Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


FtS 8:2 (39108-34-4)


18 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Boron doped diamond electrooxidation of 6:2 fluorotelomers and perfluorocarboxylic acids. Application to industrial wastewaters treatment

Authors: Gomez-Ruiz, B; Gomez-Lavin, S; Diban, N; Boiteux, V; Colin, A; Dauchy, X; Urtiaga, Ane (2017) Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry 798:51-57. HERO ID: 3859876

[Less] The aim of this study was to determine the viability of electrochemical oxidation to degrade and mineralize . . . [More] The aim of this study was to determine the viability of electrochemical oxidation to degrade and mineralize poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in wastewaters from an industrial facility dedicated to the production of side-chain-fluorinated polymers and fluorotelomer-based products for fire-fighting foams. 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide allcylbetaine (6:2 FTAB, 1111 mu g/L), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA, 242.5 mu g/L) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide propyl N,N dimethylamine (M4, 34.4 mu g/L) were the most abundant PFASs in the industrial wastewater, that also contained perfluorocarboxylic acids (Sigma PFCAs, 12.2 mu g/L), high TOC and chloride as main anion. 2 L samples were treated in bench scale experiments performed at a current density of 50 mA/cm(2), in a commercial cell equipped with a boron doped diamond (BDD) anode (70 cm(2)). 97.1% of the initial PFASs content was removed after 8 h of electrochemical treatment. Furthermore, the TOC removal (82.5%) and the fluoride release confirmed the PFASs mineralization. Based on the evolution of the different PFASs, electrochemical degradation pathways were proposed. Fluorotelomers sulfonamides 6:2 FTAB and M4 would be degraded into 6:2 FTSA, which conversely would give rise to PFHpA and preferentially PFHxA. The latter PFCAs were transformed into shorter-chain PFCAs, and eventually into CO2 and fluoride. The reported results support the technical viability of BDD electrooxidation for the treatment of PFASs in industrial wastewater.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Efficient electrochemical degradation of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from the effluents of an industrial wastewater treatment plant

Authors: Gomez-Ruiz, B; Gomez-Lavin, S; Diban, N; Boiteux, V; Colin, A; Dauchy, X; Urtiaga, Ane (2017) Chemical Engineering Journal 322:196-204. HERO ID: 3857459

[Less] This paper reports the electrochemical treatment of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the . . . [More] This paper reports the electrochemical treatment of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the effluent from an industrial wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of the previous research focused on the electrochemical degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in model solutions, this work studies the simultaneous removal of 8 PFASs at environmentally relevant concentrations in real industrial emissions, which also contained organic matter and inorganic anions. The overall PFASs content in the WWTP effluent was 1652 mu g/L, which emphasized the need to develop innovative technologies for the management of PFASs emissions. 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide allcylbetaine (6:2 FTAB) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTSA) were the major contributors (92% w/w) to the overall PFASs content, that also contained significant amounts of short-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). Using a boron doped diamond (BDD) anode of 0.0070 m(2), the effluent (2 L) was treated by applying a current density of 50 mA/cm(2) for 10 h, that resulted in 99.7% PFASs removal. The operation at lower current densities (5 and 10 mA/cm2) evidenced the initial degradation of 6:2 fluorotelomers into perfluoroheptanoic and perfluorohexanoic acids, that were later degraded into shorter chain PFCAs. The high TOC removal, >90%, and the fluoride release revealed that PFASs mineralization was effective. These results highlight the potential of the electrochemical technology for the treatment of PFASs contained in industrial wastewaters, which nowadays stands as the main source of this group of persistent pollutants into the environment. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mass flows and fate of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the wastewater treatment plant of a fluorochemical manufacturing facility

Authors: Dauchy, X; Boiteux, V; Bach, C; Colin, A; Hemard, J; Rosin, C; Munoz, JF (2017) Science of the Total Environment 576:549-558. HERO ID: 3457269

[Less] Although industrial sites producing perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may introduce . . . [More] Although industrial sites producing perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may introduce these chemicals into the aquatic environment, they are rarely investigated. This study entailed measuring concentrations, mass flows and the fate of 51 PFASs in an industrial wastewater treatment plant receiving raw effluents from a fluorochemical manufacturing facility. Grab and 24-h composite samples were collected at various stages of wastewater treatment over four sampling campaigns. One perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) and nine fluorotelomers (FTs) were systematically detected in the facility's raw effluent. The overall PFCA mass flow ranged from 0.6 to 8.6g/day and was negligible compared to the overall mass flow of FTs (from 647 to 2,892g/day). PFCA mass flows increased drastically after secondary treatment (degradation of precursors) and decreased notably after the floatation tank (adsorption onto floatation sludge), but remained at relatively high levels in the final effluent (from 21 to 247g/day). Similar patterns in mass flow were observed for the FTs, with mass loadings discharged into the river ranging from 1,623 to 6,963g/day. Despite analyzing dozens of PFASs, adsorbable organic fluorine determination and oxidative conversion of PFCA precursors showed that a significant part of PFASs remained unidentified. Nevertheless, two overwhelmingly predominant PFASs-6:2 Fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaine (6:2 FTAB) and 6:2 Fluorotelomer sulfonamide propyl N,N dimethylamine (M4)-were detected and quantified for the first time in water samples, accounting for >75% of the total PFAS mass flow in the final effluent. This study also provided evidence of soil contamination by the aerosol produced over the aeration basin and inadvertent spillage of pieces of sludge cake.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Environmental Occurrence of Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Novel Fluorotelomer Surfactants in the Freshwater Fish Catostomus commersonii and Sediments Following Firefighting Foam Deployment at the Lac-Mégantic Railway Accident

Authors: Munoz, G; Desrosiers, M; Duy, SV; Labadie, P; Budzinski, H; Liu, J; Sauvé, S (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:1231-1240. HERO ID: 3857458

[Less] On July 6th 2013, an unmanned train laden with almost 8 million liters of crude oil careened off the . . . [More] On July 6th 2013, an unmanned train laden with almost 8 million liters of crude oil careened off the rails downtown Lac-Mégantic (Québec, Canada). In the aftermath of the derailment accident, the emergency response entailed the deployment of 33 000 L of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) concentrate that contained proprietary fluorosurfactants. The present study examines the environmental occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and newly identified per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the benthic fish white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) and sediments from Lake Mégantic and Chaudière River. In sediments, PFAAs displayed relatively low concentrations (∑PFAAs = 0.06-0.5 ng g(-1) dw) while the sum of fluorotelomer-based PFASs was in the range < LOD-6.2 ng g(-1) dw. Notably, fluorotelomer sulfonamide betaines (8:2-FTAB and 10:2-FTAB), fluorotelomer betaines (9:3-FTB, 11:3-FTB and 9:1:2 FTB) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2-FTSA) were ubiquitously identified in the sediment samples surveyed. Levels of PFAAs remained moderate in fish muscle (e.g.

, PFOS: 0.28-2.1 ng g(-1) wet-weight), with little or no differences when comparing 2013 or 2014 fish samples with 2011 archived samples. In contrast, n:2-FTSAs emerged in the immediate weeks or months that followed the accident, as did several betaine-based PFASs (8:2-FTAB, 10:2-FTAB, 9:3-FTB, 11:3-FTB, 7:1:2 FTB and 9:1:2 FTB), observed for the first time in situ. Fluorotelomer thioether amido sulfonate (10:2-FTSAS) and fluorotelomer sulfoxide amido sulfonate (10:2-FTSAS-sulfoxide) were also occasionally reported after the AFFF spill. With time, levels of betaine-based PFASs gradually decreased in fish, possibly indicating attenuation by biodegradation of the fluorine-free moiety, supported by the observation of likely metabolites such as n:3-fluorotelomer carboxylates and n:2-fluorotelomer sulfonamides.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A prodrug micellar carrier assembled from polymers with pendant farnesyl thiosalicylic acid moieties for improved delivery of paclitaxel

Authors: Sun, J; Chen, Y; Li, K; Huang, Y; Fu, X; Zhang, X; Zhao, W; Wei, Y; Xu, L; Zhang, P; Venkataramanan, R; Li, S (2016) HERO ID: 3860087

[Less] UNLABELLED: In order to achieve enhanced and synergistic delivery of paclitaxel (PTX), . . . [More] UNLABELLED: In order to achieve enhanced and synergistic delivery of paclitaxel (PTX), a hydrophobic anticancer agent, two novel prodrug copolymers, POEG15-b-PFTS6 and POEG15-b-PFTS16 composed of hydrophilic poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEG) and hydrophobic farnesylthiosalicylate (FTS, a nontoxic Ras antagonist) blocks, were synthesized. Both POEG-b-PFTS polymers were able to form micelles with intrinsic antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Employing these micelles as a carrier to load PTX, their drug loading capacity, stability, in vivo biodistribution and tumor inhibition effect were evaluated. PTX/POEG15-b-PFTS16 mixed micelles exhibited an excellent stability of 9days at 4°C with a PTX loading capacity of 8.2%, which was more effective than PTX/POEG15-b-PFTS6 mixed micelles. In vivo biodistribution data showed that DiR-loaded POEG-b-PFTS micelles were more effectively localized in the tumor than in other organs. Moreover, both PTX/POEG-b-PFTS micelles showed significantly higher antitumor activity than Taxol in a 4T1.2 murine breast tumor model, and the tumor inhibition and animal survival followed the order of PTX/POEG15-b-PFTS16>PTX/POEG15-b-PFTS6>POEG15-b-PFTS16>Taxol≈POEG15-b-PFTS6. Our data suggest that POEG-b-PFTS micelles are a promising anticancer drug carrier that warrants more studies in the future.

STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Polymerization of drug-based monomer represents a facile and precise method to obtain well-defined polymeric prodrug amphiphiles. Currently, most reports largely focus on the synthesis methods and the biophysical properties. There is limited information about their anti-tumor activity and delivery function as prodrug carriers in vitro and in vivo. In this manuscript, we report the development of two novel prodrug copolymers, POEG15-b-PFTS6 and POEG15-b-PFTS16 composed of hydrophilic poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEG) and hydrophobic farnesylthiosalicylate (FTS, a nontoxic Ras antagonist) blocks. Both POEG-b-PFTS polymers were able to self-assemble into nano-sized micelles with intrinsic antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, POEG-b-PFTS polymers were effective in forming stable mixed micelles with various anticancer agents including PTX, DOX, docetaxel, gefitinib, and imatinib. Delivery of PTX via our new carrier led to significantly improved antitumor activity, suggesting effective PTX/FTS combination therapy. We believe that our study shall be of broad interest to the readers in the fields of biomaterials and drug delivery.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Aberrant expression of interleukin-6 and its receptor in Fallopian tubes bearing an ectopic pregnancy with and without tubal cytomegalovirus infection

Author: Ashshi, AM (2016) HERO ID: 3860086

[Less] Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has recently been suggested as a potential risk factor for the development of . . . [More] Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has recently been suggested as a potential risk factor for the development of ectopic pregnancy (EP) following upper genital tract infection in women. However, little is known about its associated underlying pathogenic mechanisms. This was a prospective case-control study that measured the prevalence of CMV infection in Fallopian tubes (FT) bearing an EP and its effects on the tubal expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and its signaling molecules, which are known to play significant roles in the immune response against CMV infection as well as embryo implantation. Fresh FTs from 96 EPs during salpingectomy and another 61 women at the midluteal phase during total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) were collected to measure the rate of CMV by an IVD CE PCR kit. The participants were then classified to measure the expression of IL-6, its receptor (IL6R) and intracellular mediators (gp-130, STAT3) by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed significantly higher (P = 0.01) rates of CMV in FTs obtained from EP (22.9 %) compared with controls (8.2 %). IL-6 (P = 0.003), IL6Rα (P = 0.02), gp 130 (P = 0.008) and STAT3 (P = 0.03) were significantly higher in TAH-positive (n = 5) compared with TAH-negative FTs by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the expression in the non-infected EP samples was significantly higher for IL-6 (P = 0.004), IL6R (P = 0.007), gp130 (P = 0.006) and STAT3 (P = 0.007) compared with negative TAH. Similar results were observed by quantitative PCR. CMV-positive EP samples showed the highest significant increase of the studied molecules by all techniques. In conclusion, Fallopian tubal infection with CMV is higher in EP and could predispose to embryo implantation by up-regulating the expression of IL-6 and its related molecules as part of tubal innate immune response. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are compulsory to illustrate the roles of IL-6 and CMV in the pathogenesis of EP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

An alternative treatment method for fluorosurfactant-containing wastewater by aerosol-mediated separation

Authors: Ebersbach, I; Ludwig, SM; Constapel, M; Kling, HW (2016) Water Research 101:333-340. HERO ID: 3358193

[Less] The treatment of fluorosurfactant-containing wastewater is still challenging nowadays. Here, a method . . . [More] The treatment of fluorosurfactant-containing wastewater is still challenging nowadays. Here, a method is presented to remove fluorosurfactants from water, amongst others from electroplating wastewater. This elimination technique is based on the generation of gas bubbles in solution, enrichment and scavenging of fluorosurfactants by transport of the gas bubbles to the water surface. Finally the bubbles collapse and release an aerosol which is enriched with fluorosurfactants. By sampling of the released aerosols a mass balance was established for 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA). Thereby 99.8% of the initial amount was revocered in the collected aerosols. Fluorosurfactant concentration in solution decreased exponentially with half-lives ranging from 2 to 6 min for 6:2 FTSA as well as perfluorooctane carboxylate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Elimination rate in defined matrix (0.2 M H2SO4) within 60 min was 99.6, 99.9 and 99.8% for 6:2 FTSA, PFOA and PFOS, respectively. The removal rate of 6:2 FTSA increased in solutions with higher ionic strength. Different wastewater from an electroplating industry containing 6:2 FTSA was treated with the described method without any sample pre-treatment and elimination of 6:2 FTSA took place with the same effectiveness as in synthetic matrices.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Are humans exposed to increasing amounts of unidentified organofluorine?

Authors: Yeung, LeoWY; Mabury, SA (2016) HERO ID: 3859917

[Less] Environmental context Polyfluorinated substances are anthropogenic chemicals that have been widely used . . . [More] Environmental context Polyfluorinated substances are anthropogenic chemicals that have been widely used in several industrial and commercial applications. Analysis of human plasma samples collected from Munster in Germany revealed, since the year 2000, increasing amounts and proportion of unidentified organofluorines. The increasing trend of unidentified organofluorines in plasma samples suggests that humans are being exposed to new and unidentified fluorinated products.

Abstract Samples of human plasma (n=122) from two German cities (collected in 1982-2009, excluding 1994) and whole blood (n=47) from seven Chinese cities (collected in 2004) were analysed for 52 polyfluoroalkyl/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) using LC-MS/MS. Quantifiable PFASs included some newly identified and commercially available chemicals PFPAs, PFPiAs, FTSAs, PAPs and di-SAmPAP, metabolites of fluorotelomer-based products (FTCAs/FTUCAs), PFCAs, PFSAs, FASAs and FOSAAs. The blood samples were also analysed for extractable organofluorine (EOF) using total organofluorine combustion ion chromatography (TOF-CIC). Seven more PFASs (C7 and C10 PFSAs, FOSAA, MeFOSAA, EtFOSAA, C13 PFCA and 8:2 FTSA) were detected in the Chinese samples than had been previously reported. For the German samples, PFHpS, FOSA, MeFOSA, EtFOSA, FTSAs (6:2, 8:2), PFPAs (C6, C8) and PFPiAs (C6/C6, C6/C8, C8/C8) were additional chemicals identified that were not measured in the earlier studies. Those newly identified and commercially available PFASs were either at trace levels (pg mL(-1)) or not detected. A mass balance of fluorine between quantifiable PFAS and EOF in the Chinese samples indicated quantifiable PFASs accounted for 31-86% of EOF. For the German samples, the quantifiable PFAS accounted for 52-100% and 57-100% of EOF in Munster and Halle samples respectively. After the year 2000, an increasing amount and proportion of unidentified organofluorine were observed in Munster samples. The increasing trend of unidentified organofluorine in plasma samples suggested humans are being exposed to new and unidentified fluorinated products.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Determination of perfluorosulfonate and perfluorocarboxylate precursors in eggs by ultra-highperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry]

Authors: Wang, M; Wang, YX; Yang, L; Li, JG; Zhang, JL; Zhao, YF; Wu, YN (2016) Zhonghua Yufang Yixue Zazhi 50:439-444. HERO ID: 3860068

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for the determination of 11 perfluorosulfonate and perfluorocarboxylate . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for the determination of 11 perfluorosulfonate and perfluorocarboxylate precursors in eggs using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadruple mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).

METHODS: The target compounds of egg were extracted with 100 mmol/L NaOH-acetonitrile /water(90∶10, V/V) by ultrasonic. Then the extract was purified by solid phase extraction (Waters Oasis(@) WAX 6cc) and then eluted with 9% NH4OH in methanol. The target compounds were separated on a Waters ACQUITY(TM) BEH (18)C column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) and detected by negative electrospray ionization (ESI(-)) mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). All compounds were quantified with internal standards. The accuracy, precision and the limits of detection and quantification of the method were evaluated. Then we detected 7 different egg samples from the market.

RESULTS: The average recoveries for the eleven precursors at 3 levels were 74.09%-116.82% and the relative standard deviations were 2.37%-13.62%. The limits of detection (LOD) of the method were in the range of 0.06-1.50 pg/g (wet weight) and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0.15-3.00 pg/g (wet weight). And 5 target compounds were detected in the 7 market samples. 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS) was detected in all of samples with the concentrations of 1.67-3.11 pg/g. 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated acid (FHUEA) and 6:2 disubstituted polyfluoroalkyl phosphate ester (6:2 diPAP) were detected in 6 samples and the concentrations were<LOD-5.11 pg/g and 3.78-9.16 pg/g, respectively. And the concentrations of 8:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (8:2 FTS) and N-methyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (N-Me FOSAA) founded in the same sample were 105.78, and 4.95 pg/g, respectively.

CONCLUSION: This method was simple, rapid, and suitable for determination of perfluorosulfonate and perfluorocarboxylate precursors in eggs with high accuracy and sensitivity. It could also be applied to human burden studies of these precursors.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Aerobic Biotransformation of Fluorotelomer Thioether Amido Sulfonate (Lodyne) in AFFF-Amended Microcosms

Authors: Harding-Marjanovic, KC; Houtz, EF; Yi, S; Field, JA; Sedlak, DL; Alvarez-Cohen, L (2015) Environmental Science and Technology 49:7666-7674. HERO ID: 3857456

[Less] The aerobic biotransformation pathways of 4:2, 6:2, and 8:2 fluorotelomer thioether amido sulfonate . . . [More] The aerobic biotransformation pathways of 4:2, 6:2, and 8:2 fluorotelomer thioether amido sulfonate (FtTAoS) were characterized by determining the fate of the compounds in soil and medium microcosms amended with an aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) solution. The biotransformation of FtTAoS occurred in live microcosms over approximately 40 days and produced 4:2, 6:2, and 8:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FtS), 6:2 fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acid (FtUCA), 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (FtCA), and C4 to C8 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Two biotransformation products corresponding to singly and doubly oxygenated forms of 6:2 FtTAoS were also identified through high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) analysis and liquid chromatography tandem-MS. An oxidative assay was used to indirectly quantify the total concentration of polyfluorinated compounds and check the mass balance. The assay produced near complete mass recovery of FtTAoS after biotransformation, with 10% (mol/mol) of the amended FtTAoS accounted for in FtS, FtCA, and PFCA products. The transformation rates of identified products appear to be slow relative to FtTAoS, indicating that some intermediates may persist in the environment. This study confirms some of the sources of FtS and PFCAs in groundwater and soil at AFFF-impacted sites and suggests that fluorinated intermediates that are not routinely measured during the biotransformation of PFASs may accumulate.