Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFHxA (307-24-4)


219 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Interactions of perfluoroalkyl substances with a phospholipid bilayer studied by neutron reflectometry

Authors: Nouhi, S; Ahrens, L; Campos Pereira, H; Hughes, AV; Campana, M; Gutfreund, P; Palsson, GK; Vorobiev, A; Hellsing, MS (2018) Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 511:474-481. HERO ID: 4234858

[Less] The interactions between perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and a phospholipid bilayer (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) . . . [More] The interactions between perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and a phospholipid bilayer (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) were investigated at the molecular level using neutron reflectometry. Representative PFASs with different chain length and functional groups were selected in this study including: perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). All PFASs were found to interact with the bilayer by incorporation, indicating PFAS ability to accumulate once ingested or taken up by organisms. The interactions were observed to increase with chain length and vary with the functional group as SO2NH2(FOSA)>SO2O-(PFOS)>COO-(PFNA). The PFAS hydrophobicity, which is strongly correlated with perfluorocarbon chain length, was found to strongly influence the interactions. Longer chain PFASs showed higher tendency to penetrate into the bilayer compared to the short-chain compounds. The incorporated PFASs could for all substances but one (PFNA) be removed from the lipid membrane by gentle rinsing with water (2mLmin-1). Although short-chain PFASs have been suggested to be the potentially less bioaccumulative alternative, we found that in high enough concentrations they can also disturb the bilayer. The roughness and disorder of the bilayer was observed to increase as the concentration of PFASs increased (in particular for the high concentrations of short-chain substances i.e. PFHxA and PFBS), which can be an indication of aggregation of PFASs in the bilayer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Magnetic covalent triazine-based frameworks as magnetic solid-phase extraction adsorbents for sensitive determination of perfluorinated compounds in environmental water samples

Authors: Ren, JY; Wang, XL; Li, XL; Wang, ML; Zhao, RS; Lin, JM (2018) Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 410:1657-1665. HERO ID: 4220307

[Less] Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which are a new type of carbonaceous polymeric material, have attracted . . . [More] Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which are a new type of carbonaceous polymeric material, have attracted great interest because of their large surface area and high chemical and thermal stability. However, to the best of our knowledge, no work has reported the use of magnetic COFs as adsorbents for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) to enrich and determine environmental pollutants. This work aims to investigate the feasibility of using covalent triazine-based framework (CTF)/Fe2O3 composites as MSPE adsorbents to enrich and analyze perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) at trace levels in water samples. Under the optimal conditions, the method developed exhibited low limits of detection (0.62-1.39 ng·L-1), a wide linear range (5-4000 ng L-1), good repeatability (1.12-9.71%), and good reproducibility (2.45-7.74%). The new method was successfully used to determine PFCs in actual environmental water samples. MSPE based on CTF/Fe2O3 composites exhibits potential for analysis of PFCs at trace levels in environmental water samples. Graphical abstract Magnetic covalent triazine-based frameworks (CTFs) were used as magnetic solid-phase extraction adsorbents for the sensitive determination of perfluorinated compounds in environmental water samples. PFBA perfluorobutyric acid, PFBS perfluorobutane sulfonate, PFDA perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDoA perfluorododecanoic acid, PFHpA perfluoroheptanoic acid, PFHxA perfluorohexanoic acid, PFHxS perfluorohexane sulfonate, PFNA perfluorononanoic acid, PFOA perfluorooctanoic acid, PFPeA perfluoropentanoic acid, PFUdA Perfluoroundecanoic acid.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A hypothesis-driven weight-of-evidence analysis to evaluate potential endocrine activity of perfluorohexanoic acid

Authors: Borghoff, SJ; Fitch, S; Rager, JE; Huggett, D (2018) Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 99:168-181. [Review] HERO ID: 5017765

[Less] Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) is a potential impurity and environmental degradation product of C6-based . . . [More] Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) is a potential impurity and environmental degradation product of C6-based fluorotelomer products. Considering the potential endocrine activity of perfluoroalkyl acids, a hypothesis-driven weight-of-evidence (WoE) analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential endocrine disruptor activity of PFHxA, as defined by World Health Organization (WHO), across estrogen (E), androgen (A), thyroid (T), and steroidogenesis (S) pathways. A comprehensive literature search identified primary and secondary studies across species for review. The ToxCast/Tox21 database provided in vitro data. Studies identified were reviewed for reliability, and relevance, with endocrine endpoints ranked, and lines of evidence evaluated across pathways. Overall, PFHxA showed no endocrine effects in Japanese medaka, juvenile rainbow trout, chickens or reproductive parameters in northern bobwhite with no significant activity in rodent repeated-dose toxicity, lifetime cancer, or reproductive and developmental studies. In vitro, there was weak or negative activity for T transport protein or activation of E, A or T receptors. PFHxA was also negative in vitro and in vivo for disrupting steroidogenesis. Based on this WoE endocrine analysis, PFHxA exposure did not cause adverse effects associated with alterations in endocrine activity in these models, as such would not be characterized as an endocrine disruptor according to the WHO definition.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Design of a Hybrid Nanofiltration/Electrooxidation Process for the Removal of Perfluorohexanoic Acid (PFHxA)

Authors: Soriano, A; Gorri, D; Urtiaga, Ane (2017) HERO ID: 4239325

[Less] The present work analyses a pilot scale hybrid nanofiltration/electrooxidation process for the removal . . . [More] The present work analyses a pilot scale hybrid nanofiltration/electrooxidation process for the removal of persistent perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) from industrial process waters. A mathematical model was developed enabling the simulation and scale-up of the independent nanofiltration (NF) and electrooxidation (ELOX) units. Commercial spiral wound membrane modules and recirculation strategies were implemented in the NF simulation. One single NF unit and a cascade of NF stages were compared. A battery of serial-parallel electrochemical cells was designed for the ELOX system. The simulations showed that the electrochemical treatment is, when one and two NF stages are used, the most energy demanding process. Adding more NF stages increased noticeably the contribution of NF to the global energy consumption. The NF preconcentration strategy was able to reduce significantly the ELOX energy consumption (up to 86 %) and the overall energy demand. The hybrid NF/ELOX process is foreseen as a beneficial strategy to reduce the energy consumption of large-scale electrochemical processes aimed at the treatment of waters polluted by persistent organic compounds.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Deriving environmental quality standards for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and related short chain perfluorinated alkyl acids

Authors: Valsecchi, S; Conti, D; Crebelli, R; Polesello, S; Rusconi, M; Mazzoni, M; Preziosi, E; Carere, M; Lucentini, L; Ferretti, E; Balzamo, S; Simeone, MG; Aste, F (2017) Journal of Hazardous Materials 323:84-98. HERO ID: 3748953

[Less] The evidence that in Northern Italy significant sources of perfluoroalkylacids (PFAA) are present induced . . . [More] The evidence that in Northern Italy significant sources of perfluoroalkylacids (PFAA) are present induced the Italian government to establish a Working Group on Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for PFAA in order to include some of them in the list of national specific pollutants for surface water monitoring according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). The list of substances included perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and related short chain PFAA such as perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), which is a substitute of perfluorooctanesulfonate. For each of them a dossier collects available data on regulation, physico-chemical properties, emission and sources, occurrence, acute and chronic toxicity on aquatic species and mammals, including humans. Quality standards (QS) were derived for the different protection objectives (pelagic and benthic communities, predators by secondary poisoning, human health via consumption of fishery products and water) according to the European guideline. The lowest QS is finally chosen as the relevant EQS. For PFOA a QS for biota was derived for protection from secondary poisoning and the corresponding QS for water was back-calculated, obtaining a freshwater EQS of 0.1μgL(-1). For PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA and PFBS threshold limits proposed for drinking waters were adopted as EQS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The use of carbon adsorbents for the removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from potable reuse systems

Authors: Inyang, M; Dickenson, ERV (2017) Chemosphere 184:168-175. HERO ID: 3858250

[Less] Bench- and pilot-scale sorption tests were used to probe the performance of several biochars at removing . . . [More] Bench- and pilot-scale sorption tests were used to probe the performance of several biochars at removing perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) from field waters, compared to granular activated carbon (GAC). Screening tests using organic matter-free water resulted in hardwood (HWC) (Kd = 41 L g(-1)) and pinewood (PWC) (Kd = 49 L g(-1)) biochars having the highest perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) removal performance that was comparable to bituminous coal GAC (Kd = 41 L g(-1)). PWC and HWC had a stronger affinity for PFOA sorbed in Lake Mead surface water (KF = 11 mg((1-n)) L(n) g(-1)) containing a lower (2 mg L(-1)) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration than in a tertiary-filtered wastewater (KF = 8 mg((1-n)) L(n) g(-1)) with DOC of 4.9 mg L(-1). A pilot-scale study was performed using three parallel adsorbers (GAC, anthracite, and HWC biochar) treating the same tertiary-filtered wastewater. Compared to HWC, and anthracite, GAC was the most effective in mitigating perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPnA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PHxA), PFOA, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), and DOC (45-67% removed at 4354 bed volumes) followed by HWC, and then anthracite. Based on bench- and pilot-scale results, shorter-chain PFAA [perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), PFPnA, or PFHxA] were more difficult to remove with both biochar and GAC than the longer-chain, PFOS and PFOA.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Risk exposure assessment of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water and atmosphere in central eastern China

Authors: Lu, Z; Lu, R; Zheng, H; Yan, J; Song, L; Wang, J; Haizhenyang,; Cai, M (2017) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25:9311-9320. HERO ID: 4167113

[Less] We examined per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in air from eight cities, and in water from . . . [More] We examined per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in air from eight cities, and in water from six drinking-water treatment plants (DWTPs), in central eastern China. We analyzed raw and treated water samples from the DWTPs for 17 ionic PFASs with high-performance liquid chromatography/negative-electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/(-)ESI-MS/MS), and analyzed the gas and particle phases of atmospheric samples for 12 neutral PFASs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) were the dominant compounds in drinking water, and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) dominated in atmospheric samples. Of all the compounds in the treated water samples, the concentration of PFOA, at 51.0 ng L-1, was the highest. Conventional treatments such as coagulation (COA), flocculation (FOC), sedimentation (SED), and sand filtration (SAF) did not remove PFASs. Advanced treatments, however, including ultrafiltration (UF) and activated carbon (AC), removed the majority of PFASs except for shorter-chain PFASs such as perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPA). We also investigated human exposure to PFASs via drinking water and the atmosphere and found that the mean daily intake of PFASs was 0.43 ng kg-1 day-1.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs)

Authors: Eriksson, U; Haglund, P; Kärrman, A (2017) Journal of Environmental Sciences 61:80-90. HERO ID: 4238322

[Less] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in sludge and water from waste water treatment . . . [More] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in sludge and water from waste water treatment plants, as a result of their incorporation in everyday products and industrial processes. In this study, we measured several classes of persistent PFASs, precursors, transformation intermediates, and newly identified PFASs in influent and effluent sewage water and sludge from three municipal waste water treatment plants in Sweden, sampled in 2015. For sludge, samples from 2012 and 2014 were analyzed as well. Levels of precursors in sludge exceeded those of perfluoroalkyl acids and sulfonic acids (PFCAs and PFSAs), in 2015 the sum of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs) were 15-20ng/g dry weight, the sum of fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs) was 0.8-1.3ng/g, and the sum of perfluorooctane sulfonamides and ethanols ranged from non-detected to 3.2ng/g. Persistent PFSAs and PFCAs were detected at 1.9-3.9ng/g and 2.4-7.3ng/g dry weight, respectively. The influence of precursor compounds was further demonstrated by an observed substantial increase for a majority of the persistent PFCAs and PFSAs in water after waste water treatment. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) had a net mass increase in all WWTPs, with mean values of 83%, 28%, 37% and 58%, respectively. The load of precursors and intermediates in influent water and sludge combined with net mass increase support the hypothesis that degradation of precursor compounds is a significant contributor to PFAS contamination in the environment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Investigation of the best approach for assessing human exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances through indoor air

Authors: Padilla-Sánchez, JA; Papadopoulou, E; Poothong, S; Haug, LS (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:12836-12843. HERO ID: 4174662

[Less] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FOSAs), were assessed in 61 residential indoor air and 15 personal air samples collected in Oslo area, Norway. FTOHs were detected in all samples, and the median concentrations in residential indoor air were 2970, 10400, and 3120 pg m-3 for 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 FTOH, respectively. This is similar to or higher than previously reported in studies from the same geographical area and worldwide. FOSEs and FOSAs were detected in 49-70% and 7-13% of the residential indoor air samples, respectively. The median FTOH concentrations observed in personal air were 1970, 7170, and 1590 pg m-3 for 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 FTOH, respectively, which is 30 to 50% lower than the median concentrations in residential indoor air. No FOSEs or FOSAs were detected above the method detection limit (MDL) in the personal air samples. Intakes of perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), and perfluorooctyl sulfonate (PFOS) through inhalation and biotransformation of PFAS precursors in air were estimated. Median intakes of 1.7, 0.17, 5.7, 0.57, 1.8, 0.18, and 2.3 pg kg bw-1 day-1 were obtained in residential indoor air, while 1.0, 0.10, 3.3, 0.33, 0.88, and 0.09 pg kg bw-1 day-1 were found in personal air for PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFOS, respectively. The median PFOA intakes from residential indoor air (5.7 pg kg bw-1 day-1) and personal air (3.3 pg kg bw-1 day-1) were both around 5 orders of magnitude lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) reported by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Serum concentrations of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances and factors associated with exposure in the general adult population in South Korea

Authors: Lee, JH; Lee, CK; Suh, CH; Kang, HS; Hong, CP; Choi, SN (2017) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 220:1046-1054. HERO ID: 3858472

[Less] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous contaminants found worldwide, including in . . . [More] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous contaminants found worldwide, including in South Korea. As a result, they are frequently detected in Koreans. However, there is limited representative data and information on potential sources in Korea. Therefore, we measured the serum concentrations of ten PFASs in nationally representative samples of the Korean population (n=1874, 18-69 years) and evaluated the factors associated with their exposure. Serum PFOS, PFDA, PFOA, and PFNA were detected in nearly all participants (83.1-99.9%). However, serum PFPA, PFHxA, and PFHpA were almost undetected (<0.5% of participants). PFOS had the highest population-weighted geometric mean of 10.23ng/mL (95% CI: 9.99-10.47), which was followed by PFOA with 2.85ng/mL (95% CI: 2.73-2.97) and PFDA with 2.17ng/mL (95% CI: 2.12-2.23). PFNA, PFDA, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOS concentrations were higher in males (p<0.001) and older adults (p<0.001). PFNA was higher in those who used wax, polish, and water-resistant materials (adjusted proportional change=1.14; 95% CI: 1.08-1.22), and those who ate cooked fish (1.16; 95% CI: 1.03-1.31) compared to those who ate nearly no fish. PFDA was higher in those who used herbicides and pesticides (1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.09), those who drank beverages in a plastic bag on a daily basis (1.10; 95% CI: 1.03-1.19), and those who ate raw fish (1.15; 95% CI: 1.03-1.29) or cooked fish (1.13; 95% CI: 1.05-1.23) compared to those who ate nearly no fish. PFHxS was higher in those who used traditional Korean health supplement foods (1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.15). PFOA was higher in those who used plastic wrap in a microwave daily or weekly (1.08; 95% CI: 1.00-1.16), and those who used disposable paper cups (1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13). PFOS was lower in underweight participants (0.84; 95%CI: 0.75-0.93) compared to those who were obese, and higher in those who exercised regularly (1.08; 95% CI: 1.03-1.14) or irregularly (1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.12) compared to those who did not exercise. Subjects who used severely damaged Teflon appliances had lower concentrations of PFOA (0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.95), while regular use of Gore-Tex goods was related to higher PFNA (1.15, 95% CI: 1.03-1.28) and PFDA (1.11; 95% CI: 1.02-1.20) levels. These findings suggest that most Koreans are frequently exposed to PFASs, and that serum concentrations of PFASs vary with age, sex, and exposure factors.