Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFHxA (307-24-4)


275 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vitro and in silico evaluations of binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl substances to baikal seal and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α

Authors: Ishibashi, H; Hirano, M; Kim, EY; Iwata, H (2019) Environmental Science and Technology 53:2181-2188. HERO ID: 5024210

[Less] In this study, we assessed the binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] In this study, we assessed the binding affinities of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), to the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of Baikal seal ( Pusa sibirica; bs) and human (h) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). An in vitro competitive binding assay showed that six PFCAs and two PFSAs could bind to recombinant bs and hPPARα LBD proteins in a dose-dependent manner. The relative binding affinities (RBAs) of PFASs to bsPPARα were as follows: PFOS > PFDA > PFNA > PFUnDA > PFOA > PFHxS > PFHpA > PFHxA. The RBAs to bsPPARα showed a significant positive correlation with those to hPPARα. In silico PPARα homology modeling predicted that there were two ligand-binding pockets (LBPs) in the bsPPARα and hPPARα LBDs. Structure-activity relationship analyses suggested that the binding potencies of PFASs to PPARα might depend on LBP binding cavity volume, hydrogen bond interactions, the number of perfluorinated carbons, and the hydrophobicity of PFASs. Interspecies comparison of the in vitro binding affinities revealed that bsPPARα had higher preference for PFASs with long carbon chains than hPPARα. The in silico docking simulations suggested that the first LBP of bsPPARα had higher affinities than that of hPPARα; however, the second LBP of bsPPARα had lower affinities than that of hPPARα. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence showing interspecies differences in the binding of PFASs to PPARαs and their structure-activity relationships.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Leaching and bioavailability of selected perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from soil contaminated by firefighting activities

Authors: Bräunig, J; Baduel, C; Barnes, CM; Mueller, JF (2019) Science of the Total Environment 646:471-479. HERO ID: 5079692

[Less] Historical usage of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) at firefighting training grounds (FTGs) is a potential . . . [More] Historical usage of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) at firefighting training grounds (FTGs) is a potential source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to the surrounding environment. In this study the leaching of PFAAs from field contaminated soil and their uptake into biota was investigated. Soil was sampled from FTGs at two airports and the total as well as the leachable concentration of 12 PFAAs was determined. A greenhouse study was carried out to investigate the uptake of PFAAs from soils into earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and wheat grass (Elymus scaber). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were the most dominant PFAAs in all soils samples, with concentrations of PFOS reaching 13,400 ng/g. Leachable concentrations of PFOS and PFHxS reached up to 550 μg/L and 22 μg/L, respectively. In earthworms concentrations of PFOS reached 65,100 ng/g after a 28-day exposure period, while in wheat grass the highest concentration was measured for uptake of PFHxS (2,800 ng/g) after a 10-week growth-period. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for earthworms ranged from 0.1 for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) to 23 for perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) and initially showed a decreasing trend with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length, followed by an increase with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length for perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). In wheat grass the highest BAF was found for perfluorobutanoic acid (BAF = 70), while the lowest was observed for perfluorononanoic acid (BAF = 0.06). BAFs in wheat grass decreased with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length for both PFCAs and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs). The results show that PFAAs readily leach from impacted soils and are bioaccumulated into earthworms and plants in an analyte dependent way. This shows considerable potential for PFAAs to move away from the original source either by leaching or uptake into ecological receptors, which may be a potential entry route into the terrestrial foodweb.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of fluorescent dissolved organic matters (FDOMs) on perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in lake and river water

Authors: Liu, WX; He, W; Wu, JY; Wu, WJ; Xu, FL (2019) Science of the Total Environment 666:598-607. HERO ID: 5080217

[Less] This study presents the effects of fluorescent dissolved organic matters (FDOM) on perfluoroalkyl acids . . . [More] This study presents the effects of fluorescent dissolved organic matters (FDOM) on perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in western Lake Chaohu and its inflow rivers. The surface water samples from the 27 sites in western Lake Chaohu and its inflow rivers were collected in March and September 2013. The contents of PFAAs and the FDOM in the water samples were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatograph - mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS) and by a fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The temporal-spatial distributions of PFAAs and FDOM, as well as their interrelationships, were investigated. Eleven PFAA components were detected, and the mean concentration of total PFAAs (TPFAAs) in western Lake Chaohu and its inflow rivers were 12.93 ± 5.19 ng/L and 11.84 ± 9.50 ng/L, respectively. PFOA was the predominant contaminant in two regions (7.13 ± 3.07 ng/L and 4.30 ± 2.14 ng/L) followed by PFHxA (1.72 ± 0.80 ng/L and 1.42 ± 1.41 ng/L) and PFBA (1.44 ± 0.78 ng/L and 1.37 ± 0.78 ng/L). The mean concentration of total FDOM in western Lake Chaohu and its inflow rivers were 220.0 ± 40.30 μg quinine sulfate units (Q.S.)/L and 406.3 ± 213.1 μg Q.S./L, respectively. The significant, positive correlations were observed between the PFAAs and FDOMs in both the lake area and the inflow rivers. However, no significant correlation was observed between PFAAs and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the lake area. This finding indicated that the residues and distributions of PFAAs were significantly dependent on the compositions of dissolved organic matters (DOM) and not on the total content of DOM.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Subtle morphometric, behavioral and gene expression effects in larval zebrafish exposed to PFHxA, PFHxS and 6:2 FTOH

Authors: Annunziato, KM; Jantzen, CE; Gronske, MC; Cooper, KR (2019) Aquatic Toxicology 208:126-137. HERO ID: 5080590

[Less] Recent studies of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) have focused on the toxicity of long chain PFASs, . . . [More] Recent studies of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) have focused on the toxicity of long chain PFASs, such as PFOS or PFOA, which have been demonstrated to cause an array of developmental and behavioral effects. However, less is known about low molecular weight PFASs and alternatives. This study examined the morphometric and behavioral effects in zebrafish following developmental exposures of C6 PFASs: perfluorohexanoic acid, PFHxA, perfluorohexane sulfonate, PFHxS, and 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol, 6:2 FTOH. Embryos were exposed to 0.02-20 μM concentrations of these compounds from the high stage (˜3 h post fertilization, hpf) until 120 hpf. Morphometric and gene expression endpoints were examined at 120 hpf. Genes selected for analysis were previously shown to be altered in zebrafish developmentally exposed to PFOS and PFOA. Additionally, exposed larvae were transferred to clean water and reared until 14 days post fertilization, dpf, when behavioral assays were completed and morphometric endpoints examined. While PFHxA was found to be the most acutely toxic at 120 hpf, few morphometric effects were observed. Gene expression was the most sensitive endpoint with significant increased tgfb1a, bdnf, and ap1s1 expression observed with PFHxA exposure. PFHxS exposure produced morphometric effects in the larvae, specifically increased length and yolk sac area at 2 and 20 μM. This phenotype persisted to the 14 dpf time point, where these larvae additionally displayed decreased distance traveled and crosses through the center of the arena of the behavioral assay. Exposure to 6:2 FTOH caused no morphometric effects at 120 hpf, and this compound was the least acutely toxic. However, expression of both tgfb1a and bdnf were increased by greater than 2 fold change at this time point. Effects also persisted to 14 dpf where a significant increase in distance traveled and velocity were observed in the behavioral assay. This study demonstrates effects on behavioral, morphometric and gene expression endpoints with developmental PFHxA, PFHxS, and 6:2 FTOH exposures in zebrafish.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence, sources and health risk of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil, water and sediment from a drinking water source area

Authors: Cao, X; Wang, C; Lu, Y; Zhang, M; Khan, K; Song, S; Wang, P; Wang, C (2019) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 174:208-217. HERO ID: 5080637

[Less] Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) enter into environmental metric via various pathways in the process . . . [More] Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) enter into environmental metric via various pathways in the process of manufacturing and consuming the products containing PFASs. Yuqiao reservoir (YQR) is a major drinking water source in Tianjin of China, where little attention was given to PFASs. To explore the occurrence, source and risk of 17 PFASs, multi-media environmental including soil, water, and sediment were sampled from this water source area. The ∑PFASs concentrations of surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment ranged from 5.839 to 120.885 ng/L, 1.426 to 17.138 ng/L, 0.622 to 5.089 μg/kg dw, and 0.240 to 1.210 μg/kg dw respectively. Some short-chained (C4-C8) PFASs were detected widely such as PFOA, PFBA, PFHxA, PFBS, PFHpA and PFPeA in surface water and groundwater, with the detection frequency of >78%, and PFBA and PFOA dominated in the 17 PFASs. In addition, the correlations between total PFASs and TOC were significant at 0.05 level, especially in surface water with R2 = 0.9165 (p = 0.011). In terms of vertical distribution characteristics of ∑PFASs, the ∑PFASs in four sediment cores showed a decreasing trend at first, and then an increasing trend from the bottom to the top associated with TOC. PFBA/PFOA and PFHpA/PFOA showed better linear correlations with R2 of 0.5541 (p = 0.039), and for PFNA/PFOA and PFHpA/PFOA with R2 of 0.6312 (p = 0.032) at the 0.05 level in the surface water, which indicated that sewage and atmospheric precipitation were the major sources. Though the RQ results based on the measured concentrations and reference values in environmental media revealed lower risks, the potential hazard may occur due to accumulation characteristics and long-distance transmission capability of PFASs. Hence, the corresponding management strategies should be taken, such as control over emission at source, product substitution and strengthening legislation, to eliminate potential risks to human health.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Uptake mechanisms of perfluoroalkyl acids with different carbon chain lengths (C2-C8) by wheat (Triticum acstivnm L.)

Authors: Zhang, L; Sun, H; Wang, Q; Chen, H; Yao, Y; Zhao, Z; Alder, AC (2019) Science of the Total Environment 654:19-27. HERO ID: 5080643

[Less] Organic compounds could be taken up by plants via different pathways, depending on chemical properties . . . [More] Organic compounds could be taken up by plants via different pathways, depending on chemical properties and biological species, which is important for the risk assessment and risk control. To investigate the transport pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) by wheat (Triticum acstivnm L.), the uptake of five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs): TFA (C2), PFPrA (C3), PFBA (C4), PFHxA (C6), PFOA (C8), and a perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid: PFOS (C8)) were studied using hydroponic experiments. Various inhibitors including a metabolic inhibitor (Na3VO4), two anion channel blockers (9-AC, DIDS), and two aquaporin inhibitors (AgNO3, glycerol) were examined. The wheat root and shoot showed different concentration trends with the carbon chain length of PFAAs. The uptake of TFA was inhibited by Na3VO4 and 9-AC whereas PFPrA was inhibited by Na3VO4, AgNO3 and 9-AC. For the other four PFAAs, only Na3VO4 was effective. These results together with the result of concentration-dependent uptake, which followed the Michaelis-Menten model, indicate that the uptake of PFAAs by wheat is mainly an energy-dependent active process mediated by carriers. For the ultra-short chain PFCAs (C2 and C3), aquaporins and anion channels may also be involved. A competition between TFA and PFPrA was determined during the plant uptake but no competition was observed between these two shorter chain analogues with other analogues, neither between PFBA and PFHxA, PFBA and PFBS, PFOA and PFOS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl acids in drinking water of China in 2017: Distribution characteristics, influencing factors and potential risks

Authors: Li, Y; Li, J; Zhang, L; Huang, Z; Liu, Y; Wu, N; He, J; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Y; Niu, Z (2019) Environment International 123:87-95. HERO ID: 5080645

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a group of emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which have . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a group of emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which have been ubiquitously detected in the environmental media. However, national scale investigations on their occurrence and distribution in drinking water are still insufficient. In this study, we detected the 17 priority PFAAs in drinking water from 79 cities of 31 provincial-level administrative regions throughout China, and investigated their occurrence and distribution. Additionally, we also analyzed the influencing factors on their profiles, such as the existence of industrial sources, socioeconomic factors (population density and GDP), and assessed levels of risk associated with contaminated drinking water. On the national scale, the sum concentrations of the 17 PFAAs (∑17PFAAs) in drinking water was in a range of 4.49-174.93 ng/L with a mean value of 35.13 ng/L. Among the 17 individual PFAAs, perfluorobutanoic acids (PFBA) was the most abundant individual PFAAs with the median concentration of 17.87 ng/L, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 0.74 ng/L), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, 0.40 ng/L) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS, 0.25 ng/L). The geographic distribution characteristic of ∑17PFAAs in drinking water was in a descending order of Southwestern China (57.67 ng/L) > Eastern coastal China (32.85 ng/L) > Middle China (29.89 ng/L) > Northwestern China (28.49 ng/L) > Northeastern China (22.03 ng/L), and in general, the existence of the industrial sources could positively affect the contamination levels of PFAAs in drinking water. The pollution level of PFAAs in drinking water also varied among the three different city levels (medium-sized city > big city > town). In towns, the positive correlations were observed between the population density and the ∑17PFAAs (R2 = 0.45, p < 0.01), and the individual concentration of PFHxA, PFBS, and PFOA (p < 0.01). Moreover, besides PFAAs in Yunnan, Jiangsu, and Jiangxi, concentrations of related PFAAs in drinking water from 28 provinces were less than the suggested drinking water advisories. The relatively higher concentrations of PFAAs in Yunnan, Jiangsu, and Jiangxi suggest that further studies focusing on their sources and potential health risk to humans are needed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Selection of High Flux Membrane for the Effective Removal of Short-Chain Perfluorocarboxylic Acids

Authors: Soriano, A; Gorri, D; Urtiaga, Ane (2019) HERO ID: 5079967


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Membrane preconcentration as an efficient tool to reduce the energy consumption of perfluorohexanoic acid electrochemical treatment

Authors: Soriano, A; Gorri, D; Urtiaga, Ane (2019) HERO ID: 5079968


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contaminants of emerging concern in freshwater fish from four Spanish Rivers

Authors: Pico, Y; Belenguer, V; Corcellas, C; Diaz-Cruz, MS; Eljarrat, E; Farre, M; Gago-Ferrero, P; Huerta, B; Navarro-Ortega, A; Petrovic, M; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S; Sabater, L; Santin, G; Barcelo, D (2019) HERO ID: 5097916