplied by different water distribution facilities. Only five PFAAs, perfluoro-1-butanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro-1- -hexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluoro-n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA) and perfluoro-n-octanoic acid (PFOA) are detected above the LCMRL values. The median concentrations of these five PFAAs detected in the samples was ≤4.1ng/L with PFOS at 7.6ng/L and PFOA at 10ng/L. Concentrations of perfluoro-1-decanesulfonic acid, PFDS and other perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids were below the LCMRL values.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Boron doped diamond electrooxidation of 6:2 fluorotelomers and perfluorocarboxylic acids. Application to industrial wastewaters treatment

Authors: Gomez-Ruiz, B; Gomez-Lavin, S; Diban, N; Boiteux, V; Colin, A; Dauchy, X; Urtiaga, Ane (2017) Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry 798:51-57. HERO ID: 3859876

[Less] The aim of this study was to determine the viability of electrochemical oxidation to degrade and mineralize . . . [More] The aim of this study was to determine the viability of electrochemical oxidation to degrade and mineralize poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in wastewaters from an industrial facility dedicated to the production of side-chain-fluorinated polymers and fluorotelomer-based products for fire-fighting foams. 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide allcylbetaine (6:2 FTAB, 1111 mu g/L), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA, 242.5 mu g/L) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide propyl N,N dimethylamine (M4, 34.4 mu g/L) were the most abundant PFASs in the industrial wastewater, that also contained perfluorocarboxylic acids (Sigma PFCAs, 12.2 mu g/L), high TOC and chloride as main anion. 2 L samples were treated in bench scale experiments performed at a current density of 50 mA/cm(2), in a commercial cell equipped with a boron doped diamond (BDD) anode (70 cm(2)). 97.1% of the initial PFASs content was removed after 8 h of electrochemical treatment. Furthermore, the TOC removal (82.5%) and the fluoride release confirmed the PFASs mineralization. Based on the evolution of the different PFASs, electrochemical degradation pathways were proposed. Fluorotelomers sulfonamides 6:2 FTAB and M4 would be degraded into 6:2 FTSA, which conversely would give rise to PFHpA and preferentially PFHxA. The latter PFCAs were transformed into shorter-chain PFCAs, and eventually into CO2 and fluoride. The reported results support the technical viability of BDD electrooxidation for the treatment of PFASs in industrial wastewater.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of Helically Coiled and Knitted Open Tubular Reactors for the Efficient Post-Column Determination of Tetrodotoxin by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Tanis, D; Vareltzis, P; Nikolaides, G; Minos, G; Kokokiris, L; Rigas, PG (2017) HERO ID: 3859890

[Less] A postcolumn fluorescence reaction system for the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) determination . . . [More] A postcolumn fluorescence reaction system for the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) determination of tetrodotoxin in the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus is discussed theoretically and investigated experimentally. Ion-pair chromatography with volatile ammonium perfluoroheptanoate was used for the separation of tetrodotoxin and 4,9-anhydrotetrodotoxin. The postcolumn reaction was based on the tetrodotoxin conversion to a quinazoline fluorescent compound under strong alkaline conditions. All postcolumn parameters were optimized that affected the sensitivity, dispersion, and stability. Helically coiled and knitted open tubular reactors composed of polyetheretherketone were constructed and characterized in detail. The performance of these reactors was evaluated on the basis of sensitivity and dispersion. Their optimal design is reported. The knitted reactors were more efficient than the relevant helically coiled reactors when higher reaction times are required. A 1500-mu L polyetheretherketone knitted coil with 0.010 internal diameter was optimum exhibiting higher pressure tolerances than Teflon coils. The HPLC postcolumn reaction method was evaluated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, and ruggedness. The linear dynamic ranges for tetrodotoxin and 4,9-anhydrotetrodotoxin were 40-3000 and 80-3000 ppb, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 12 and 41 ppb, respectively, for tetrodotoxin and 26 and 85 ppb, respectively, for 4,9-anhydrotetrodotoxin. The accuracy was evaluated by recovery measurements and the values for tetrodotoxin were between 90.7 and 93.6%. The use of a volatile perfuorocarboxylic acid as an ion-pair reagent allows confirmation of analytes in sample matrix by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using identical mobile phase conditions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Highly efficient and stable Zr-doped nanocrystalline PbO2 electrode for mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid in a sequential treatment system

Authors: Xu, Z; Yu, Y; Liu, H; Niu, J (2017) Science of the Total Environment 579:1600-1607. HERO ID: 3858263

[Less] Zr-doped nanocrystalline PbO2 (Zr-PbO2) film electrodes were prepared at different bath temperatures. . . . [More] Zr-doped nanocrystalline PbO2 (Zr-PbO2) film electrodes were prepared at different bath temperatures. The Zr-PbO2 electrode doped at 75°C (75-Zr-PbO2) featured high oxygen evolution overpotential, large effective area and good electrocatalytic performance. The oxygen evolution potential and the effective area of 75-Zr-PbO2 achieved 1.91V (vs. SCE) and 9.1cm(2), respectively. The removal efficiency and the defluorination ratio of PFOA reached 97.0% and 88.1% after 90min electrolysis. The primary mineralization products (i.e., F(-) and intermediates) and their change trends were determined. The 75-Zr-PbO2 electrode was introduced to sequentially treat the PFOA wastewater. In an 116h of 75-Zr-PbO2 electrocatalysis sequential process, the PFOA, PFHpA, PFHxA, PFPeA, PFBA, PFPrA, TFA, and TOC concentrations were reduced to below 30, 2.5, 1.3, 1.0, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1, and 9mgL(-1), respectively, demonstrating the promising application of the sequential treatment system for the treatment of PFOA wastewater.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Preparation of single-site tin(IV) compounds and their use in the polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone

Authors: Yildiz, BC; Kayan, A (2017) Designed Monomers and Polymers (Print) 20:89-96. HERO ID: 3859909

[Less] Butyltin(IV) carboxylate compounds were obtained by reactions of butyltrichlorotin(IV) with potassium . . . [More] Butyltin(IV) carboxylate compounds were obtained by reactions of butyltrichlorotin(IV) with potassium pivalate, perfluoroheptanoate, methacrylate, 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate, and phthalate. The synthesized complexes were fully characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (H-1-, C-13-NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), mass spectroscopies (MS) and elemental analysis. These tin complexes were used as catalysts for the ring opening polymerization of epsilon-caplolactone and the conversion of monomers to polymers was completed in just 1 h. The structures of polymers were characterized by a combination of spectroscopic techniques (NMR, FTIR, MS), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and gel permeation chromatography. In this study, the epsilon-caplolactone polymers with different average molecular weights between 5000 and 40,000 Da having a regular structure were obtained.