Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


GenX Chemicals (CASRN 13252-13-6 and CASRN 62037-80-3)


143 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

Annex XV report: Proposal for identification of a substance of very high concern on the basis of the criteria set out in REACH Article 57

Author: ECHA (2019) The Netherlands: ECHA. HERO ID: 5883637

[Less] 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)propanoic acid, its salts and its acyl halides (covering any . . . [More] 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)propanoic acid, its salts and its acyl halides (covering any of their individual isomers and combinations thereof), further denoted as HFPO-DA, are identified as substances of very high concern in accordance with Article 57(f) of Regulation (EC) 1907/2006 (REACH) because in water under environmental conditions these substances exist in the form of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)propanoate, for which there is scientific evidence of probable serious effects to the environment and human health which give rise to an equivalent level of concern to those of other substances listed in points (a) to (e) of Article 57 of REACH.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Support document for identification of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)propionic acid, its salts and its acyl halides (covering any of their individual isomers and combinations thereof) as substances of very high concern because of their hazardous properties which cause probable serious effects to human health and the environment which give rise to an equivalent level of concern to those of CMR1 and PBT/vPvB2 substances (article 57f)

Author: ECHA (2019) The Netherlands: ECHA. HERO ID: 5883639


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Detection of Microbiota in Post Radiation Sinusitis

Authors: Stoddard, TJ; Varadarajan, VV; Dziegielewski, PT; Boyce, BJ; Justice, JM (2019) HERO ID: 5381313

[Less] OBJECTIVES: A shift in the microbiota of chronic rhinosinusitis has been described . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: A shift in the microbiota of chronic rhinosinusitis has been described after radiotherapy to the sinonasal cavity and skull base. There is a paucity of literature characterizing the bacteriology of post radiation sinusitis using next-generation gene sequencing techniques. This study aims to describe and compare the microbial flora of rhinosinusitis after radiotherapy using both culture and molecular techniques for microbial DNA detection.

METHODS: The medical records of patients treated with external beam radiation for sinonasal, nasopharyngeal, or skull base malignancy were reviewed at a tertiary care facility. Patients' sinonasal cavities were swabbed for routine culture or brushed for molecular gene sequencing. Swab specimens were processed for standard microbial culture, and brush specimens were sent for gene sequencing at Micro GenX Laboratory (Lubbock, Texas, USA).

RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were diagnosed with chronic sinusitis after undergoing radiotherapy. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism identified by both culture and gene sequencing, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Several additional organisms were detected by gene sequencing that were not isolated by routine culture techniques. Gene sequencing identified pathogens differing from culture results in 50% of patients examined.

CONCLUSION: The bacteriology of post radiation sinusitis appears to resemble the microorganisms responsible for chronic sinusitis in healthy adults. Next generation gene sequencing techniques may reveal additional organisms responsible for sinusitis and provide complementary results that may impact the medical treatment of post radiation sinusitis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Efficient removal of GenX (HFPO-DA) and other perfluorinated ether acids from drinking and recycled waters using anion exchange resins

Authors: Dixit, F; Barbeau, B; Mostafavi, SG; Mohseni, M (2019) HERO ID: 5883626

[Less] Carcinogenic GenX chemicals, heptafluoropropylene-oxide-dimer-acid (HFPO-DA), have been recently detected . . . [More] Carcinogenic GenX chemicals, heptafluoropropylene-oxide-dimer-acid (HFPO-DA), have been recently detected in surface, ground and recycled water sources worldwide. However, GenX removals under the influence of variable characteristics of the organic and inorganic compounds present in the natural water sources, have often been overlooked in scientific literature. This is critically important given that the ionic composition and characteristics of organic matter in natural waters are spatially and seasonally variable. A strongly basic anion exchange (IX) resin was used to remove GenX and two other perfluorinated ether acids (PFEAS) from natural surface and recycled water sources. Factors influencing the uptake behavior included the PFEAS concentrations, resin dosage, and background anion characteristics. The equivalent background compound was employed to evaluate the competitive uptake between natural organic matter (NOM), inorganic ions and PFEAS in natural water matrices. Experimental data were compared with different mathematical and physical models and it was depicted that approximately 4-6% of the initial NOM competed with PFEAS for active exchange sites. Further, IX was able to achieve complete PFEAS removal (Cfinal<10 ng/L) with simultaneous removal of>60% NOM and >80% inorganic ions. Results of this study indicate that IX exhibits great potential for PFEAS removal from natural drinking water sources.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analysis of hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA) by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS): Review of Current Approaches and Environmental Levels

Authors: Mullin, L; Katz, D; Riddell, N; Plumb, R; Burgess, JA; Yeung, LWY; Jogsten, IE (2019) HERO ID: 5883629

[Less] Emerging per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFAS) compounds are of increasing interest for environmental . . . [More] Emerging per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFAS) compounds are of increasing interest for environmental monitoring, one being hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA), commonly referred to as GenX. The following review describes existing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods used to analyze HFPO-DA, including sample preparation and method sensitivity relative to other PFAS. Analytical challenges are also described, in particular the significant formation of in-source fragmentation, dimer and dimer adducts which detract from [M-H]- signal. Lastly, detected levels of HFPO-DA in environmental and biological samples are compared across the limited number of available field exposure studies, which found several μg/L concentrations in water samples taken near fluorochemical plant discharges.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Enhanced host-guest complexation of short chain perfluoroalkyl substances with positively charged beta-cyclodextrin derivatives

Authors: Weiss-Errico, MJo; O'Shea, KE (2019) HERO ID: 5883630


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Adsorption behavior and mechanism of emerging perfluoro-2-propoxypropanoic acid (GenX) on activated carbons and resins

Authors: Wang, Wei; Maimaiti, A; Shi, H; Wu, R; Wang, Run; Li, Z; Qi, D; Yu, G; Deng, S (2019) HERO ID: 5024248


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface water and sediment of the North and Baltic Seas

Authors: Joerss, H; Apel, C; Ebinghaus, R (2019) Science of the Total Environment 686:360-369. HERO ID: 5381283

[Less] Along with the phase-out of legacy long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkane . . . [More] Along with the phase-out of legacy long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their precursors, attention has been drawn to emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). This study is aimed at investigating the importance of selected emerging PFASs as pollutants in European coastal environments and a possible transition from legacy long-chain PFCAs and PFSAs to replacement compounds. Therefore, the spatial distribution of 29 PFASs was analysed in surface water and sediment of the North and Baltic Seas sampled in 2017. Levels of the replacement compound HFPO-DA were approximately three times higher than those of its predecessor PFOA in surface water from the North Sea, which is characterised by the influence of point sources and constant exchange with open water. Reanalysis of sample extracts from the last decade showed that HFPO-DA had already been present in 2011, when it had not yet been in focus. In the Baltic Sea with a limited water exchange and dominance of diffuse sources, the proportion of HFPO-DA was negligible, whereas long-chain PFCAs and PFSAs still contributed to ∑PFASs with about 30%. The emerging cyclic compound perfluoro-4-ethylcyclohexanesulfonate (PFECHS), which has not yet been reported in European coastal environments, was detected in 86% of the Baltic Sea samples. Influenced by sediment characteristics in addition to source-specific contributions, the spatial distribution of PFASs in surface sediments was more variable than for water samples. The linear isomer of the long-chain legacy substance PFOS was the predominant compound found over the entire study area. Of the emerging PFASs, 6:6 and 6:8 perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPiAs) were identified close to potential industrial inputs and in sedimentation areas. The results show that particular emerging PFASs play a relevant role in the investigated coastal environments and that a shift to replacements is dependent on sources and geographical conditions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparative in Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of the Estrogenic Effect of Hexafluoropropylene Oxide Homologues

Authors: Xin, Y; Ren, XM; Wan, B; Guo, LH (2019) Environmental Science and Technology 53:8371-8380. HERO ID: 5381286

[Less] As alternatives to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO) homologues, including . . . [More] As alternatives to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO) homologues, including hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA), hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA), and hexafluoropropylene oxide tetramer acid (HFPO-TeA), have been used in the fluoropolymer industry for a long period of time. These compounds have attracted widespread attention in recent years due to their environmental ubiquity and high bioaccumulation capability, as well as their toxicity. In our study, we evaluated the potential estrogenic effects of HFPOs in comparison to PFOA by ligand binding, transcriptional activity, and in vivo assays. Fluorescence ligand binding assays showed that both HFPO-TA and HFPO-TeA exhibited higher binding affinity to estrogen receptor ligand binding domains (ER-LBDs) than PFOA, with 2.5- and 57.5-fold higher affinity to ERα-LBD and 2.6- and 41.8-fold higher affinity to ERβ-LBD, respectively, whereas HFPO-DA exhibited weaker binding affinity than PFOA. Unlike PFOA, HFPO-TA and HFPO-TeA exhibited antagonistic activity toward the ERs' signaling pathway, with HFPO-TeA displaying the strongest potency. In silico study revealed that while PFOA binds with ERs in a similar fashion as 17β-estradiol, the HFPOs display an antagonistic binding mode. Using a zebrafish model, we further found that exposure to HFPO homologues significantly altered the levels of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. In general, both in vivo and in vitro results indicate that HFPO homologues might exert higher estrogenic effects than PFOA.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The determination of two emerging perfluoroalkyl substances and related halogenated sulfonic acids and their significance for the drinking water supply chain

Authors: Vughs, D; Baken, KA; Dingemans, MML; de Voogt, P (2019) HERO ID: 5883627

[Less] In the present study analytical methodologies were developed for two newly emerging polar perfluorinated . . . [More] In the present study analytical methodologies were developed for two newly emerging polar perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS), namely F3-MSA, and HFPO-DA, in order to assess the occurrence and levels of these PFAS in Dutch and Belgian waters. Two separate methods were needed for analysing F3-MSA and HFPO-DA. A mixed-mode and a reversed phase C18 method were developed for F3-MSA and HFPO-DA, respectively, using a high resolution Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer for detection, yielding satisfactory LOD and LOQ results for both analytes. A sample campaign was performed collecting single grab samples from various locations and different stages of the drinking water production chain. Whereas both PFAS were absent in groundwaters, they were found to be present in surface waters, river bank and dune infiltrates, process water, and drinking water, demonstrating the persistence and mobility of both compounds. Based on provisional health-based guideline values (0.15 μg L-1 for HFPO-DA, 11.9 mg L-1 for F3-MSA), the current levels in drinking water from the suppliers involved in this study do not pose a health risk for the human population. Common removal processes used in drinking water production appeared to remove these polar compounds at most partially. At locations close to potential sources of these chemicals (e.g. fluoropolymer production sites), the quality of surface water or river bank filtrate abstracted for production of drinking water must therefore be monitored.