Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


GenX Chemicals (CASRN 13252-13-6 and CASRN 62037-80-3)


119 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Adsorption behavior and mechanism of emerging perfluoro-2-propoxypropanoic acid (GenX) on activated carbons and resins

Authors: Wang, Wei; Maimaiti, A; Shi, H; Wu, R; Wang, Run; Li, Z; Qi, D; Yu, G; Deng, S (2019) HERO ID: 5024248


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The PFOA substitute GenX detected in the environment near a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant in the Netherlands

Authors: Brandsma, SH; Koekkoek, JC; van Velzen, MJM; de Boer, J (2019) Chemosphere 220:493-500. HERO ID: 5024246

[Less] The ban on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has led to the production and use of alternative fluorinated . . . [More] The ban on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has led to the production and use of alternative fluorinated compounds such as GenX. Limited information is available on the occurrence of this PFOA substitute. In this pilot study, we investigated the presence of GenX in/on grass and leaf samples collected near a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant in the Netherlands and in drinking water produced from surface and surface-water influenced groundwater intake points within 25 km from the plant. GenX was detected in/on all grass and leaf samples collected within 3 km north-east from the plant, with levels ranging from 1 to 27 ng/g wet weight (ww) and 4.3-86 ng/g ww, respectively. The PFOA levels in/on grass and leaves were lower, ranging from 0.7 to 11 ng/g ww and 0.9-28 ng/g ww, respectively. A declining concentration gradient of GenX and PFOA with increasing distance from the plant was observed, which suggests that the plant is a point source of GenX and was a point source for PFOA in the past. In all drinking water samples, GenX and PFOA were detected with levels ranging from 1.4 to 8.0 ng/L and 1.9-7.1 ng/L, respectively. The detection of GenX, which is only used since 2012, in/on grass and leaves and in drinking water indicates that GenX is now distributed through the environment. The presence of GenX and PFOA in/on grass and leaves within 3 km north-east of the plant also suggests that these chemicals could also be present on the locally grown food in gardens around the factory.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sorption of perfluoroalkyl acids and their alternatives DONA and HFPO-DA (GenX) to serum albumin

Authors: Allendorf, F; Ulrich, N; Berger, U; Goss, KU (2019) Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 392:S75. [Abstract] HERO ID: 5024247


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Adipogenic Activity of Oligomeric Hexafluoropropylene Oxide (Perfluorooctanoic Acid Alternative) through Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Pathway

Authors: Li, CH; Ren, XM; Guo, LH (2019) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 5024251

[Less] Hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA) and hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) have . . . [More] Hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA) and hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) have been used as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) alternatives in the fluoropolymer industry for years. Their widespread environmental distribution, high bioaccumulation capability and human exposure have caused great concern. Nevertheless, their potential toxicity and health risk remain largely unknown. In the present study, we compared potential disruption effects of HFPO-TA, HFPO-DA and PFOA on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) via the investigation of receptor binding, receptor activity and cell adipogenesis effects. The receptor binding experiment showed HFPO-TA exhibited 4.8-7.5 folds higher binding affinity with PPARγ than PFOA, whereas HFPO-DA exhibited weaker binding affinity than PFOA. They also showed agonistic activity toward PPARγ signaling pathway in HEK 293 cells in the order of HFPO-TA > PFOA > HFPO-DA. Molecular docking simulation indicated HFPO-TA formed more hydrogen bonds than PFOA, whereas HFPO-DA formed fewer hydrogen bonds than PFOA. HFPO-TA promoted adipogenic differentiation and lipid accumulation in both mouse and human preadipocytes with potency higher than PFOA. Adipogenesis in human preadipocytes is a more sensitive end point than mouse preadipocytes. Collectively, HFPO-TA exerts higher binding affinity, agonistic activity and adipogenesis activity than PFOA. The potential health risk of HFPO-TA should be of concern.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Hepatotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid and two emerging alternatives based on a 3D spheroid model

Authors: Sun, S; Guo, Hua; Wang, J; Dai, J (2019) Environmental Pollution 246:955-962. HERO ID: 5024252

[Less] Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) toxicity is of considerable concern due to its wide application, environmental . . . [More] Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) toxicity is of considerable concern due to its wide application, environmental persistence, and bioaccumulation. In the current study, we used a scaffold-free three-dimensional (3D) spheroid model of mouse liver cells (AML12) to explore the toxicity of PFOA and emerging alternatives (HFPO-DA and PFO4DA). Comparing the short-term (24 and 72 h treatment) toxicity of PFOA between conventional 2D monolayer cells and 3D spheroids, we found that spheroids had higher EC50 values and lower ROS levels after treatment, indicating their greater resistance to PFOA. Cell viability (i.e., adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage) and liver-specific function (i.e., albumin secretion) were stable in spheroids through 28 day of culture. However, under 100 and 200 μM-PFOA treatment for 28 day, ROS levels, LDH leakage, and caspase3/7 activity all increased significantly. As a sensitive parameter, ROS showed a significant increase at 21 day, even in the 50 μM-PFOA group. Consistent with the elevation of ROS and caspase3/7, the expressions of oxidative stress- and apoptosis-related genes, including Gsta2, Nqo1, Ho-1, caspase3, p53, and p21, were induced in dose- and time-dependent manners after PFOA exposure. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) pathway was also activated after treatment, with significant induction of its target genes, Fabp4 and Scd1. Similar to PFOA, both HFPO-DA and PFO4DA activated the PPARα pathway, induced ROS levels, and initiated cell damage, though at a relatively lower extent than that of PFOA. Our results imply that the 3D spheroid model is a valuable tool in chronic toxicological studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Adverse maternal, fetal, and postnatal effects of hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (GenX) from oral gestational exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats

Authors: Conley, JM; Lambright, CS; Evans, N; Strynar, MJ; Mccord, J; Mcintyre, BS; Travlos, GS; Cardon, MC; Medlock-Kakaley, E; Hartig, PC; Wilson, VS; Gray, LE, Jr (2019) Environmental Health Perspectives 127:1-13. HERO ID: 5024654

[Less] Hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid ((HFPO-DA), GenX) is a member of the per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances . . . [More] Hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid ((HFPO-DA), GenX) is a member of the per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) chemical class and elevated levels have been detected in surface water, air, and treated drinking water in the United States and Europe.

Objectives: Characterize the potential maternal and postnatal toxicities of oral HFPODA in rats during sexual differentiation. Given that some PFAS activate peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), assess if HFPO-DA affects androgendependent development or interferes with estrogen, androgen, or glucocorticoid receptor activity.

Methods: Steroid receptor activity was assessed with a suite of in vitro transactivation assays and Sprague-Dawley rats were used to assess maternal, fetal, and postnatal effects of HFPO-DA exposure. Dams were dosed daily via oral gavage during male reproductive development (gestation day 14-18). We evaluated fetal testes, maternal and fetal livers, maternal serum clinical chemistry, and reproductive development of F1 animals.

Results: HFPO-DA displayed negligible in vitro receptor activity and did not impact testosterone production or expression of genes key to male reproductive development in the fetal testis; however, in vivo exposure during gestation produced higher maternal liver weights (≥62.5 mg/kg), lower maternal serum thyroid hormone and lipid profiles (≥30 mg/kg), and upregulated gene expression related to PPAR signaling pathways in maternal and fetal livers (≥1 mg/kg). Further, the pilot postnatal study indicated lower female body weight and lower weights of male reproductive tissues in F1 animals.

Conclusions: HFPO-DA exposure produced multiple effects similar to prior toxicity evaluations on PFAS, such as PFOS and PFOA, but at higher oral doses. The mean dam serum concentration from the lowest dose group was 4-fold greater than the maximum serum concentration detected in a worker in a HFPO-DA manufacturing facility. Research is needed examining the mechanisms and downstream events linked to the adverse effects of PFAS, and mixture-based studies evaluating multiple PFAS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cytotoxicity of novel fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances to human liver cell line and their binding capacity to human liver fatty acid binding protein

Authors: Sheng, N; Cui, R; Wang, J; Guo, Y; Wang, J; Dai, J (2018) Archives of Toxicology 92:359-369. HERO ID: 4199441

[Less] Although shorter chain homologues and other types of fluorinated chemicals are currently used as alternatives . . . [More] Although shorter chain homologues and other types of fluorinated chemicals are currently used as alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), their safety information remains unclear and urgently needed. Here, the cytotoxicity of several fluorinated alternatives (i.e., 6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (6:2 FTCA), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA), 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA), and hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO) homologues) to human liver HL-7702 cell line were measured and compared with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Their binding mode and affinity to human liver fatty acid binding protein (hL-FABP) were also determined. Compared with PFOA and PFOS, 6:2 Cl-PFESA, HFPO trimer acid (HFPO-TA), HFPO tetramer acid (HFPO-TeA), and 6:2 FTSA showed greater toxic effects on cell viabilities. At low exposure doses, these alternatives induced cell proliferation with similar mechanism which was different from that of PFOA and PFOS. Furthermore, binding affinity to hL-FABP decreased in the order of 6:2 FTCA < 6:2 FTSA < HFPO dimer acid (HFPO-DA) < PFOA < PFOS/6:2 Cl-PFESA/HFPO-TA. Due to their distinctive structure, 6:2 Cl-PFESA and HFPO homologues were bound to the hL-FABP inner pocket with unique binding modes and higher binding energy compared with PFOA and PFOS. This research enhances our understanding of the toxicity of PFAS alternatives during usage and provides useful evidence for the development of new alternatives.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Worldwide distribution of novel perfluoroether carboxylic and sulfonic acids in surface water

Authors: Pan, Y; Zhang, H; Cui, Q; Sheng, N; Yeung, LWY; Sun, Y; Guo, Y; Dai, J (2018) Environmental Science and Technology 52:7621-7629. HERO ID: 4827061

[Less] Driven by increasingly stringent restrictions on long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), . . . [More] Driven by increasingly stringent restrictions on long-chain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), novel fluorinated compounds have emerged on the market. Here we report on the occurrences of several perfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic and sulfonic acids (PFECAs and PFESAs), including hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer and trimer acids (HFPO-DA and HFPO-TA), ammonium 4,8-dioxa-3 H-perfluorononanoate (ADONA), chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA), and its hydrogen-substituted analogue (6:2 H-PFESA) in surface waters from China ( n = 106), the United States ( n = 12), the United Kingdom ( n = 6), Sweden ( n = 10), Germany ( n = 14), The Netherlands ( n = 6), and Korea ( n = 6). Results showed that HFPO-DA, HFPO-TA, and 6:2 Cl-PFESA (median = 0.95, 0.21, and 0.31 ng/L, respectively) were frequently detected in all countries, indicating ubiquitous dispersal and distribution in global surface waters. The presence of 6:2 H-PFESA was widely detected in China (detection rate > 95%) but not in any other country. Only trace levels of ADONA (0.013-1.5 ng/L) were detected in the Rhine River flowing through Germany. The estimated total riverine mass discharges of HFPO-DA, HFPO-TA, and ΣPFESAs reached 2.6, 6.0, and 4.3 ton/year in five of the major river systems in China. Our results indicated that novel PFECAs and PFESAs might become global contaminants, and future investigations are warranted.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Emissions, Transport, and Fate of Emerging Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances from One of the Major Fluoropolymer Manufacturing Facilities in China

Authors: Song, X; Vestergren, R; Shi, Y; Huang, J; Cai, Y (2018) Environmental Science and Technology 52:9694-9703. HERO ID: 4827063

[Less] Fluoropolymer manufacturing is a major historical source of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on a global . . . [More] Fluoropolymer manufacturing is a major historical source of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on a global scale, but little is known about the emissions, transport, and fate of emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Here, we performed a comprehensive spatial trend and interyear comparison of surface water and sediment samples from the Xiaoqing River, which receives water discharge from one of the major fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities in China. A suspect screening identified 42 chemical formulas, including the tetramer acid of hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO-TeA) and numerous tentatively detected isomers of C9-C14 per- or polyfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs). As revealed by the spatial trends and peak area-based sediment-water distribution coefficients, emerging PFASs with 3-9 perfluorinated carbons were transported unimpededly with the bulk water flow having no measurable degradation. Emerging PFASs with >9 perfluorinated carbons displayed more rapidly decreasing spatial trends than shorter-chain homologues in surface water due to increasing sedimentation rates. The presence of HFPO oligomers, monoether PFECAs, monohydrogen-substituted perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and monochlorine-substituted PFCAs could partly be explained by the active use of polymerization aids or the impurities therein. However, further research is encouraged to better characterize the emissions of low-molecular-weight PFASs from fluoropolymers throughout their life-cycle.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Removal of GenX and Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances from Water by Amine-Functionalized Covalent Organic Frameworks

Authors: Ji, W; Xiao, L; Ling, Y; Ching, C; Matsumoto, M; Bisbey, RP; Helbling, DE; Dichtel, WR (2018) Journal of the American Chemical Society 140:12677-12681. HERO ID: 5024244

[Less] Per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate . . . [More] Per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and ammonium perfluoro-2-propoxypropionate (GenX), contaminate ground and surface waters throughout the world. The cost and performance limitations of current PFAS removal technologies motivate efforts to develop selective and high-affinity adsorbents. Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are unexplored yet promising adsorbents because of their high surface area and tunable pore sizes. Here we show that imine-linked two-dimensional (2D) COFs bearing primary amines adsorb GenX rapidly at environmentally relevant concentrations. COFs with partial amine incorporation showed the highest capacity and fastest removal, suggesting that the synergistic combination of the polar group and hydrophobic surfaces are responsible for GenX binding. A COF with 28% amine loading also removed more than 90% of 12 out of 13 PFAS. These results demonstrate the promise of COFs for PFAS removal and suggest design criteria for maximizing adsorbent performance.