Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFHxA (307-24-4)


56 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Relationship between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity and cellular concentration of 14 perfluoroalkyl substances in HepG2 cells

Authors: Rosenmai, AK; Ahrens, L; le Godec, T; Lundqvist, J; Oskarsson, A (2018) Journal of Applied Toxicology 38:219-226. HERO ID: 4220319

[Less] Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a molecular target for perfluoroalkyl substances . . . [More] Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a molecular target for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Little is known about the cellular uptake of PFASs and how it affects the PPARα activity. We investigated the relationship between PPARα activity and cellular concentration in HepG2 cells of 14 PFASs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). Cellular concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and PPARα activity was determined in transiently transfected cells by reporter gene assay. Cellular uptake of the PFASs was low (0.04-4.1%) with absolute cellular concentrations in the range 4-2500 ng mg-1 protein. Cellular concentration of PFCAs increased with perfluorocarbon chain length up to perfluorododecanoate. PPARα activity of PFCAs increased with chain length up to perfluorooctanoate. The maximum induction of PPARα activity was similar for short-chain (perfluorobutanoate and perfluoropentanoate) and long-chain PFCAs (perfluorododecanoate and perfluorotetradecanoate) (approximately twofold). However, PPARα activities were induced at lower cellular concentrations for the short-chain homologs compared to the long-chain homologs. Perfluorohexanoate, perfluoroheptanoate, perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate induced PPARα activities >2.5-fold compared to controls. The concentration-response relationships were positive for all the tested compounds, except perfluorooctane sulfonate PFOS and FOSA, and were compound-specific, as demonstrated by differences in the estimated slopes. The relationships were steeper for PFCAs with chain lengths up to and including PFNA than for the other studied PFASs. To our knowledge, this is the first report establishing relationships between PPARα activity and cellular concentration of a broad range of PFASs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Interactions of perfluoroalkyl substances with a phospholipid bilayer studied by neutron reflectometry

Authors: Nouhi, Y; Ahrens, L; Kabayama, HH; Hughes, NAV; Campana, M; Gutfreund, P; Palsson, GK; Vorobiev, AA; Hellsing, MS (2018) Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 511:474-481. HERO ID: 4234858

[Less] The interactions between perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and a phospholipid bilayer (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) . . . [More] The interactions between perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and a phospholipid bilayer (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) were investigated at the molecular level using neutron reflectometry. Representative PFASs with different chain length and functional groups were selected in this study including: perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). All PFASs were found to interact with the bilayer by incorporation, indicating PFAS ability to accumulate once ingested or taken up by organisms. The interactions were observed to increase with chain length and vary with the functional group as SO2NH2(FOSA)>SO2O-(PFOS)>COO-(PFNA). The PFAS hydrophobicity, which is strongly correlated with perfluorocarbon chain length, was found to strongly influence the interactions. Longer chain PFASs showed higher tendency to penetrate into the bilayer compared to the short-chain compounds. The incorporated PFASs could for all substances but one (PFNA) be removed from the lipid membrane by gentle rinsing with water (2mLmin-1). Although short-chain PFASs have been suggested to be the potentially less bioaccumulative alternative, we found that in high enough concentrations they can also disturb the bilayer. The roughness and disorder of the bilayer was observed to increase as the concentration of PFASs increased (in particular for the high concentrations of short-chain substances i.e. PFHxA and PFBS), which can be an indication of aggregation of PFASs in the bilayer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Investigation of the best approach for assessing human exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances through indoor air

Authors: Padilla-Sánchez, JA; Papadopoulou, E; Poothong, S; Haug, LS (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:12836-12843. HERO ID: 4174662

[Less] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FOSAs), were assessed in 61 residential indoor air and 15 personal air samples collected in Oslo area, Norway. FTOHs were detected in all samples, and the median concentrations in residential indoor air were 2970, 10400, and 3120 pg m-3 for 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 FTOH, respectively. This is similar to or higher than previously reported in studies from the same geographical area and worldwide. FOSEs and FOSAs were detected in 49-70% and 7-13% of the residential indoor air samples, respectively. The median FTOH concentrations observed in personal air were 1970, 7170, and 1590 pg m-3 for 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 FTOH, respectively, which is 30 to 50% lower than the median concentrations in residential indoor air. No FOSEs or FOSAs were detected above the method detection limit (MDL) in the personal air samples. Intakes of perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), and perfluorooctyl sulfonate (PFOS) through inhalation and biotransformation of PFAS precursors in air were estimated. Median intakes of 1.7, 0.17, 5.7, 0.57, 1.8, 0.18, and 2.3 pg kg bw-1 day-1 were obtained in residential indoor air, while 1.0, 0.10, 3.3, 0.33, 0.88, and 0.09 pg kg bw-1 day-1 were found in personal air for PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFOS, respectively. The median PFOA intakes from residential indoor air (5.7 pg kg bw-1 day-1) and personal air (3.3 pg kg bw-1 day-1) were both around 5 orders of magnitude lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) reported by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Distribution profiles of per- and poly fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and their re-regulation by ocean currents in the East and South China Sea

Authors: Zheng, H; Wang, F; Zhao, Z; Ma, Y; Yang, H; Lu, Z; Cai, M; Cai, M (2017) Marine Pollution Bulletin 125:481-486. HERO ID: 3981209

[Less] We investigated the distribution of 17 individual per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 42 . . . [More] We investigated the distribution of 17 individual per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 42 surface water samples collected from the East and South China Seas (7.0-36.0°N, 110.0°N-123.0°E). Concentrations of 7 individual PFASs, including perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), were quantified in the East China Sea, but only concentrations of PFOA and FOSA were quantified in the South China Sea. The total concentrations of the 17 PFASs ranged from 181 to 2658pg/L in the East China Sea and from 62 to 494pg/L in the South China Sea. We also show that river fluxes and ocean currents had a strong influence on the distribution of PFASs in the East China Sea. Using ArcGIS 10.1, we show how ocean currents control the spatial distribution of PFOA in the central South China Sea.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Atmospheric chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate and ionic perfluoroalkyl acids in 2006 to 2014 in Dalian, China

Authors: Liu, W; Qin, H; Li, J; Zhang, Q; Zhang, H; Wang, Z; He, X (2017) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36:2581-2586. HERO ID: 3856455

[Less] Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (Cl‐PFESA; trade name F‐53B) is an alternative product for . . . [More] Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (Cl‐PFESA; trade name F‐53B) is an alternative product for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) used in metal plating; little is known about its levels in the environment and its risks. To our knowledge, the present study constitutes the first report of Cl‐PFESA in the atmosphere. In 2006 to 2014, C8 Cl‐PFESA, along with ionic perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), was detected in atmospheric particulate matter in Dalian, China. Concentrations of C8 Cl‐PFESA increased from 140 pg/m3 in 2007 to 722 pg/m3 in 2014. Levels of 11 (total) ionic PFAAs increased in 2006 to 2008 and decreased afterward, with a range of 35.7 to 860 pg/m3. The PFAAs in the particulate matter were dominated by perfluorocarboxylates, with perfluorooctanoate detected at the highest concentration at a mean level of 71.7 pg/m3, followed by perfluoroheptanoate and perfluorohexanoate. Perfluorosulfonates were detected at lower levels, with mean concentrations of PFOS, perfluorobutanesulfonate, and perfluorohexane sulfonate of 5.73, 1.64, and 1.24 pg/m3, respectively. Back‐trajectory analysis suggested that the air mass approaching Dalian during the sampling originated from the northwest, where fluorochemical industry parks and metal plating industries are densely located. No significant correlation was observed between Cl‐PFESA and the ionic PFAAs. The relatively high Cl‐PFESA concentrations suggested that it possibly contributed largely to the previously reported exposure to undefined organic fluorine compounds, for which further research on emission and environmental risks is needed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Influence of environmental factors on the fate of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances along the salinity/turbidity gradient of a macrotidal estuary

Authors: Munoz, G; Budzinski, H; Labadie, P (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:12347-12357. HERO ID: 4238497

[Less] This study aimed at bridging knowledge gaps regarding the land-sea transport of per- and polyfluoroalkyl . . . [More] This study aimed at bridging knowledge gaps regarding the land-sea transport of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) through riverine discharge into coastal waters. The present survey was conducted in the Gironde estuary (southwestern France) where PFASs were ubiquitously detected albeit at low levels. Emerging PFASs such as fluorotelomer sulfonates or polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters accounted for a relatively minor proportion of ∑PFASs, while perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorohexanoate were the predominant congeners. Multiple linear regressions provided insights into the relative influence of factors controlling PFAS sediment levels. In that respect, the organic carbon fraction (strongly correlated to sediment grain size) appeared as a more important controlling factor than black carbon or distance from upstream sources for long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids. In the maximum turbidity zone (suspended solids up to 2600 mg L-1), the particle-associated fraction was almost consistently >50% for long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates (≥C8 and ≥ C6, respectively). Empirical models of KDpartitioning coefficients were derived by integrating, for the first time, both particle-concentration and salting-out effects. These results represent significant progress toward the development of numerical transport models integrating both PFAS partitioning and 3D-hydrosedimentary dynamics, with a view to estimate PFAS mass budgets at the land-sea interface.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Distribution of novel and well-known poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum, plasma, and whole blood

Authors: Poothong, S; Thomsen, C; Padilla-Sanchez, JA; Papadopoulou, E; Haug, LS (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:13388-13396. HERO ID: 4239163

[Less] Currently, there is limited knowledge on the distribution of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) . . . [More] Currently, there is limited knowledge on the distribution of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in different blood matrices, particularly for novel PFASs such as polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) and perfluoroalkyl phosphonates (PFPAs). To explore this, serum, plasma, and whole blood from 61 adults in Oslo, Norway were collected. The largest number of PFASs were detected in whole blood. For PAPs and PFPAs, the highest frequencies of detection and concentrations were observed in plasma. PAPs contributed to 8% of total PFASs in plasma (median, 0.81 ng mL-1). Perfluorohexylphosphonate (PFHxPA) was the dominant PFPA, regardless of blood matrix. The relative composition profiles of PFASs in blood matrices differed. For some specific PFASs such as perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), the highest concentrations were observed in whole blood. The PFAS concentration ratios varied between blood matrices, depending on the compounds. However, similar ratios were observed for 6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diester (6:2diPAP) as well as well-known PFASs such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Besides the determination of 25 PFASs in human blood, this study also lead to better understanding of biomonitoring data from different blood matrices, which is key knowledge for performing both exposure assessments and epidemiological studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Thermodynamic Study of Aggregation of Cholinium Perfluoroalkanoate Ionic Liquids

Authors: Florindo, C; Tome, LC; Marrucho, IM (2016) HERO ID: 3859910

[Less] To advance the ionic liquid (IL) platform to tailor fluorinated surfactant properties, the aim of this . . . [More] To advance the ionic liquid (IL) platform to tailor fluorinated surfactant properties, the aim of this work is to evaluate the surfactant properties of cholinium-based salts bearing perfluoroalkanoate anions. Novel surfactant ILs containing the cholinium cation [Ch](+) combined with different perfluoroalkanoate anions, namely perfluoropentanoate [PFPent](-), perfluorohexanoate [PFHex](-), perfluoroheptanoate [PFHept](-), and perfluorooctanoate [PFOct](-), were synthesized. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) were determined using an ionic conductivity method, at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters of micellization were also evaluated. The results indicate that the CMC value decreases in a linear manner with the increment of the fluoroalkyl chain length in the anion. The evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the micellization is spontaneous and entropically driven and that the enthalpy of micellization is very small. It was also observed that the introduction of the cholinium cation in these surfactants allows for smaller CMC values when compared to that of other tetraalkylammonium-based surfactants with the same fluorinated anions, in short to more efficient and green surfactants. This result is probably due to counterion association and not to counterion binding to micelle surface.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development of a gas phase source for perfluoroalkyl acids to examine atmospheric sampling methods

Authors: Macinnis, JJ; Vandenboer, TC; Young, CJ (2016) The Analyst 141:3765-3775. HERO ID: 3359967

[Less] An inability to produce environmentally relevant gaseous mixing ratios of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), . . . [More] An inability to produce environmentally relevant gaseous mixing ratios of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), ubiquitous global contaminants, limits the analytical reliability of atmospheric chemists to make accurate gas and particulate measurements that are demonstrably free of interferences due to sampling artefacts. A gas phase source for PFAAs based on the acid displacement mechanism using perfluoropropionate (PFPrA), perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has been constructed. The displacement efficiency of gas phase perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) is inversely related to chain length. Decreasing displacement efficiencies for PFPrA, PFBA, PFHxA, and PFOA were 90% ± 20%, 40% ± 10%, 40% ± 10%, 9% ± 4%, respectively. Generating detectable amounts of gas phase perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) was not possible. It is likely that lower vapour pressure and much higher acidity play a role in this lack of emission. PFCA emission rates were not elevated by increasing relative humidity (25%-75%), nor flow rate of carrier gas from 33-111 sccm. Overall, reproducible gaseous production of PFCAs was within the error of the production of hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a displacing acid (±20%) and was accomplished using a dry nitrogen flow of 33 ± 2 sccm. A reproducible mass emission rate of 0.97 ± 0.10 ng min(-1) (n = 8) was observed for PFBA. This is equivalent to an atmospheric mixing ratio of 12 ppmv, which is easily diluted to environmentally relevant mixing ratios of PFBA. Conversely, generating gas phase perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) by sublimating the solid acid under the same conditions produced a mass emission rate of 2800 ng min(-1), which is equivalent to a mixing ratio of 18 ppthv and over a million times higher than suspected atmospheric levels. Thus, for analytical certification of atmospheric sampling methods, generating gas phase standards for PFCAs is best accomplished using acid displacement under dry conditions. This yields quickly stabilized, reproducible emissions and mixing ratios that are easily diluted to environmentally relevant levels. Gas phase PFBA from this source has also been shown to be quantitatively collected using an annular denuder coated with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) method Compendium I.O-4.2. Overall, producing gas phase PFAAs at constant atmospherically-relevant levels will enable the development of standard approaches in certifying gas and particle collection efficiencies for instruments interrogating the gas-particle partitioning and long-range transport of PFCAs in the atmosphere.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence and distribution of brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl substances in Australian landfill leachate and biosolids

Authors: Gallen, C; Drage, D; Kaserzon, S; Baduel, C; Gallen, M; Banks, A; Broomhall, S; Mueller, JF (2016) Journal of Hazardous Materials 312:55-64. HERO ID: 3350475

[Less] The levels of perfluroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane . . . [More] The levels of perfluroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDDs) were studied in Australian landfill leachate and biosolids. Leachate was collected from 13 landfill sites and biosolids were collected from 16 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), across Australia. Perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (12-5700ng/L) was the most abundant investigated persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemical in leachate. With one exception, mean concentrations of PFASs were higher in leachate of operating landfills compared to closed landfills. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane isomers (HBCDDs) were detected typically at operating landfills in comparatively lower concentrations than the PFASs. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) (<0.4-2300ng/g) and perfluoroctanesulfonate (PFOS) (<LOD-380ng/g) were the predominant PBTs detected in biosolids. Using data provided by sites, the volume of leachate discharged to WWTPs for treatment was small (<1% total inflow), and masses of PBTs transferred reached a maximum of 16g/yr (PFHxA). A national estimate of masses of PBTs accumulated in Australian biosolids reached 167kg/yr (BDE-209), a per capita contribution of 7.2±7.2mg/yr. Nationally, approximately 59% of biosolids are repurposed and applied to agricultural land. To our knowledge this study presents the first published data of PFASs and HBCDDs in Australian leachate and biosolids.