Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFHxA (307-24-4)


326 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Membrane preconcentration as an efficient tool to reduce the energy consumption of perfluorohexanoic acid electrochemical treatment

Authors: Soriano, A; Gorri, D; Urtiaga, Ane (2019) HERO ID: 5079968


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Selection of High Flux Membrane for the Effective Removal of Short-Chain Perfluorocarboxylic Acids

Authors: Soriano, A; Gorri, D; Urtiaga, Ane (2019) HERO ID: 5079967


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence, sources and health risk of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil, water and sediment from a drinking water source area

Authors: Cao, X; Wang, C; Lu, Y; Zhang, M; Khan, K; Song, S; Wang, P; Wang, C (2019) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 174:208-217. HERO ID: 5080637

[Less] Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) enter into environmental metric via various pathways in the process . . . [More] Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) enter into environmental metric via various pathways in the process of manufacturing and consuming the products containing PFASs. Yuqiao reservoir (YQR) is a major drinking water source in Tianjin of China, where little attention was given to PFASs. To explore the occurrence, source and risk of 17 PFASs, multi-media environmental including soil, water, and sediment were sampled from this water source area. The ∑PFASs concentrations of surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment ranged from 5.839 to 120.885 ng/L, 1.426 to 17.138 ng/L, 0.622 to 5.089 μg/kg dw, and 0.240 to 1.210 μg/kg dw respectively. Some short-chained (C4-C8) PFASs were detected widely such as PFOA, PFBA, PFHxA, PFBS, PFHpA and PFPeA in surface water and groundwater, with the detection frequency of >78%, and PFBA and PFOA dominated in the 17 PFASs. In addition, the correlations between total PFASs and TOC were significant at 0.05 level, especially in surface water with R2 = 0.9165 (p = 0.011). In terms of vertical distribution characteristics of ∑PFASs, the ∑PFASs in four sediment cores showed a decreasing trend at first, and then an increasing trend from the bottom to the top associated with TOC. PFBA/PFOA and PFHpA/PFOA showed better linear correlations with R2 of 0.5541 (p = 0.039), and for PFNA/PFOA and PFHpA/PFOA with R2 of 0.6312 (p = 0.032) at the 0.05 level in the surface water, which indicated that sewage and atmospheric precipitation were the major sources. Though the RQ results based on the measured concentrations and reference values in environmental media revealed lower risks, the potential hazard may occur due to accumulation characteristics and long-distance transmission capability of PFASs. Hence, the corresponding management strategies should be taken, such as control over emission at source, product substitution and strengthening legislation, to eliminate potential risks to human health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of fluorescent dissolved organic matters (FDOMs) on perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in lake and river water

Authors: Liu, WX; He, W; Wu, JY; Wu, WJ; Xu, FL (2019) Science of the Total Environment 666:598-607. HERO ID: 5080217

[Less] This study presents the effects of fluorescent dissolved organic matters (FDOM) on perfluoroalkyl acids . . . [More] This study presents the effects of fluorescent dissolved organic matters (FDOM) on perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in western Lake Chaohu and its inflow rivers. The surface water samples from the 27 sites in western Lake Chaohu and its inflow rivers were collected in March and September 2013. The contents of PFAAs and the FDOM in the water samples were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatograph - mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS) and by a fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The temporal-spatial distributions of PFAAs and FDOM, as well as their interrelationships, were investigated. Eleven PFAA components were detected, and the mean concentration of total PFAAs (TPFAAs) in western Lake Chaohu and its inflow rivers were 12.93 ± 5.19 ng/L and 11.84 ± 9.50 ng/L, respectively. PFOA was the predominant contaminant in two regions (7.13 ± 3.07 ng/L and 4.30 ± 2.14 ng/L) followed by PFHxA (1.72 ± 0.80 ng/L and 1.42 ± 1.41 ng/L) and PFBA (1.44 ± 0.78 ng/L and 1.37 ± 0.78 ng/L). The mean concentration of total FDOM in western Lake Chaohu and its inflow rivers were 220.0 ± 40.30 μg quinine sulfate units (Q.S.)/L and 406.3 ± 213.1 μg Q.S./L, respectively. The significant, positive correlations were observed between the PFAAs and FDOMs in both the lake area and the inflow rivers. However, no significant correlation was observed between PFAAs and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the lake area. This finding indicated that the residues and distributions of PFAAs were significantly dependent on the compositions of dissolved organic matters (DOM) and not on the total content of DOM.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorohexanoic acid toxicity, part II: Application of human health toxicity value for risk characterization

Authors: Anderson, JK; Luz, AL; Goodrum, P; Durda, J (2019) Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 103:10-20. HERO ID: 5097906

[Less] Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) is a short-chain, six-carbon PFAA and is a primary impurity, degradant, . . . [More] Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) is a short-chain, six-carbon PFAA and is a primary impurity, degradant, and metabolite associated with the short-chain fluorotelomer-based chemistry used in the United States, Europe and Japan today. With the shift towards short-chain PFAA chemistry, uncertainties remain regarding human health risks associated with current exposure levels. Here, we present a critical review and assessment of data relevant to human health risk assessment to today's short-chain PFAA chemistry. Human biomonitoring surveys indicate that PFHxA is infrequently detected in the environment as well as in human serum and urine; however, human health concerns may persist in locations where PFHxA is detected. In a companion paper (Luz et al., 2019) we comprehensively evaluate the available toxicity data for PFHxA, and derive a chronic human health-based reference dose (RfD) for PFHxA of 0.25 mg/kg-day based on benchmark dose modeling of renal papillary necrosis in chronically exposed female rats. In this paper, we apply this RfD in human health-based screening levels calculations, and derive a drinking water lifetime health advisory of 1400 μg/L and a residential groundwater screening level for children of 4000 μg/L. Compared to environmental concentration data, even sites with more elevated concentrations of PFHxA in the environment are at least an order of magnitude lower than these screening levels. Available PFHxA human serum and urine biomonitoring data, used as a biomarker for general population exposure, demonstrates that the general human population exposures to PFHxA are low. Previous estimates of daily intake rates for infants exposed to PFHxA through breast milk, formula, and baby foods (Lorenzo et al., 2016) combined with the most conservative PFHxA peer-reviewed toxicity value (Luz et al., 2019) demonstrate that the margin of safety for PFHxA is high. Therefore, PFHxA and related fluorotelomer precursors currently appear to present negligible human health risk to the general population and are not likely to drive or substantially contribute to risk at sites contaminated with PFAS mixtures. PFHxA may also represent a suitable marker for the safety of fluorotelomer replacement chemistry used today.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vitro and in silico evaluations of binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl substances to baikal seal and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α

Authors: Ishibashi, H; Hirano, M; Kim, EY; Iwata, H (2019) Environmental Science and Technology 53:2181-2188. HERO ID: 5024210

[Less] In this study, we assessed the binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] In this study, we assessed the binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), to the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of Baikal seal ( Pusa sibirica; bs) and human (h) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). An in vitro competitive binding assay showed that six PFCAs and two PFSAs could bind to recombinant bs and hPPARα LBD proteins in a dose-dependent manner. The relative binding affinities (RBAs) of PFASs to bsPPARα were as follows: PFOS > PFDA > PFNA > PFUnDA > PFOA > PFHxS > PFHpA > PFHxA. The RBAs to bsPPARα showed a significant positive correlation with those to hPPARα. In silico PPARα homology modeling predicted that there were two ligand-binding pockets (LBPs) in the bsPPARα and hPPARα LBDs. Structure-activity relationship analyses suggested that the binding potencies of PFASs to PPARα might depend on LBP binding cavity volume, hydrogen bond interactions, the number of perfluorinated carbons, and the hydrophobicity of PFASs. Interspecies comparison of the in vitro binding affinities revealed that bsPPARα had higher preference for PFASs with long carbon chains than hPPARα. The in silico docking simulations suggested that the first LBP of bsPPARα had higher affinities than that of hPPARα; however, the second LBP of bsPPARα had lower affinities than that of hPPARα. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence showing interspecies differences in the binding of PFASs to PPARαs and their structure-activity relationships.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl acids in drinking water of China in 2017: Distribution characteristics, influencing factors and potential risks

Authors: Li, Y; Li, J; Zhang, L; Huang, Z; Liu, Y; Wu, N; He, J; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Y; Niu, Z (2019) Environment International 123:87-95. HERO ID: 5080645

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a group of emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which have . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a group of emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which have been ubiquitously detected in the environmental media. However, national scale investigations on their occurrence and distribution in drinking water are still insufficient. In this study, we detected the 17 priority PFAAs in drinking water from 79 cities of 31 provincial-level administrative regions throughout China, and investigated their occurrence and distribution. Additionally, we also analyzed the influencing factors on their profiles, such as the existence of industrial sources, socioeconomic factors (population density and GDP), and assessed levels of risk associated with contaminated drinking water. On the national scale, the sum concentrations of the 17 PFAAs (∑17PFAAs) in drinking water was in a range of 4.49-174.93 ng/L with a mean value of 35.13 ng/L. Among the 17 individual PFAAs, perfluorobutanoic acids (PFBA) was the most abundant individual PFAAs with the median concentration of 17.87 ng/L, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 0.74 ng/L), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, 0.40 ng/L) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS, 0.25 ng/L). The geographic distribution characteristic of ∑17PFAAs in drinking water was in a descending order of Southwestern China (57.67 ng/L) > Eastern coastal China (32.85 ng/L) > Middle China (29.89 ng/L) > Northwestern China (28.49 ng/L) > Northeastern China (22.03 ng/L), and in general, the existence of the industrial sources could positively affect the contamination levels of PFAAs in drinking water. The pollution level of PFAAs in drinking water also varied among the three different city levels (medium-sized city > big city > town). In towns, the positive correlations were observed between the population density and the ∑17PFAAs (R2 = 0.45, p < 0.01), and the individual concentration of PFHxA, PFBS, and PFOA (p < 0.01). Moreover, besides PFAAs in Yunnan, Jiangsu, and Jiangxi, concentrations of related PFAAs in drinking water from 28 provinces were less than the suggested drinking water advisories. The relatively higher concentrations of PFAAs in Yunnan, Jiangsu, and Jiangxi suggest that further studies focusing on their sources and potential health risk to humans are needed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Liver function biomarkers disorder is associated with exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids in adults: Isomers of C8 Health Project in China

Authors: Nian, M; Li, QQ; Bloom, M; Qian, ZM; Syberg, KM; Vaughn, MG; Wang, SQ; Wei, Q; Zeeshan, M; Gurram, N; Chu, C; Wang, J; Tian, YP; Hu, LW; Liu, KK; Yang, BY; Liu, RQ; Feng, D; Zeng, XW; Dong, GH (2019) Environmental Research 172:81-88. HERO ID: 5080307

[Less] Exposure to chemicals may affect liver enzyme to increase the risk of liver diseases. Perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] Exposure to chemicals may affect liver enzyme to increase the risk of liver diseases. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are one kind of persistent organic pollutants with hepatotoxic effect in organism. However, data is scarce to characterize the hepatotoxic effects of specific structural PFAA isomers in general population. To address this data gap, we evaluated the association between serum PFAAs concentration and liver function biomarkers in the Isomers of C8 Health Project in China. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to measure 18 serum PFAAs, except for linear and branched isomers of PFOA/PFOS, nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were also included, in 1605 adult residents of Shenyang, China. Values for nine serum liver function biomarkers were determined by full-automatic blood biochemical analyzer. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations between PFAAs and continuous liver function biomarkers and logistic regression to assess markers dichotomized per clinical reference intervals. Results indicated that serum PFAAs concentrations were associated with liver biomarker levels suggestive of hepatotoxicity, especially for liver cell injury. For example, a 1 ln-unit increase in total- perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure was associated with a 7.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.9%, 11.0%] higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level in serum. Interestingly, we observed association between branched PFAA isomers and liver biomarkers. For example, one ln-unit increase in branched perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomers exposure was associated with a 4.3% increase in ALT level (95% CI: 1.2%, 7.4%) and a 33.0% increased odds of having abnormal ALT (95% CI: 5.0%, 67.0%). Also, we found that PFNA had positive association with ALT [(6.2%, 95% CI: 3.1%, 9.4%) and AST levels (2.5%, 95% CI: 0.5%, 4.5%)]. Logistic regression results showed that PFPeA, PFHxA, PFNA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA and PFTeDA had statistically association with abnormal prealbumin. Conclusively, our results support previous studies showing association between PFAAs exposure and liver function biomarkers. We found new evidence that branched PFAAs isomer exposure is associated with the risk of clinically relevant hepatocellular dysfunction.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in agricultural environment, vegetables, and fruits in regions influenced by a fluorine-chemical industrial park in China

Authors: Li, P; Oyang, X; Zhao, Y; Tu, T; Tian, X; Li, L; Zhao, Y; Li, J; Xiao, Z (2019) Chemosphere 225:659-667. HERO ID: 5079816

[Less] The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in vegetables and fruits, as well as agricultural . . . [More] The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in vegetables and fruits, as well as agricultural environment, was investigated in the downstream regions of Changshu fluorine-chemical industrial park (CFCIP) in China. Twenty-one PFCs were analyzed in irrigation water, agricultural soil, typical vegetables, and fruits, with the maximum total PFC concentrations of 369.9 ng/L, 64.7 ng/g dw, 11.5 ng/g ww, and 10.5 ng/g ww, respectively. Short-chained perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), and perfluorohexanoic acid were the dominant PFCs in terms of their concentrations and detection frequency. PFCs in irrigation water and agricultural soils showed a decreasing trend with increasing distance from CFCIP, while this pattern was not observed in agricultural products. The predominant compounds varied in different vegetables and fruits. Simultaneous bioaccumulation of PFBA and PFOA was found in melons and solanaceous species and pears. Leafy vegetables and grapes exhibited high bioaccumulation of PFOA and PFBA, respectively. Health risk assessment by calculating estimated daily intake showed that no direct risk was caused by the consumption of vegetables and fruits for the residents in the investigated regions. However, the tolerable weekly intake of PFOA exceeded the established thresholds for the adult residents. A comprehensive health assessment of the dietary exposure of PFCs, including all exposure pathways, in fluorine-chemical industrial park-impacted regions is needed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl acids in paired serum, urine, and hair samples: Correlations with demographic factors and dietary habits

Authors: Kim, DH; Lee, JH; Oh, JE (2019) Environmental Pollution 248:175-182. HERO ID: 5080622

[Less] We analyzed paired serum, urine, and hair samples from 94 Korean children and adults to investigate . . . [More] We analyzed paired serum, urine, and hair samples from 94 Korean children and adults to investigate levels of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). The effects of demographic factors and dietary habits on PFAA exposure were also assessed based on the paired samples. The total PFAA concentrations were 2.4-31 ng/mL in serum, not detected-9.5 ng/mL in urine, and 0.48-15 ng/g in hair. Levels of perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), which have short carbon chains, were 1.5-5 fold higher in urine and hair than in serum. The PFAA concentrations in serum exhibited a decreasing trend with age from young childhood to adolescence, followed by an increasing trend after adolescence. For most PFAA species, concentrations in serum were higher in adult males than in adult females (p < 0.01). No sex difference was evident in the urine and hair samples. In addition, there was no age difference in the urine samples, but in the hair samples, we observed higher concentrations of PFAAs in children than in the other age groups (p < 0.01). The consumption rates of fish and water showed significant correlations with serum (positive correlation) and hair (negative) concentrations, respectively. No relationships between serum and hair/urine levels for most PFAAs were observed, except between serum and hair levels for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA).