Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFHxS (355-46-4)


827 References Were Found:

Journal Article
Journal Article

Mouse Models for Atherosclerosis Research-Which Is My Line?

Authors: Oppi, S; Lüscher, TF; Stein, S (2019) Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine 6:46. [Review] HERO ID: 5926372

[Less] Atherosclerosis is one of the primary causes of cardiovascular disease and mortality. This chronic immunometabolic . . . [More] Atherosclerosis is one of the primary causes of cardiovascular disease and mortality. This chronic immunometabolic disease evolves during decades in humans and encompasses different organs and immune cell types, as well as local and systemic processes that promote the progression of the disease. The most frequently used animal model to study these atherogenic processes and inter-organ crosstalk in a short time frame are genetically modified mouse models. Some models have been used throughout the last decades, and some others been developed recently. These models have important differences in cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport pathway, obesity and diabetes as well as inflammatory processes. Therefore, the disease develops and progresses differently in the various mouse models. Since atherosclerosis is a multifaceted disease and many processes contribute to its progression, the choice of the right mouse model is important to study specific aspects of the disease. We will describe the different mouse models and provide a roadmap to facilitate current and future atherosclerosis researchers to choose the right model depending on their scientific question.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: basic pathogenetic mechanisms in the progression from NAFLD to NASH

Author: Pierantonelli I., Svegliati-Baroni G. (2019) 103:e1-e13. HERO ID: 5160096

[Less] Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a growing cause of chronic liver injury, especially . . . [More] Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a growing cause of chronic liver injury, especially in western countries, where it is becoming the most frequent indication for liver transplantation. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of diseases that from simple steatosis (pure NAFLD) can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathogenesis of NAFLD and the mechanisms behind its progression to NASH have been extensively studied. However, although the processes that determine fat accumulation are mostly clear, the mechanisms associated with the progression of the disease are not fully characterized. In predisposed patients, lipid accumulation can promote lipotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction, thus triggering hepatocyte death, inflammation and fibrosis. The specific role of different lipids has been identified and free fatty acids as well as free cholesterol have been identified as toxic species. To make the picture more complex, the pathogenesis of NAFLD involves pathological connections between several organs, including the adipose tissue and the gut, with the liver. The "inflamed" adipose tissue plays a key role in the release of toxic lipids, whereas alterations in the gut-liver axis have been associated with the progression from NAFLD to NASH mediated by dysbiosis, alteration of intestinal barrier, and finally bacterial translocation, which can trigger proinflammatory and profibrogenetic pathways, finally leading to cirrhosis development.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Constructal operation cost minimization for in-line cylindrical pin-fin heat sinks

Authors: Yang, A; Chen, L; Xie, Z; Feng, H; Sun, F (2019) HERO ID: 5097917


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Image-based reconstruction for a 3D-PFHS heat transfer problem by ReConNN

Authors: Li, Yu; Wang, Hu; Deng, X (2019) HERO ID: 5097919


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mechanisms of environmental contributions to fatty liver disease

Authors: Wahlang, B; Jin, J; Beier, JI; Hardesty, JE; Daly, EF; Schnegelberger, RD; Falkner, KC; Prough, RA; Kirpich, IA; Cave, MC (2019) Current Environmental Health Reports 6:80-94. [Review] HERO ID: 5935661

[Less] PURPOSE: Fatty liver disease (FLD) affects over 25% of the global population and may . . . [More] PURPOSE: Fatty liver disease (FLD) affects over 25% of the global population and may lead to liver-related mortality due to cirrhosis and liver cancer. FLD caused by occupational and environmental chemical exposures is termed "toxicant-associated steatohepatitis" (TASH). The current review addresses the scientific progress made in the mechanistic understanding of TASH since its initial description in 2010.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recently discovered modes of actions for volatile organic compounds and persistent organic pollutants include the following: (i) the endocrine-, metabolism-, and signaling-disrupting chemical hypotheses; (ii) chemical-nutrient interactions and the "two-hit" hypothesis. These key hypotheses were then reviewed in the context of the steatosis adverse outcome pathway (AOP) proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The conceptual understanding of the contribution of environmental exposures to FLD has progressed significantly. However, because this is a new research area, more studies including mechanistic human data are required to address current knowledge gaps.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Molecular pathways of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease development and progression

Authors: Bessone, F; Razori, MV; Roma, MG (2019) Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS) 76:99-128. HERO ID: 5932838

[Less] Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a main hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. It represents . . . [More] Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a main hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. It represents a wide spectrum of histopathological abnormalities ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis and, eventually, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. While hepatic simple steatosis seems to be a rather benign manifestation of hepatic triglyceride accumulation, the buildup of highly toxic free fatty acids associated with insulin resistance-induced massive free fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue and the increased de novo hepatic fatty acid synthesis from glucose acts as the "first hit" for NAFLD development. NAFLD progression seems to involve the occurrence of "parallel, multiple-hit" injuries, such as oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, endotoxin-induced, TLR4-dependent release of inflammatory cytokines, and iron overload, among many others. These deleterious factors are responsible for the triggering of a number of signaling cascades leading to inflammation, cell death, and fibrosis, the hallmarks of NASH. This review is aimed at integrating the overwhelming progress made in the characterization of the physiopathological mechanisms of NAFLD at a molecular level, to better understand the factor influencing the initiation and progression of the disease.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl substances and metabolic syndrome

Authors: Christensen, KY; Raymond, M; Meiman, J (2019) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 222:147-153. HERO ID: 5080398

[Less] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of contaminants used in many . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of contaminants used in many industrial applications and consumer products. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects.

OBJECTIVES: In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their association with metabolic syndrome and its components, using a representative sample of the U.S.

POPULATION:

METHODS: Data on PFAS levels and metabolic syndrome components were collected from the 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twelve different PFAS were measured in serum samples from participants. Logistic regression models were used to identify associations between metabolic syndrome, its individual components, and serum PFAS concentrations.

RESULTS: Over one-third (37%) of participants met the definition for metabolic syndrome, with increased waist circumference and elevated glucose being the most commonly reported components. Seven PFAS were detected in at least 30% of participants and were examined in subsequent analyses (PFDA, PFOA, PFOS, PFHxS, MPAH, PFNA, PFUnDA). The PFAS with the highest concentrations was PFOS (median 8.4 ng/mL), followed by PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA. After adjusting for potential confounders, PFNA was associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome and well as several individual components, while the highest levels of PFHxS were associated with elevated triglycerides. Other PFAS were associated with decreased risk of at least one outcome.

CONCLUSIONS: Associations between PFAS and metabolic syndrome are inconsistent within and across studies. PFNA was consistently associated with increased risk for components of the syndrome, a finding that warrants further investigation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and associations with thyroid parameters in First Nation children and youth from Quebec

Authors: Caron-Beaudoin, É; Ayotte, P; Laouan Sidi, EA; Community of Lac Simon; Community of Winneway – Long Point First Nation; CSSS Tshukuminu Kanani of Nutashkuan; Community of Unamen Shipu; Gros-Louis McHugh, N; Lemire, M (2019) Environment International 128:13-23. HERO ID: 5097914

[Less] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are found in several consumer goods. . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are found in several consumer goods. Exposure to PFASs in children has been associated with alteration in thyroid hormones, which have critical roles in brain function.

OBJECTIVE: In 2015, 198 children and youth (3-19 y) were recruited as part of the pilot project Jeunes, Environnement et Santé/Youth, Environment and Health (JES!-YEH!), realized in collaboration with four First Nation communities in Quebec. We aimed to evaluate serum concentrations of PFASs in relation to concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (T4) and thyroglobulin while adjusting for relevant confounders.

METHODS: PFASs (PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA), 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-47) thyroid parameters (TSH, free T4, and thyroglobulin) were measured in serum samples of 186 participants. Iodine, creatinine, and cotinine were measured in urine samples. Serum levels of PFASs were compared to those measured in the general Canadian population and elsewhere. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine associations between PFASs and TSH, free T4 and thyroglobulin.

RESULTS: PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS serum concentrations were low. However, PFNA concentrations among participants aged 12 to 19 years old from Anishinabe communities were three times higher than those measured in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2009-2011) for the same age group (Geometric Means: 3.01 μg/L and 0.71 μg/L, respectively) and were particularly higher in the Anishinabe participants aged 6 to 11 years old (GM: 9.44 μg/L). Few participants had levels of TSH, free T4, and thyroglobulin outside age-specific paediatric ranges. When adjusted for relevant covariates and other contaminants, PFNA serum concentrations were positively associated with free T4 levels (Adjusted β = 0.36; p = 0.0014), but not with TSH and thyroglobulin levels. No association was observed between the other PFAS and thyroid hormones parameters.

CONCLUSION: This pilot project reveals among the highest exposure to PFNA in children reported until today, and suggests effects of PFNA as an endocrine disruptor, highlighting the importance of investigating the sources and effects of disproportionate exposure to emerging contaminants in some indigenous communities and ban all PFAS at the international scale.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contamination of groundwater with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from legacy landfills in an urban re-development precinct

Authors: Hepburn, E; Madden, C; Szabo, D; Coggan, TL; Clarke, B; Currell, M (2019) Environmental Pollution 248:101-113. HERO ID: 5080507

[Less] The extent of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in groundwater surrounding legacy landfills . . . [More] The extent of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in groundwater surrounding legacy landfills is currently poorly constrained. Seventeen PFAS were analysed in groundwater surrounding legacy landfills in a major Australian urban re-development precinct. Sampling locations (n = 13) included sites installed directly in waste material and down-gradient from landfills, some of which exhibited evidence of leachate contamination including elevated concentrations of ammonia-N (≤106 mg/L), bicarbonate (≤1,740 mg/L) and dissolved methane (≤10.4 mg/L). Between one and fourteen PFAS were detected at all sites and PFOS, PFHxS, PFOA and PFBS were detected in all samples. The sum of detected PFAS (∑14PFAS) varied from 26 ng/L at an ambient background site to 5,200 ng/L near a potential industrial point-source. PFHxS had the highest median concentration (34 ng/L; range: 2.6-280 ng/L) followed by PFOS (26 ng/L; range: 1.3-4,800 ng/L), PFHxA (19 ng/L; range:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl substances are inversely associated with coronary heart disease in adults with diabetes

Authors: Honda-Kohmo, K; Hutcheson, R; Innes, KE; Conway, BN (2019) Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 33:407-412. HERO ID: 5080551

[Less] AIMS: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are environmentally and biologically persistent . . . [More] AIMS: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are environmentally and biologically persistent synthetic environmental contaminants linked to adverse health outcomes. Though null to modest inverse relationships between PFAS and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been reported, studies regarding relationships in high risk populations such as those with diabetes are sparse. We investigated the relationship of PFAS with CHD in persons with diabetes.

METHODS: Data on 5270 adults, aged ≥20 years, with diabetes were obtained from the C8 Health Project. Four PFAS were investigated separately: perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA).

RESULTS: In logistic regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, diabetes duration, BMI, smoking, lipids, WBC, CRP, eGFR, uric acid, hemoglobin and iron, all PFAS were inversely associated with CHD, ORs (95% CIs): PFHxS; 0.72 (0.65-0.79), PFOA; 0.90 (0.81-0.96), PFOS; 0.90 (0.81-0.99), PFNA; 0.88 (0.76-1.02). Stratification by chronic kidney disease status revealed similar inverse relationships for those with and without chronic kidney disease.

CONCLUSIONS: In this cross-sectional study of over 5000 adults with diabetes, PFAS showed inverse associations with CHD. These findings may, if confirmed in future studies, provide new physiologic understanding of CHD prevention strategies.