Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


GenX Chemicals (CASRN 13252-13-6 and CASRN 62037-80-3)


115 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Adverse maternal, fetal, and postnatal effects of hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (GenX) from oral gestational exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats

Authors: Conley, JM; Lambright, CS; Evans, N; Strynar, MJ; Mccord, J; Mcintyre, BS; Travlos, GS; Cardon, MC; Medlock-Kakaley, E; Hartig, PC; Wilson, VS; Gray, , Jr (2019) Environmental Health Perspectives. HERO ID: 5024654

[Less] Hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid ((HFPO-DA), GenX) is a member of the per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances . . . [More] Hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid ((HFPO-DA), GenX) is a member of the per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) chemical class and elevated levels have been detected in surface water, air, and treated drinking water in the United States and Europe.

Objectives: Characterize the potential maternal and postnatal toxicities of oral HFPODA in rats during sexual differentiation. Given that some PFAS activate peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), assess if HFPO-DA affects androgendependent development or interferes with estrogen, androgen, or glucocorticoid receptor activity.

Methods: Steroid receptor activity was assessed with a suite of in vitro transactivation assays and Sprague-Dawley rats were used to assess maternal, fetal, and postnatal effects of HFPO-DA exposure. Dams were dosed daily via oral gavage during male reproductive development (gestation day 14-18). We evaluated fetal testes, maternal and fetal livers, maternal serum clinical chemistry, and reproductive development of F1 animals.

Results: HFPO-DA displayed negligible in vitro receptor activity and did not impact testosterone production or expression of genes key to male reproductive development in the fetal testis; however, in vivo exposure during gestation produced higher maternal liver weights (≥62.5 mg/kg), lower maternal serum thyroid hormone and lipid profiles (≥30 mg/kg), and upregulated gene expression related to PPAR signaling pathways in maternal and fetal livers (≥1 mg/kg). Further, the pilot postnatal study indicated lower female body weight and lower weights of male reproductive tissues in F1 animals.

Conclusions: HFPO-DA exposure produced multiple effects similar to prior toxicity evaluations on PFAS, such as PFOS and PFOA, but at higher oral doses. The mean dam serum concentration from the lowest dose group was 4-fold greater than the maximum serum concentration detected in a worker in a HFPO-DA manufacturing facility. Research is needed examining the mechanisms and downstream events linked to the adverse effects of PFAS, and mixture-based studies evaluating multiple PFAS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Hepatotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid and two emerging alternatives based on a 3D spheroid model

Authors: Sun, S; Guo, Hua; Wang, J; Dai, J (2019) HERO ID: 5024252


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The PFOA substitute GenX detected in the environment near a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant in the Netherlands

Authors: Brandsma, SH; Koekkoek, JC; van Velzen, MJM; de Boer, J (2019) Chemosphere 220:493-500. HERO ID: 5024246

[Less] The ban on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has led to the production and use of alternative fluorinated . . . [More] The ban on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has led to the production and use of alternative fluorinated compounds such as GenX. Limited information is available on the occurrence of this PFOA substitute. In this pilot study, we investigated the presence of GenX in/on grass and leaf samples collected near a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant in the Netherlands and in drinking water produced from surface and surface-water influenced groundwater intake points within 25 km from the plant. GenX was detected in/on all grass and leaf samples collected within 3 km north-east from the plant, with levels ranging from 1 to 27 ng/g wet weight (ww) and 4.3-86 ng/g ww, respectively. The PFOA levels in/on grass and leaves were lower, ranging from 0.7 to 11 ng/g ww and 0.9-28 ng/g ww, respectively. A declining concentration gradient of GenX and PFOA with increasing distance from the plant was observed, which suggests that the plant is a point source of GenX and was a point source for PFOA in the past. In all drinking water samples, GenX and PFOA were detected with levels ranging from 1.4 to 8.0 ng/L and 1.9-7.1 ng/L, respectively. The detection of GenX, which is only used since 2012, in/on grass and leaves and in drinking water indicates that GenX is now distributed through the environment. The presence of GenX and PFOA in/on grass and leaves within 3 km north-east of the plant also suggests that these chemicals could also be present on the locally grown food in gardens around the factory.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Adsorption behavior and mechanism of emerging perfluoro-2-propoxypropanoic acid (GenX) on activated carbons and resins

Authors: Wang, Wei; Maimaiti, A; Shi, H; Wu, R; Wang, Run; Li, Z; Qi, D; Yu, G; Deng, S (2019) HERO ID: 5024248


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Adipogenic Activity of Oligomeric Hexafluoropropylene Oxide (Perfluorooctanoic Acid Alternative) through Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Pathway

Authors: Li, CH; Ren, XM; Guo, LH (2019) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 5024251

[Less] Hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA) and hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) have . . . [More] Hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA) and hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) have been used as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) alternatives in the fluoropolymer industry for years. Their widespread environmental distribution, high bioaccumulation capability and human exposure have caused great concern. Nevertheless, their potential toxicity and health risk remain largely unknown. In the present study, we compared potential disruption effects of HFPO-TA, HFPO-DA and PFOA on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) via the investigation of receptor binding, receptor activity and cell adipogenesis effects. The receptor binding experiment showed HFPO-TA exhibited 4.8-7.5 folds higher binding affinity with PPARγ than PFOA, whereas HFPO-DA exhibited weaker binding affinity than PFOA. They also showed agonistic activity toward PPARγ signaling pathway in HEK 293 cells in the order of HFPO-TA > PFOA > HFPO-DA. Molecular docking simulation indicated HFPO-TA formed more hydrogen bonds than PFOA, whereas HFPO-DA formed fewer hydrogen bonds than PFOA. HFPO-TA promoted adipogenic differentiation and lipid accumulation in both mouse and human preadipocytes with potency higher than PFOA. Adipogenesis in human preadipocytes is a more sensitive end point than mouse preadipocytes. Collectively, HFPO-TA exerts higher binding affinity, agonistic activity and adipogenesis activity than PFOA. The potential health risk of HFPO-TA should be of concern.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) affect neither estrogen and androgen receptor activity nor steroidogenesis in human cells in vitro

Authors: Behr, AC; Lichtenstein, D; Braeuning, A; Lampen, A; Buhrke, T (2018) Toxicology Letters 291:51-60. HERO ID: 4825616

[Less] The perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid . . . [More] The perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are used for the fabrication of water- and dirt-repellent surfaces. The use of PFOS and PFOA was restricted due to their reprotoxic properties and their environmental persistence. Therefore, industry switches to alternative PFAS, however, in contrast to PFOA and PFOS only few toxicological data are available for their substitutes. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying reproductive toxicity of PFOA and PFOS are largely unknown. Here, the endocrine properties of PFOA, PFOS, and of six substitutes including perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), ammonium perfluoro(2-methyl-3-oxahexanoate) (PMOH), and 3H-perfluoro-3-[(3-methoxypropoxy) propanoic acid] (PMPP) were examined in vitro by using human cell lines such as MCF-7, H295R, LNCaP and MDA-kb2. PFOA, PFOS and PMOH enhanced 17β-estradiol-stimulated estrogen receptor β activity, and PFOS, PMOH, PFHxA and PFBA enhanced dihydrotestosterone-stimulated androgen receptor activity. In the H295R steroidogenesis assay, PFOA and PFOS slightly enhanced estrone secretion, and progesterone secretion was marginally increased by PFOA. All these effects were only observed at concentrations above 10 μM, and none of the PFAS displayed any effect on any of the molecular endocrine endpoints at concentrations of 10 μM or below. Thus, as the blood serum concentrations of the different PFAS in the general Western population are in the range of 10 nM or below, the results suggest that PFAS might not exert endocrine effects in humans at exposure-relevant concentrations according to the molecular endpoints examined in this study.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Recently Detected Drinking Water Contaminants: GenX and Other Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Ether Acids

Authors: Hopkins, ZR; Sun, Mei; Dewitt, JC; Knappe, DRU (2018) HERO ID: 4741927

[Less] For several decades, a common processing aid in the production of fluoropolymers was the ammonium salt . . . [More] For several decades, a common processing aid in the production of fluoropolymers was the ammonium salt of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Because PFOA is persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic, its production and use are being phased out in the United States. In 2009, the US Environmental Protection Agency stipulated conditions for the manufacture and commercial use of GenX, a PFOA replacement. While GenX is produced for commercial purposes, the acid form of GenX is also generated as a byproduct during the production of fluoromonomers. The discovery of high concentrations of GenX and related perfluoroalkyl ether acids (PFEAs) in the Cape Fear River and in finished drinking water of more than 200,000 North Carolina residents required quick action by researchers, regulators, public health officials, commercial laboratories, drinking water providers, and consulting engineers. Information about sources and toxicity of GenX as well as an analytical method for the detection of GenX and eight related PFEAs is presented. GenX/PFEA occurrence in water and GenX/PFEA removal by different drinking water treatment processes are also discussed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cytotoxicity of novel fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances to human liver cell line and their binding capacity to human liver fatty acid binding protein

Authors: Sheng, N; Cui, R; Wang, J; Guo, Y; Wang, J; Dai, J (2018) Archives of Toxicology 92:359-369. HERO ID: 4199441

[Less] Although shorter chain homologues and other types of fluorinated chemicals are currently used as alternatives . . . [More] Although shorter chain homologues and other types of fluorinated chemicals are currently used as alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), their safety information remains unclear and urgently needed. Here, the cytotoxicity of several fluorinated alternatives (i.e., 6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (6:2 FTCA), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA), 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA), and hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO) homologues) to human liver HL-7702 cell line were measured and compared with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Their binding mode and affinity to human liver fatty acid binding protein (hL-FABP) were also determined. Compared with PFOA and PFOS, 6:2 Cl-PFESA, HFPO trimer acid (HFPO-TA), HFPO tetramer acid (HFPO-TeA), and 6:2 FTSA showed greater toxic effects on cell viabilities. At low exposure doses, these alternatives induced cell proliferation with similar mechanism which was different from that of PFOA and PFOS. Furthermore, binding affinity to hL-FABP decreased in the order of 6:2 FTCA < 6:2 FTSA < HFPO dimer acid (HFPO-DA) < PFOA < PFOS/6:2 Cl-PFESA/HFPO-TA. Due to their distinctive structure, 6:2 Cl-PFESA and HFPO homologues were bound to the hL-FABP inner pocket with unique binding modes and higher binding energy compared with PFOA and PFOS. This research enhances our understanding of the toxicity of PFAS alternatives during usage and provides useful evidence for the development of new alternatives.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and fluorinated alternatives in urine and serum by on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Authors: Kato, K; Kalathil, AA; Patel, AM; Ye, X; Calafat, AM (2018) Chemosphere 209:338-345. HERO ID: 4736614

[Less] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), man-made chemicals with variable length carbon chains containing . . . [More] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), man-made chemicals with variable length carbon chains containing the perfluoroalkyl moiety (CnF2n+1-), are used in many commercial applications. Since 1999-2000, several long-chain PFAS, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), have been detected at trace levels in the blood of most participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-representative samples of the U.S. general population-while short-chain PFAS have not. Lower detection frequencies and concentration ranges may reflect lower exposure to short-chain PFAS than to PFOS or PFOA or that, in humans, short-chain PFAS efficiently eliminate in urine. We developed on-line solid phase extraction-HPLC-isotope dilution-MS/MS methods for the quantification in 50 μL of urine or serum of 15 C3-C11 PFAS (C3 only in urine), and three fluorinated alternatives used as PFOA or PFOS replacements: GenX (ammonium salt of 2,3,3,3,-tetrafluoro-2-(1,1,2,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate, also known as HFPO-DA), ADONA (ammonium salt of 4,8-dioxa-3H-perfluorononanoate), and 9Cl-PF3ONS (9-chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanonane-1-sulfonate), main component of F53-B. Limit of detection for all analytes was 0.1 ng/mL. To validate the method, we analyzed 50 commercial urine/serum paired samples collected in 2016 from U.S. volunteers with no known exposure to the chemicals. In serum, detection frequency and concentration patterns agreed well with those from NHANES. By contrast, except for perfluorobutanoate, we did not detect long-chain or short-chain PFAS in urine. Also, we did not detect fluorinated alternatives in either urine or serum. Together, these results suggest limited exposure to both short-chain PFAS and select fluorinated alternatives in this convenience population.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Reusable Functionalized Hydrogel Sorbents for Removing Long- and Short-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) and GenX from Aqueous Solution

Authors: Huang, PoJ; Hwangbo, M; Chen, Z; Liu, Y; Kameoka, Jun; Chu, KHui (2018) HERO ID: 5024250