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PFHxS (355-46-4)


53 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

Authors: Huang, R; Chen, Q; Zhang, L; Luo, K; Chen, L; Zhao, S; Feng, L; Zhang, J (2019) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 18:5. HERO ID: 5083564

[Less] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been reported . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been reported to disrupt endocrine system and reproduction. However, epidemiological evidence on the association between PFAS and preeclampsia is inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between prenatal PFAS exposure and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) in humans.

METHODS: PFAS were measured by liquid chromatography system coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in 687 umbilical cord plasma samples collected between 2011 and 2012 in Shanghai, China. Information on HDP including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was abstracted from medical records. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of each PFAS with gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and overall HDP in separate models. Elastic net regression with logit link was used to identify independent associations between exposures and outcomes. Logistic regression was used to obtain the unpenalized estimates of the selected PFAS components for the associations with outcomes, adjusting for age, education level, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, and mutual adjustment of selected PFAS.

RESULTS: The risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was 3.3% and 2.8% in our subjects, respectively. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) were associated with preeclampsia based on elastic net penalty regression. In the fully adjusted statistical model, women with a higher level of standardized ln-transformed PFBS had an increased odds of preeclampsia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-3.17], and overall HDP (AOR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.09-2.47).

CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to PFBS was positively associated with the risk of preeclampsia and overall HDP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Probing mechanisms for bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids in carp (Cyprinus carpio): Impacts of protein binding affinities and elimination pathways

Authors: Zhong, W; Zhang, L; Cui, Y; Chen, M; Zhu, L (2019) Science of the Total Environment 647:992-999. HERO ID: 5080399

[Less] With regulations on the manufacture and usage of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate . . . [More] With regulations on the manufacture and usage of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related compounds, short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are increasingly being used as alternatives. However, there are limited studies on their bioaccumulation mechanisms, especially for short-chain PFAAs. In this study, we examined the binding affinity of PFAAs with fish serum proteins and tissue distributions of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (C7-C11 PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (C4, C6, and C8 PFSAs) in carp (Cyprinus carpio), including the isomers of PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS). For both PFCAs and PFSAs, the fish serum protein binding constant (KA) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) increased with an increase in the carbon chain length. PFHxS (C6 PFSA) had a much higher KA but displayed a much lower BCF than those of C7-C11 PFCAs. It indicated that not only fish blood proteins, but also other proteins in the liver and kidney, mediated the accumulation of PFAAs in fish. The lowest concentration ratios of PFHxS in liver to blood and in kidney to blood suggested that it could not be effectively transported to liver and kidney by fatty acid binding proteins and organic anion transporters. PFOS and PFHxS displayed different elimination pathways, although their linear (n-) isomers were accumulated more in fish than the corresponding branched (br-) isomers. The n-PFOS was eliminated more via the feces but br-PFOS was eliminated more via the urine; while the opposite trend was observed for PFHxS isomers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Per- and polyfluorinated compounds in saleswomen's urine linked to indoor dust in clothing shops

Authors: Wu, N; Cai, D; Guo, M; Li, M; Li, X (2019) Science of the Total Environment 667:594-600. HERO ID: 5080616

[Less] This study aims to investigate the characteristics of typical per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) . . . [More] This study aims to investigate the characteristics of typical per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in indoor dust from clothing shops and urine sampled from saleswomen. A total of 58 indoor dust samples and 73 urine samples from saleswomen were collected from clothing shops in Shanghai, China. All samples were analyzed for PFCs using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The mean PFC concentrations in indoor dust ranged from 0.42 (PFDA) to 5.04 ng g-1 (PFDoA). PFDoA and PFHxS were the most prominent PFCs, with median concentrations of 2.95 ng g-1 and 1.49 ng g-1, respectively. The median PFC concentrations in urine ranged from 10.15 (PFDS) to 666.1 ng l-1 (PFOA) and PFOA was the most abundant chemical with concentrations ranging from 207 to 907 ng l-1. A significant positive correlation was obtained between long-chain PFCs in dust and in urine (p < 0.01). Daily intake values of PFCs via dust ingestion were also calculated, and even under high-end exposure scenarios, the intake of PFOA (36.5 pg day-1) and PFOS (56.7 pg day-1) were well within the tolerable daily intake values. These results are important to both characterize PFC levels and estimate the saleswomen's exposure to PFCs from indoor dust.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl substances, metabolomic profiling, and alterations in glucose homeostasis among overweight and obese Hispanic children: A proof-of-concept analysis

Authors: Alderete, TL; Jin, R; Walker, DI; Valvi, D; Chen, Z; Jones, DP; Peng, C; Gilliland, FD; Berhane, K; Conti, DV; Goran, MI; Chatzi, L (2019) Environment International 126:445-453. HERO ID: 5080614

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To examine the prospective associations between exposure to perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To examine the prospective associations between exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and longitudinal measurements of glucose metabolism in high-risk overweight and obese Hispanic children.

METHODS: Forty overweight and obese Hispanic children (8-14 years) from urban Los Angeles underwent clinical measures and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) at baseline and a follow-up visit (range: 1-3 years after enrollment). Baseline plasma perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and the plasma metabolome were measured by liquid-chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association between baseline PFASs and changes in glucose homeostasis over follow-up. A metabolome-wide association study coupled with pathway enrichment analysis was performed to evaluate metabolic dysregulation associated with plasma PFASs concentrations. We performed a structural integrated analysis aiming to characterize the joint impact of all factors and to identify latent clusters of children with alterations in glucose homeostasis, based on their exposure and metabolomics profile.

RESULTS: Each ln (ng/ml) increase in PFOA and PFHxS concentrations was associated with a 30.6 mg/dL (95% CI: 8.8-52.4) and 10.2 mg/dL (95% CI: 2.7-17.7) increase in 2-hour glucose levels, respectively. A ln (ng/ml) increase in PFHxS concentrations was also associated with 17.8 mg/dL increase in the glucose area under the curve (95% CI: 1.5-34.1). Pathway enrichment analysis showed significant alterations of lipids (e.g., glycosphingolipids, linoleic acid, and de novo lipogenesis), and amino acids (e.g., aspartate and asparagine, tyrosine, arginine and proline) in association to PFASs exposure. The integrated analysis identified a cluster of children with increased 2-h glucose levels over follow up, characterized by increased PFAS levels and altered metabolite patterns.

CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-concept analysis shows that higher PFAS exposure was associated with dysregulation of several lipid and amino acid pathways and longitudinal alterations in glucose homeostasis in Hispanic youth. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings and fully elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Do conventional cooking methods alter concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in seafood?

Authors: Taylor, MD; Nilsson, S; Bräunig, J; Bowles, KC; Cole, V; Moltschaniwskyj, NA; Mueller, JF (2019) Food and Chemical Toxicology 127:280-287. HERO ID: 5079808

[Less] Per-and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are bioaccumulative chemicals of emerging concern. Some . . . [More] Per-and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are bioaccumulative chemicals of emerging concern. Some PFASs accumulate in seafood, and can contribute to dietary exposure. Previous work has suggested cooking seafood decreases concentrations of neutral organic contaminants, however, previous studies dealing with PFASs have shown conflicting results. In this study, the potential changes of PFAS concentrations as a result of boiling, frying and baking are systematically examined. Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus armatus), Dusky Flathead (Platycephalus fuscus) and School Prawn (Metapenaeus macleayi) were obtained from near a known PFAS point source and a reference location (affected by diffuse sources). Raw and cooked samples were analysed for commonly found PFASs. Of 23 target analytes, PFOS was the most frequently detected compound. PFOS, PFHxS and PFOA concentrations in School Prawn effectively doubled after boiling, and PFOS increased when Dusky Flathead was baked. There was no significant difference in PFOS concentration when Dusky Flathead was fried, or when the Blue Swimmer Crab was boiled. PFHxS and PFOA concentrations in Blue Swimmer Crab effectively halved after boiling. Increase in PFAS concentrations possibly arise from mass loss during the cooking process. Our data show that cooking does not consistently reduce PFAS concentrations, and cannot mitigate dietary exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Protein-specific distribution patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids in egg yolk and albumen samples around a fluorochemical facility

Authors: Wang, F; Zhao, C; Gao, Y; Fu, J; Gao, K; Lv, K; Wang, K; Yue, H; Lan, X; Liang, Y; Wang, Y; Jiang, G (2019) Science of the Total Environment 650:2697-2704. HERO ID: 5080187

[Less] In this study, eggs from free-range and barn chickens in farms around a fluorochemical facility were . . . [More] In this study, eggs from free-range and barn chickens in farms around a fluorochemical facility were collected to assess the distribution profiles of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), in egg yolk and albumen. The results revealed that the concentrations of PFAAs in yolks were significantly higher than those in albumen. All 17 PFAAs examined could be detected in yolks, showing decreasing concentrations with increasing distance from the fluorochemical facility. The three predominant compounds in yolks were perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA, mean concentration 81.4 ng/g ww), PFOS (28.0 ng/g ww), and PFOA (4.83 ng/g ww), and this result is consistent with the product structure of the facility. Moreover, n-PFOA, n-PFOS, and n-PFHxS were the dominant contaminants in yolk, with mean concentrations of 4.75, 25.7, and 4.29 ng/g ww, respectively. In albumen, PFBA was still the predominant PFAA congener (mean concentration = 3.93 ng/g ww), followed by PFOA. Docking analysis indicated that the PFAAs presented higher binding abilities with the low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and vitellin proteins in yolk than that with ovalbumin albumen proteins, which might be the main factor influencing the possible difference in distributions of PFAAs in yolk and albumen.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Survey design for quantifying perfluoroalkyl acid concentrations in fish, prawns and crabs to assess human health risks

Author: Taylor, MD (2019) Science of the Total Environment 652:59-65. HERO ID: 5080392

[Less] Per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging contaminants that have potential implications . . . [More] Per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging contaminants that have potential implications for human health. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that commonly bioaccumulate in aquatic species exposed to PFAS contaminant sources. Sampling programs aimed at measuring PFAA concentrations in free ranging aquatic animals to assess human health risk are not yet supported by any quantitative analyses to refine sampling effort required to provide a reasonable estimate of summary statistics for a species in a particular area. Here, an extensive, multi-species PFOS and PFHxS data set measured in free-ranging fish and crustaceans is employed to examine the effect of sample size on summary statistics estimated from sample data which are commonly employed in dietary exposure assessments. A unifying, cross-species model suggested that sample sizes between 20 and 40 individuals per species per location should provide a reasonable estimate of mean PFOS concentrations in free-ranging fish or crustaceans, but slightly larger sample sizes (30-50 individuals) may be required if sample medians are to be used in dietary exposure assessments. PFHxS concentrations were highly variable, so larger sample sizes should also be considered if this contaminant is of interest. The results are discussed in light of the levels of sampling effort reported in recent manuscripts, and other important considerations for designing sampling programs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) add to the chemical cocktail in peregrine falcon eggs

Authors: Vorkamp, K; Falk, K; Møller, S; Bossi, R; Rigét, FF; Sørensen, PB (2019) Science of the Total Environment 648:894-901. HERO ID: 5079652

[Less] A suite of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were determined . . . [More] A suite of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were determined in 41 peregrine falcon eggs collected in South Greenland between 1986 and 2014. Median concentrations of perfluorinated sulfonic acids (ΣPFSA) and perfluorinated carboxylic acids (ΣPFCA) were 303 ng/g dry weight (dw) (58 ng/g wet weight, ww) and 100 ng/g dw (19 ng/g ww), respectively, which was comparable to other studies. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) accounted for 94% on average of all PFSAs, but did not show a significant time trend. Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS) and perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS) showed non-linear decreases over the study period, while some long-chain PFCAs increased significantly. The PCN profile was dominated by the penta-, hexa- and tetrachlorinated congeners CN-52/60, CN-66/67 and CN-42. CN-54, an indicator of combustion, accounted for 2.4% of ΣPCN on average. All PCN congeners showed a decreasing tendency, which was significant for lipid-normalized concentrations of CN-53, CN-54 and CN-63. The ΣPCN median concentration was 21 ng/g lipid weight, which is in the high end of concentrations reported for bird eggs. The PCN and PFAS concentrations add to an already high contaminant burden and a complex chemical cocktail in the peregrine falcon population in Greenland, mainly reflecting contaminant exposure during migration and winter stays in Central and South America.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal and childhood exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and cognitive development in children at age 8 years

Authors: Vuong, AM; Yolton, K; Xie, C; Dietrich, KN; Braun, JM; Webster, GM; Calafat, AM; Lanphear, BP; Chen, A (2019) Environmental Research 172:242-248. HERO ID: 5080218

[Less] BACKGROUND: Toxicological studies indicate that poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Toxicological studies indicate that poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may be neurotoxic, but human studies have yet to provide compelling evidence for PFAS' impact on cognitive abilities.

OBJECTIVE: To test whether prenatal and childhood PFAS are associated with cognitive abilities at 8 years and whether sex modifies these associations.

METHODS: We included 221 mother-child pairs from the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a birth cohort in Cincinnati, OH (USA). We quantified PFAS in maternal serum at 16 ± 3 weeks gestation and in child serum at 3 and 8 years. We used the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) at age 8 years, assessing Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. We used multiple informant models to estimate covariate-adjusted differences in WISC-IV scores by repeated ln-transformed PFAS.

RESULTS: Prenatal and childhood perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were not associated with WISC-IV measures. We observed an increase of 4.1-points (95% CI 0.3, 8.0) and 5.7-points (95% CI 1.2, 10.2) in working memory with 1-ln unit increase in prenatal perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA), respectively. In addition, PFNA at 3 years was associated with better FSIQ and perceptual reasoning. Child sex modified the relationship between prenatal PFOA and FSIQ; the association was positive in females only. Sex also modified the association between concurrent PFOS and FSIQ, with males having higher scores.

CONCLUSION: We did not observe adverse associations between prenatal and childhood PFAS and cognitive function at age 8 years.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in Australia: Current levels and estimated population reference values for selected compounds

Authors: Toms, LML; Bräunig, J; Vijayasarathy, S; Phillips, S; Hobson, P; Aylward, LL; Kirk, MD; Mueller, JF (2019) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 222:387-394. [Review] HERO ID: 5080365

[Less] BACKGROUND: Increased public awareness of PFAS contamination in Australia has resulted . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Increased public awareness of PFAS contamination in Australia has resulted in serum biomonitoring efforts in individuals in potentially affected communities. However, population-based reference values for assessing whether individual results exceed the typical range in the Australian general population are not currently available.

OBJECTIVE: Estimate population upper bound reference values based on updated serum PFAS concentrations in pooled samples from southeast Queensland, Australia and population variation observed in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets.

METHODS: We calculated ratios of 95th percentile to arithmetic mean (P95:AM ratios) using data from the NHANES 2013-14 and 2015-16 cycle samples for frequently detected PFASs: PFOA, linear and branched PFOS, perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS). We estimated Australian age-specific means for PFAS using pooled serum samples collected in 2014-15 and 2016-17. We used the P95:AM ratios to estimate 95th percentile concentrations in the Australian population based on the results of the 2016-17 pooled samples.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: P95:AM ratios for each PFAS were similar across NHANES cycle and age group, so overall compound-specific ratios were estimated for PFOA (2.1), PFNA (2.4), PFDA (2.7), PFHxS (2.7), and linear (2.4) and summed PFOS (2.3). Australian mean PFAS concentrations continued previously reported declining trends. The estimated P95 values can be used as preliminary substitutes for more rigorous population reference values to identify samples with clearly elevated serum PFAS concentrations in Australian biomonitoring efforts. Given uncertainties and variability inherent in this evaluation, the estimated P95 values should be interpreted with caution. Mean and estimated P95 serum PFAS concentrations in Australia should continue to be monitored to document declining trends in population serum concentrations.